Chapter 9

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Chapter 9

Knowledge Management

Knowledge


Knowledge is a fluid mix of


Experience


Values


Contextual information


Expert insight


Knowledge provides a framework
for evaluating and incorporating
new experiences and information.

Knowledge


Knowledge involves


Comparison among situations


Consequences i.e., the implications of
this information for decision and action


Connections: how does this information
relate to other pieces?


Conversation obtaining the thinking of
others

Knowledge


Knowledge is information that is
contextual, relevant, and
actionable.


Tacit knowledge is usually in the
domain of subjective, cognitive, and
experiential learning.


Explicit knowledge deals with more
objective, rational, and technical
knowledge.

Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge


Explicit


Teachable


Can articulate


Observable in use


Schematic


Simple


Documented


Tacit


Not teachable


Not articulated


Highly personal


Not easily visible


Not easily
expressible


Acquired through
experiences

Characteristics of Knowledge


Extraordinary leverage & increasing
returns


Fragmentation, leakage & the need
to refresh


Uncertain value


Uncertain value sharing

Data, Information, and Knowledge

Knowledge Management


A process that helps organizations
identify, select, organize,
disseminate, and transfer important
information and expertise that are
part of the organization’s memory

Knowledge Management


KM is simply an effort to capture
not only explicit factual information
but also the tacit information and
knowledge that exists in an
organization, usually based on the
experience and learning of
individual employees, in order to
advance the organization's mission.


The eventual goal is to share
knowledge among members of the
organization.

Practical Goals of KM

1.
Create the Knowledge Repository

2.
Improve knowledge access

3.
Enhance the knowledge
environment

4.
Manage knowledge as an asset



Knowledge is transformed and
disseminated when members
teach, learn, communicate,
collaborate

Knowledge
-
based Economy


Firms are much larger, with higher
turnover and require better tools for
collaboration, communication, and
knowledge sharing.


Firms must develop strategies to sustain
competitive advantage by leveraging their
intellectual assets for optimum
performance.


Managing knowledge is now critical for
firms spread out over wide geographical
areas, and for virtual organizations.

Learning Organization


The term
learning organization

refers to an organization’s capability
of learning from its past experience.


To build a learning organization, it
must tackle three critical issues:


Meaning (determining a vision of the
learning organization)


Management (determining how the
firm is to work)


Measurement ( assessing the rate and
level of learning)

Sharing Knowledge


Some reasons people are reluctant
to share knowledge include:


No skill in knowledge management
techniques


Willing to share, but not enough time
to do so


Don’t understand knowledge
management and benefits


Lack of appropriate technology


No commitment from senior managers


No funding for knowledge management


Culture does not encourage knowledge
sharing

Organization Culture


The ability of an organization to learn,
develop memory, and share knowledge is
dependent on its culture.


Culture

is a pattern of shared basic
assumptions.


Over time organizations learn what works
and what doesn’t work. As the lessons
become second nature, they become part
of the organizational culture.


Generally when a technology project fails,
it is because the technology does not
match the organization’s culture.

KM vs. KMS


K
nowledge
M
anagement is the
organizational process for acquiring,
organizing, and communicating both tacit
and explicit knowledge so that others may
use if to be more effective and
productive.


K
nowledge
M
anagement
S
ystems are
information systems designed to facilitate
codifying, collecting, integrating, and
disseminating organizational knowledge

Objectives of KMS

Davenport et al. (1998) describe four broad objectives
of knowledge management systems in practice:


Create knowledge repositories


Improve knowledge access


Enhance the knowledge
environment


Manage knowledge as an asset

The Knowledge Management Cycle


Create knowledge


Capture knowledge


Refine knowledge


Store knowledge


Manage knowledge


Disseminate knowledge

The KM Cycle, cont’d.

Organizational Knowledge Repositories


Knowledge network model
. The
individual who has the knowledge
transfers expertise through person
-
to
-
person contacts.


Knowledge repository model
.
Knowledge contribution and use follows a
two
-
step transfer procedure of person
-
to
-
repository and repository
-
to
-
person.


Captured knowledge is stored in a knowledge
repository, a collection of both internal and
external knowledge.


Hybrid Model
. Many organizations use a
hybrid of the network and repository
models.

Knowledge Repositories


Databases
. It is
possible to structure
part of knowledge
repository as a DB.


Data Warehouses

can also be used for
KM, especially in
conjunction with CRM
systems.

Knowledge Repositories, cont’d.


Specially Structured Databases
. Some
systems have been developed in Lotus
Notes/Domino Server and hence utilize
the Notes database structure.


These specialized databases are ideal for
storing tacit knowledge because of its nature.


Electronic Documents
. Others have
been developed around electronic
document management systems.


e.g., DocuShare by Xerox

Strategies for KM


The
codification
strategy

typically is
adopted by companies
that sell relatively
standardized products
that fill common
needs.


Knowledge is
carefully codified and
stored in knowledge
repositories
structured as
databases.


The
personalization
strategy

typically is
adopted by companies
that provide highly
customized solutions
to unique problems.


Knowledge is shared
mostly through
person
-
to
-
person
contacts.

Knowledge Systems Development


Identify the problem


Prepare for change


Create the team


Map the knowledge


Create a feedback mechanism


Define the building blocks for the
system


Integrate existing information
systems

Knowledge Management Systems


Focus on


Creating


Gathering


Organizing


Disseminating


an organization’s knowledge rather
than its data or information

Knowledge Building Activities


Knowledge Acquisition


Use of an IT to acquire information related to
one's work context. Knowledge acquisition can
take place by focused search or scanning.


Focused Search


Focused search occurs when organizational
members actively search in a narrow segment
of an organization’s internal or external
environment, often in response to actual or
suspected problems or opportunities (Huber
1991).


Scanning


Relatively wide sensing of an organization's
external environment (Huber, 1991).


Knowledge Building Activities


Knowledge Sharing:


Use of an IT to share knowledge related to
one's work context.


Knowledge Analysis and Interpretation:


Use of an IT to analyze and provide multiple
perspectives related to one's work context.


Verification:


The selection of data mining algorithms by the
end user.


Discovery:


Allowing the intelligent capabilities of data
mining applications to determine which
algorithms to apply to a data set.

Challenges of KM Implementation


Lack of understanding of KM and its
benefits


Lack of time by employees for knowledge
management


Lack of skill in knowledge management
techniques


Organizational culture does not encourage
knowledge sharing


Lack of incentives to share


Lack of funding of knowledge
management initiatives


Lack of appropriate technology


Lack of commitment from senior
management

Knowledge Management Facilities


As storage models become increasingly
important, there is a need to have
dedicated staff to manage the knowledge
repository.


The leaders in knowledge storage are
major consulting firms such as
Accenture, Ernst & Young, KPMG, etc.


Most of these firms have one or more
Knowledge Center that is open 24 hours per
day, every day.


These facilities are accessible via the Internet,
as is the KMS.


These centers function as a reference library,
with a manager and reference knowledge
specialists

KM and Information Technologies


The KMS challenge is to identify and
integrate the following three
technologies to meet the KM needs
of an organization.


Communication technologies allow
users to access needed knowledge, and
to communicate with each other
-
especially with experts.


Collaboration technologies provide the
means to perform group work.


Storage technologies use a database
management system to capture, store
and manage knowledge.

KM Technologies


Knowware

are technology tools that
support KM.


Collaboration tools
, or groupware, were
the first used to enhance collaboration for
tacit knowledge transfer within an
organization.


KM suites

are complete KM solutions
out
-
of
-
the
-
box.


Knowledge Servers

contain the main
KM software, including the knowledge
repository.

KM Technologies


Electronic document management

systems focus on the document in
electronic form as the collaborative focus
of work.


KM Tools

capture knowledge
unobtrusively (with minimal effort and
impact).


Enterprise knowledge portals

are the
doorway into many KM systems.


XML

provides standardized
representations of data structures so data
can be processed without case
-
by
-
case
programming.


Application Service Providers

have
evolved as a form of KMS outsourcing on
the Web.

Knowledge Discovery in Databases


Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD)
involves tasks known as knowledge
extraction, data archaeology, data
exploration, data pattern processing, data
dredging, and information harvesting.


This is accomplished with the tool of Data
mining.


Model marts and model warehouses are
analogous to data marts and data
warehouses for models.


They act as repositories of knowledge by using
KDD techniques on past decision instances
(stored in data marts and data warehouses).

Knowledge Management Benefits


Reduction in loss of intellectual capital when
people leave the company


Reduction in costs by decreasing the number of
times the company must repeatedly solve the
same problem


Economies of scale in obtaining information from
external providers


Reduction in redundancy of knowledge
-
based
activities


Increase in productivity by making knowledge
available more quickly & easily


Increase in employee satisfaction by enabling
greater personal development and empowerment


Strategic competitive advantage in the
marketplace

Knowledge Management Issues


Buying and Selling Knowledge


Most firms are reluctant to sell
knowledge, unless they are expressly
in the business of doing so.


A firm’s knowledge is an asset that has
competitive value.


Encouraging System Use


Employees must be motivated properly
to contribute knowledge.


The mechanism for doing so should be
part of their job, and their salaries
should reflect this.

Integration


Since a KM system is an enterprise
system, it must be integrated with other
enterprise and information systems in an
organization.


The most important systems to integrate
with are:


Decision Support Systems


Databases and Information Systems


Customer Relationship Management Systems


Supply Chain Management Systems


Corporate Intranets and Extranets

Managerial Issues


Organizational culture change.


How can we change organizational
culture so that people are willing to
both contribute knowledge to and use
knowledge from a KMS?


How to store tacit knowledge?


How to measure the tangible and
intangible benefits of KMS?

Managerial Issues, cont’d.


The importance of knowledge
management. KM is not another
management fad.


Implementation in the face of
quickly changing technology.


How can our organization develop a
successful knowledge management
system?


Determining the roles of the various
personnel in a KM effort.

Quote for the Day


“Processing data can be performed
by machine, but only the human
mind can process knowledge or
even information.”


Jesse Shera