Knowledge Management and Specialized Information Systems

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management and
Specialized Information
Systems




Knowledge Management
Systems


Knowledge:


Awareness and understanding of a set of
information and the ways that information can be
made useful to support a specific task or reach a
decision


Knowledge management system (KMS):


Organized collection of people, procedures,
software, databases, and devices used to create,
store, share, and use the organization’s
knowledge and experience


Overview of Knowledge
Management Systems


KMS can involve different types of
knowledge


Explicit knowledge


Objective


Can be measured and documented in reports, papers,
and rules


Tacit knowledge


Hard to measure and document


Typically not objective or formalized


Overview of Systems

Data and Knowledge Management
Workers and Communities of Practice


Personnel involved in a KMS
include:


Data workers:

secretaries,
administrative assistants,
bookkeepers, other data
-
entry personnel


Knowledge workers:

people
who create, use, and
disseminate knowledge


Examples: professionals in
science, engineering, and
business; writers;
researchers; educators;
corporate designers


Chief knowledge officer (CKO):
top
-
level executive who helps the
organization use a KMS to
create, store, and use knowledge
to achieve organizational goals


Communities of practice (COP):

group of people dedicated to a
common discipline or practice,
such as open
-
source software,
auditing, medicine, or engineering


Excel at obtaining, storing,
sharing, and using knowledge


Obtaining, Storing, Sharing, and
Using Knowledge

Figure 7.3: Knowledge Management System

Technology to Support
Knowledge Management


Tools for capturing and
using knowledge include:


Data mining and business
intelligence


Enterprise resource planning
tools, such as SAP


Groupware


Examples of specific KM
products


IBM’s Lotus Notes, Domino


Microsoft’s Digital
Dashboard, Web Store
Technology, Access Workflow
Designer

An Overview of Artificial
Intelligence


Artificial intelligence (AI):

ability of computers to
mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain


AI
-
based computer systems have many applications
in different fields, such as:


Medical diagnoses


Exploration for natural resources


Determining what is wrong with mechanical devices


Assisting in designing and developing other computer
systems

Artificial Intelligence in Perspective


Artificial intelligence systems:

people,
procedures, hardware, software, data, and
knowledge needed to develop computer
systems and machines that demonstrate the
characteristics of intelligence


Ray Kurzweil on “Explosive Growth”


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovVIlxqAk8I


The Nature of Intelligence


Learn from experience and
apply knowledge acquired
from experience


Example: computerized AI
chess software


Handle complex situations


Solve problems when
important information is
missing


Determine what is
important


React quickly and correctly
to a new situation


Understand visual images


Perceptive system:
approximates the way humans
hear, see, or feel objects


Process and manipulate
symbols


On a limited basis with
machine
-
vision hardware and
software


Be creative and imaginative


Example: writing short
stories


Use heuristics


Obtaining good solutions
(rather than the optimal)
through approximation


The Difference Between Natural
and Artificial Intelligence

Table 7.2: A Comparison of Natural and Artificial
Intelligence

The Major Branches of
Artificial Intelligence

Expert Systems


Hardware and software that stores
knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a
human expert


Used in many business applications

Robotics


Mechanical or computer devices that
perform tasks requiring a high
degree of precision or that are
tedious or hazardous for humans


Contemporary robotics combines
high
-
precision machine capabilities
with sophisticated controlling
software


Many applications of robotics exist
today


Research into robots is continuing


Doing the dishes


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BE
AmIGciSMI


Vision Systems


Hardware and software that permit
computers to capture, store, and manipulate
visual images and pictures


Used by the U.S. Justice Department to
perform fingerprint analysis


Can be used in identifying people based on
facial features


Can be used with robots to give these
machines “sight”


Natural Language Processing
and Voice Recognition


Natural language
processing:

allows the
computer to
understand and react
to statements and
commands made in a
“natural” language, such
as English


Voice recognition

involves converting
sound waves into words


Learning Systems


Combination of software and hardware that
allows the computer to change how it
functions or reacts to situations based on
feedback it receives


Learning systems software requires
feedback on the results of actions or
decisions


Feedback is used to alter what the system
will do in the future


Neural Networks


Computer system that can
simulate the functioning of a
human brain


Ability to retrieve information
even if some of the neural nodes
fail


Fast modification of stored data
as a result of new information


Ability to discover relationships
and trends in large databases


Ability to solve complex
problems for which all the
information is not present

WHAT IS A NEURAL
NETWORK?


A program that is constructed of multiple
artificial neurons which interact with one
another and "learn" a model used to take
intelligent action


Consists of three layers: Input, hidden, and output


Network learns by adjusting the interconnection
weights among the neurons


Trained on data and, after linkages adjust weights
to yield correct answers, used to predict.






Identify and include variables that the
designer believes will influence an outcome


Network is "trained" using multiple sets of
known input variables and associated
outcomes


Once trained, the network is presented with
new data

HOW DOES A NEURAL


NETWORK FUNCTION?

Some Neural Network Structures

SOME USES IN
BUSINESS:




Identifying fraudulent credit card use


Processing credit applications


Allocating airline seats


Rating bonds


Signature verification



Detecting explosives


Evaluating electrocardiograms


Detecting faulty paint finishes


WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS?


Capable of discerning relationships from
huge amounts of data and "learning" how
they influence outcomes


Capable of "learning on the fly"


model
changes as assumptions change and old
premises become invalid


WHAT ABOUT THE FUTURE?


Specialized neural network chips embedded in hardware


Existing databases will be downloaded into neural
networks


for data mining


May be merged with expert systems


e.g., expert
system could select
--

neural network could monitor


IS specialists may need to be proficient in neural
network skills


Neural network applications may increase with greater
computing power


Large interconnected neural network applications will be
developed

Other Artificial Intelligence
Applications


Genetic algorithm:

an approach to solving
large, complex problems in which a number of
related operations or models change and
evolve until the best one emerges


Intelligent agent:

programs and a knowledge
base used to perform a specific task for a
person, a process, or another program


The MIT Media Lab has a number of ongoing
projects regarding software agents.


http://www.media.mit.edu/research/ResearchPubWeb.pl?ID=23


An Overview of Expert Systems


Like human experts, computerized expert
systems use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to
arrive at conclusions or make suggestions


Used in many fields for a variety of tasks,
such as:


Designing new products and systems


Developing innovative insurance products


Increasing the quality of healthcare


Determining credit limits for credit cards


Determining the best fertilizer mix to use on
certain soils


When to Use Expert Systems


Develop an expert system
if it can do any of the
following:


Provide a high potential
payoff or significantly reduce
downside risk


Capture and preserve
irreplaceable human
expertise


Solve a problem that is not
easily solved using traditional
programming techniques


Develop a system more
consistent than human
experts


Develop an expert system
if it can do any of the
following
--


Provide expertise needed at a
number of locations at the
same time or in a hostile
environment that is
dangerous to human health


Provide expertise that is
expensive or rare


Develop a solution faster than
human experts can


Provide expertise needed for
training and development to
share the wisdom and
experience of human experts
with a large number of people


Components of Expert Systems

Figure 7.8: Components of an Expert System

Participants in Developing and Using Expert
Systems


Domain expert:

individual or
group who has the expertise or
knowledge one is trying to
capture in the expert system


Knowledge engineer:

individual
who has training or experience in
the design, development,
implementation, and maintenance
of an expert system


Knowledge user:

individual or
group who uses and benefits
from the expert system

Applications of Expert Systems and
Artificial Intelligence


Credit granting and loan analysis


Stock picking


Catching cheats and terrorists


Gambling casinos


Budgeting


Prototype testing programs


Games


Crossword puzzles


Information management and
retrieval


Uses bots


AI and expert systems
embedded in products


Antilock braking system,
television


Plant layout and manufacturing


Hospitals and medical facilities


Probability of contracting
diseases, lab analysis, home
diagnosis, appointment
scheduling


Help desks and assistance


Employee performance evaluation


Virus detection


Uses neural network technology


Repair and maintenance


Telephone networks, aerospace
equipment


Shipping and marketing


Warehouse optimization


Restocking, location



Virtual Reality


Virtual reality system:

enables one or more users
to move and react in a
computer
-
simulated
environment


Immersive virtual reality:

user becomes fully
immersed in an artificial,
three
-
dimensional world
that is completely
generated by a computer


Experimental “gesture
technology”: may have
military applications


Medicine: anxiety
disorders, pain reduction


Education and training:
anatomy, history, military
training


Real estate marketing and
tourism: virtual
walkthroughs


Entertainment: CGI movies
and games