Challenge for Government

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management


Key
Challenge for Government

Creating Value from Knowledge

-

Lessons Learned

BACKGROUND



Need for better knowledge management within
the public sector has been acknowledged as a
central strategic commitment.


Government has a poor track record in
knowledge management .


Growing recognition that in a changing public
sector, learning and knowledge are possibly the
most crucial variables in addressing these
challenges.


Internal challenges:


Corruption,


Ineffective and inefficient use of state resources,


Poor development practice,


policies that are poorly understood and
implemented,


Services standards


External challenges


Urgent service delivery in areas such as education,
healthcare, housing, social grants, and other social
services



Lack of common conceptual understanding of knowledge
management




Recognised the need for knowledge management



There are a number of KM initiatives in government
.



T
here are no specific metrics or a measurement framework



No formal KM architecture in place.

KEY FINDINGS

Knowledge is:


Both

”KnowThat”
and

”KnowHow”


Facts
and

Action

“Talking is not doing”.

Gogo

Levels of Capacities to Act







Able

(to do something)

Competent

(Able + Achieve Results)

Expert

(Peer
-
recognised

Competence. ”
Master”
)

Wise

(Human)

The Learning Pyramid







5%

Lecture

10%

Reading

20%

Audio Visual

30%

Demonstration

75%

Practice by doing

90%

Teach others / immediate use of learning

Source: National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine

Activity and

average retention rate

Two dimensions of knowledge in
organizations

Cognitive


Individual's
mental models

consisting of
mental maps,

beliefs,
paradigms, and
viewpoints

Technical

Concrete
know
-
how,
crafts,


and skills that
apply to a

specific context


TACIT KNOWLEDGE

rooted in action,



experience, and involvement


in a specific context


EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE

articulated, codified,

and communicated in symbolic form
and/or natural language


There is a body of opinion that
true knowledge is only tacit: as
soon as it is codified or structured
and stored it becomes
information.


Knowledge sharing
processes

Continuous process of transformation from one form to another.


Externalisation

Internalisation

Socialisation

Combination

Transformations between tacit and explicit
knowledge



Socialisation


Sympathised knowledge


Connected with theories of group
processes and organisational culture


Process of sharing experiences


Shared mental models and technical
skills


Examples: apprenticeship, on
-
the
-
job
training, communities of practice


Externalisation


Conceptual Knowledge



Driven by metaphors, analogy,
concepts, hypothesis and models


Triggered by dialogue or collective
reflection


Holds the key to knowledge creation


Examples: abductive reasoning, new
product development


Internalisation



Operational Knowledge



Embodying explicit knowledge into
tacit knowledge


"Learning by doing"


Through documents, manuals, or oral
stories


Example: Project management,
success stories


Combination


Systemic Knowledge



Systemising concepts into
knowledge systems


Combining different bodies of explicit
knowledge through documents,
meetings, internet


Example: Prototype, formal
education and training


TACIT

EXPLICIT

to

TACIT

from

EXPLICIT

KM


Highest Value Potential

1.
Align KM with business strategy


a
knowledge
-
based strategy

2.
Improve climate for knowledge creation
and sharing


Collaborative Climate.

3.
Improve knowledge sharing with
customers.

4.
Invest in Internet
-
based communication

5.
Build organisation for content
management (On
-
line library, databases)

5


4


3





2


1


Where is most money spent on KM?


Ranking


Learning is a means to an end


KM
must have a business focus


KM requires deep rooted behavioural
and strategic change


KM concerns how to create
environments for people to create,
leverage and share knowledge


KM requires top management
involvement; it is a fundamental shift in
strategic perspective.


IT is a tool for information exchange, but
IT investments yield low value.


It’s the same thing as
learning


It’s a simple add
-
on
to business as usual


It’s capturing
knowledge kept in the
heads of people


It’s a function to be
delegated to HR or IT




It’s a matter of
investing in IT

Myths and Reality about Knowledge Management

KM: the Art of Creating Value from Intangible Assets

Improving Knowledge
Flow
s:

Two Infrastructures

People networks

Collaborative Climate

Trust

Know
-
How

IT
networks

Cable width

Bits per second

Know
-
What

Information, facts

A Knowledge
-
Based View of the Firm

Knowledge

Workers

Customers


Support staff,
systems &
processes

V

10. Strategic Purpose:

How can
the value creation capacity of the
whole

be maximised?

The Ten Knowledge Strategy
Issues

3. Learn from customers,
suppliers and other
stakeholders.


Betz Labs


participates in
customer quality teams


McKinsey


manages
Alumnae actively

6. Help our customers’ con
-
versation with their customers.


B
-
K


organises seminars by
authors


Lovisenberg Hospital; fear
reduction


ex
-
patients meet
new patients

4. C
onvert individually held
knowledge to systems, tools
and templates.


Databases, Document
handling, etc


All types of software

9. Integrate systems, tools &
processes and products
effectively internally.


PwC


KnowledgeCurve


Motorola


uses KM to break
silos

1. Improve the transfer of
knowledge between Experts
in our organisation.


BP


Communities of
Practice


Prof.services


Master/Apprentices

5. Improve individuals’
knowledge by using
systems, tools and

templates.


IKEA


business
simulations


NASA


flight simulators

8. Help customers and suppliers
access knowledge via our
systems, tools & processes.


E&Y


Ernie


GE


Sharing BI and market data
w. customers

7. Use
knowledge from
customers and suppliers to
add value to our systems,
processes and products.


Frito
-
Lay


adds competitive
intelligence to commodities


Ritz Carlton


shares patron
data for superior service

2. Transfer knowledge to
customers, suppliers and
other stakeholders.


McKinsey shares concepts
w. clients


GE


shares “Black Belt
experts” best practice w.
customers

Purpose of a Knowledge
-
based Strategy

Knowledge

workers

Customers




Maximise the capacity of the whole System to create value,
by enhancing

the knowledge flows between customers, individuals and processes.

Support staff,


IT systems &
processes

V

What were the gains?


Patent management


Dow Chemical ~$25M
-
>$100M


Sharing Technical expertise and Best Practice


Chevron


”millions of dollars


Xerox


5000 ideas for improvement


BP


“millions of dollars”


Shell
-

$5 millions in 5 months


Increased innovation




Buckman Labs, 40% increase in new product launches.


Pillsbury 67% success rate in new product launches after
KM introduction.


MTN


15 service ideas from customers via Call centre in
one week


PR
-
gain


Skandia Intellectual Capital Statement ~$1 Bn in MV


Expert turnover reduced by 70%
-

Aff
ärsvärlden


Framework for KM Support

Document Repository
Datawarehousing
Yellow Pages of Experts
Expertise Profiles and
Databases
Electronic Discussion Forums
Collaborative Filtering
Intranets and Search Engines
1
2
3
4
Artifact
Individual
Locus of
Knowledge
Unstructured
Structured
Level of A
Priori Structure
Some Trends in Knowledge Intensive Firms


1
st

wave: Focus on knowledge worker efficiency

(reduce costs):


‘Toolification’ of tacit knowledge


Internet for storing information


Optimisation of office space


2
nd

wave: Focus on knowledge worker effectiveness
(increase revenues)


Technology: Internet
-
based Collaboration technologies


Communities of Practice


Optimisation of social space (eg. Collaborative Climate)


New organisational forms


Continuous: Focus on Superior Client Service


Technology; CRM, Internet


Personal; Account organisation


IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK


Tell me, I'll forget.

Show me, I may remember.

But involve me and I'll understand.

Lao Tzu ~600 BC