Knowledge Management in

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management in
the Business Sector

Al Berg

Practice Director/Collaborative Computing

AMC Computer Corporation

New York City, NY USA


alberg@amccorp.com

www.amccorp.com


Businesspeople know…

Knowledge has Value!


“If HP knew what HP
knows, we would be
three times as
profitable.”
--


Lew Platt, CEO of
Hewlett Packard

KM is Job One


According to the
American
Management
Association (12/98),
“Knowledge
-
Based
Management” is the
number one ranked
IT concern of
executives worldwide.

Business KM Trailblazers


Arthur Andersen


Chevron


Dow Chemical


Hughes Space &
Communications


Kaiser Permanente


Price Waterhouse


Sequent Systems


Scandia AFS


Texas Instruments


USAA



according to the American
Productivity Center

KM Saves Real Money


Dow Chemical’s initial
Intellectual Property
management projects saved
$40 million



Chevron’s KM efforts led to
$170 million in savings



TI shared information on
increasing semiconductor
yields
-

and saved $500 million

The CKO



Chief Knowledge
Officer



Builds a knowledge
culture



Builds the needed
infrastructure



Makes it all pay off!


Only 14.9% of
companies
responding to a
recent survey have a
“Chief Knowledge
Officer”


Top Management
Involvement


According to the same KM World survey…



59.5%

of respondents noted that KM
initiatives were driven by top management



40.5%

did not see initiatives as driven by
corporate management



Successful KM adopters have top
management as a driver

Cultural issues


The most difficult part of implementing
KM in business (and other) settings:


“It must be considered that there is nothing
more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of
success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to
initiate a new order of things.”


Niccolo Machiavelli
-

The Prince

-

1513

Information Overload
-

A
major driver of KM


The average
businessperson in the US,
Canada and UK receives
approximately


190 messages per day


according to a May 1998
survey by Pitney Bowes

Three Kinds of KM
Projects...


Creation of
knowledge
repositories



Improving access to
knowledge



Building the
“knowledge culture”

Knowledge Repositories


External knowledge


Competitor intelligence



Structured internal knowledge


Reports, databases



Informal internal knowledge


Discussions

Repositories:

External


Competitor and client intelligence



Competitor sales information


Industry/competitor news


Analysis of products developed and patents
filed by competitors


External Repositories at
AMC Computer Corporation


Access to external news sources
for client, vendor and customer
news



Links to competitor web sites



Demos:


The AMC news database


Inquisit

Repositories:

Structured/Internal


Document management



Capture knowledge as it is created



Leverage existing documents
generated in course of business by
making them easily accessible



Very common in the legal
profession since its data is already
document based


Repositories:

Structured/Internal


Data Warehousing



“Slice and dice” access to data
already being collected throughout an
organization
-

accounting, customer
service, etc.



New ways of looking at & analyzing
existing data



Data
----
> Information

Repositories:
Informal/Internal


Hewlett Packard’s “Trader’s Training Post”



Links trainers and educators throughout HP
world wide using Lotus Notes



Captures tips, tricks, insights and
experiences and makes them globally
accessible



Informal discussion database

Improving Access to
Knowledge


“Yellow Pages” which
connect information
consumers with
information sources



Codifying the “map”
of knowledge in the
organization

Microsoft’s SPUD


Skills Planning Und
Development



Missions:


Improve matching of
employees to jobs and
teams



Plan for future employee
skills development

How SPUD Works


Each Information Technology job at
Microsoft is rated by a manager in terms
of the 40
-

60 knowledge competencies
needed to perform it



Each worker’s competencies are evaluated
by him/herself, their supervisor and co
-
workers

Kinds of Knowledge


Foundation knowledge (entry
level)



Unique knowledge needed for a
job/task



Global knowledge for a particular
function/organization



Universal knowledge for the
company

SPUD Skill Categories


Within each knowledge type,
workers can possess…



Explicit competencies in specific
tools and methods



Implicit competencies such as
leadership, abstract reasoning

SPUD Skill Levels


Competencies can be categorized as…



Basic knowledge


Working knowledge


Leadership


Expertise

SPUD allows...


Managers to find the workers with the
skills needed for a particular task/project



Workers to find assistance on specialized
tasks



Workers to determine what type of
training they need to advance their
careers

Improving Access to
Knowledge


Knowledge may exist
in the organization
-

but may be difficult to
find



KM tools can be used
to make knowledge
available to new
internal markets

Case in Point: Chevron


Best Practice Sharing

Sharing information on the best,

most profitable ways to do

business



Knowledge Sharing Conferences



Intranet

Chevron Initiatives


Benchmarking costs
for oil/gas drilling and
using that information
to predict and reduce
future costs



Designation of
“process masters”
whose job it is to
share knowledge


Looking at
competitors’ best
practices
-

as well as
those from outside
the energy industry

The Result


30 percent

productivity gain



50 percent

safety
gain



$2 billion

in cost
reduction in the
1990s

Creating a Knowledge
Environment


This is the hardest
part for many
companies



Traditional business
practices may not
reward information
sharing
-

even in the
same company!

Leveraging What Is
Already There


Dow Chemical owned 29,000 patents
-

and did not know what they contained!



KM helped them...


extract “lost knowledge”


sell patents that were not being used


abandon patents that were obsolete



Bottom line: US$4 million in savings

Nine Keys to KM Success


Knowledge friendly culture



Technical/organizational infrastructure



Senior management support



Links to economic benefits/success

Nine Keys to KM success


Process perspective



Clarity of vision and language



Powerful incentives



KM structure



Multiple channels for knowledge xfer

Microsoft and Knowledge
Management


Microsoft Exchange



Internet Information Server



Databases

KM Demo from Lotus
Development and IBM


This 9 minute “movie” shows
IBM/Lotus Development’s
vision for Knowledge
Management



Scenario: a new employee’s
first day on the job at a
biotechnology firm...

“The Book”

on KM in Business


Working Knowledge:

How Organizations
Manage What They
Know


Thomas H. Davenport

Laurence Prusack


Harvard Business
School Press

The “Other Book” on

KM in Business


If Only We Knew
What We Know : The
Transfer of Internal
Knowledge and Best
Practice


Carla O’Dell


Free Press

Knowledge Management
on the Web


Knowledge Management
Magazine

http://www.kmmag.com



Knowledge Inc.

http://www.knowledgeinc.com



American Productivity & Quality
Center

http://www.apqc.org

Thank You!

Al Berg

Practice Director/Collaborative Computing


AMC Computer Corporation

129 West 27th Street

New York City, NY 10001


Telephone

+1
-
212
-
620
-
0700, extension 1243

Facsimile

+1
-
212
-
656
-
1785

Web


www.amccorp.com

Email


alberg@amccorp.com