Prof Elaine Ferneley

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management Strategies


Prof Elaine Ferneley

Elaine Ferneley

Knowledge Management: an Overview


1990s management realised knowledge
rather than land, machines or capital was
the firm’s critical resource


Broadly Knowledge management can be
centred on:


Computer science


Economics


Sociology


Elaine Ferneley

Earl’s (2001)Taxonomy of Knowledge
Management Approaches

School

Technocratic

Economic

Behavioural

Attribute

Systems

Carto
-
graphic

Engineer
-
ing

Commercial

Organiza
-
tion

Spatial

Strategic

Focus

Technology

Maps

Processes

Income

Networks

Space

Mindset

Aim

Knowledge
Bases

Knowledge

Directories

Knowledge
Flows

Knowledge
Assets

Knowledge
Pooling

Knowledge
Exchange

Knowledge
Capabilities

Principle
IT Element

Knowledge
-
based
Systems

Profiles &
Directories on
Intranets

Shared
Databases

Intellectual
Asset Register &
Processing
System

Groupware &
Intranets

Representati
onal Tools

Eclectic

Philosophy

Codify

Connect

Capability

Commercialize

Collaborate

Contact

Consciousness

Elaine Ferneley

Technocratic


based on IT

Systems School
-

Knowledge Bases


Capture specialist knowledge in
knowledge bases for other
‘specialists’
to access, evolved
over 25yrs


Codification to allow others to
access and use in association
with their own professional
expertise


Examples:


Skandia database to
support underwriters’
decision making;


Airbus CD
-
ROMS for
airplane maintenance
technical expertise

Elaine Ferneley

Technocratic


based on IT

Systems School
-

Knowledge Bases


Advantages:


Explicit, verifiable


Shortcomings:


Maintenance & updates,


needs reward mechanism of
providing
updates/amendments


often
these are highly technical
systems so reward is individual
publicity


Not all knowledge is objective
so difficult to codify


Very domain specific


difficult
to generalise from


Elaine Ferneley

Technocratic


based on IT

Cartographic School
-

Knowledge Directories


Mapping organizational knowledge


building knowledge directories
or
‘yellow pages’


Connecting knowledgeable people


gateways to knowledge rather
than knowledge repositories


knowledge is as likely to be tacit
as explicit


Examples:


McKinsey & Co early adopters


all employees must state 3
areas of expertise


WS Atkins


inclusion of
personality traits e.g. good
negotiator

Elaine Ferneley

Technocratic


based on IT


Cartographic School
-

Knowledge Directories


Advantages:


Continuous self editing,
cheap


Shortcomings:


Assessment of expertise


People process,
technology provides
connectivity and possibly
search capabilities


Internal ‘yellow pages’
can be regulated but
how to regulate external
‘yellow pages’ e.g.
ISWORLD!


Elaine Ferneley

Technocratic


based on IT

Process School
-

Knowledge Flows


Derived from Business Process
Reengineering


enhance
business performance by
providing personnel with as
much information as possible


Workers are Capable of making
decisions if they have the
information


give decision
relevant, contextual and best
practice knowledge


Examples:


Hewlett
-
Packard open
access databases


Fire Service mobile
computing


Storytelling

Elaine Ferneley

Technocratic


based on IT


Process School
-

Knowledge Flows


Advantages:


Empowered workforce


False departmental walls are
broken down


Shortcomings:


Information overload,
requires alternative modes of
delivery


Employee scepticism


Information taken out of
context


Elaine Ferneley

Economic


based on Profit

Commercial School
-

Intellectual Assets


Focus on protecting and exploiting
intellectual assets of the firm


Knowledge should be exploited for
commercial gain


Examples:


Dow chemicals exploitation of
its patent portfolio. Had 25k
patents that cost $30m p.a. to
maintain with a licensing income
of only $25m. In 5 years
increased revenue to $125m
p.a. through sales and licensing


Cap Gemini


rent of technical
subcontractors to health and
local authorities. 2003 revenue
£87m

Elaine Ferneley


Advantages:


Quick win


Inclusion of corporate
knowledge as a company
asset on the balance sheet


Shortcomings:


Ongoing management of
the
‘knowledge property’


how do you manage
knowledge efficiently and
effectively


How to avoid employees
feeling exploited


Economic


based on Profit


Commercial School
-

Intellectual Assets

Elaine Ferneley

Behavioural


based on Sociology

Organizational School
-

Community


Use organizational structures &
networks to share or pool
knowledge


Collaboration within communities
(of practice) to encourage sharing
and exchange of knowledge


Examples:


BP Amoco through Lotus notes
and video conferencing
developed the drilling platform
expertise global community

saving $27m in one year


Ford’s knowledge and best
practice forums, self regulating,
anyone can join

Elaine Ferneley


Advantages:


Break down organisational
barriers


Members ‘should’ be there
because they choose to be


Shortcomings:


Will only work if there is a
tradition of sociability and
networking, BP and Ford are
famous for connectivity, expat
communities, graduate entry
networks etc


Moderators or brokers may be
required


IT must be an enabler not a
regulator


Behavioural


based on Sociology

Organizational School
-

Community

Elaine Ferneley

Behavioural


based on Sociology

Spatial School


Use of space to facilitate
knowledge exchange


the water
cooler


Contactivity


people are social
animals who prefer conversations
to documents or IT


Examples:


Yahoo’s kitchen, bar, bean
bag environment


British Airways at Waterside
medieval street inc. café,
newsagent, grocery store

Elaine Ferneley

British Airways (Waterside) and
Google Offices

Elaine Ferneley


Advantages:


Meet people you would
not normally encounter


Level of informality that
encourages innovation


Shortcomings:


Yahoo drank the bar dry


Other metrics take over
so spatial features are
slowly withdrawn


Resentment from ‘have
-
nots’


Behavioural


based on Sociology

Spatial School

Elaine Ferneley

Behavioural


based on Sociology

Strategic School


Knowledge management as the
‘essence’ of the firm’s strategy


Consciousness raising


the
organisation moves to being the

intelligent organisation’

or the
‘life
long learning’
organisation


Examples:


Skandia is THE example


they
embrace all the former schools
and view the development of
intellectual capital as their core
mission


Buckman Labs (see case study)

Information &

Communication

Technology

Processes

Information

People

Elaine Ferneley

The Knowledge Organisation


The middle layer
addresses the KM life
cycle


A knowledge organization
derives knowledge from
customer, product, and
financial knowledge.
Also from financial
practices


Indicators of knowledge:
thinking actively and
ahead, not passively and
behind


Using technology to
facilitate knowledge
sharing and innovation

Collect

Organize

Refine

Disseminate

Culture

Leadership

Technology

Intelligence

Maintain

Competition

Knowledge

Management

Process

KM Drivers

Knowledge

Organizatio
n

Create

Elaine Ferneley

Knowledge Value Chain

Create

Codify

Diffuse

Use


Learning organizations


Stimulating working
environments


Time to think


Trust


Reward & Recognition


Organise


Classify


Hard or soft
structure


database
friendly/free text


Access


who/how


Transfer


Share


Examples


email,
knowledge maps
(yellow pages), best
practice, discussion
groups


Product
development


Service provision


Process
improvement


Measures of
success

Hard Infrastructure
-

technology platform

Soft Infrastructure
-

skills, processes etc.

Asset Management
-

measure, protect, exploit

Elaine Ferneley

Knowledge Map Example (Corporate Yellow Pages)


Assumption that it’s Web
-
based

Create

Codify

Diffuse

Use


Who


Why


Reward


Content


Searchability


Access


who/how


Transfer/push


Share


Update


For what


Measures of
success

65% of Corporate intranets fall into disuse between 1 & 2 years

(KPMG, Parlby 2006)

Elaine Ferneley

Earl’s (2001)Taxonomy of Knowledge
Management Approaches

School

Technocratic

Economic

Behavioural

Attribute

Systems

Carto
-
graphic

Engineer
-
ing

Commercial

Organiza
-
tion

Spatial

Strategic

Focus

Technology

Maps

Processes

Income

Networks

Space

Mindset

Aim

Knowledge
Bases

Knowledge

Directories

Knowledge
Flows

Knowledge
Assets

Knowledge
Pooling

Knowledge
Exchange

Knowledge
Capabilities

Principle
IT Element

Knowledge
-
based
Systems

Profiles &
Directories on
Intranets

Shared
Databases

Intellectual
Asset Register &
Processing
System

Groupware &
Intranets

Representati
onal Tools

Eclectic

Philosophy

Codify

Connect

Capability

Commercialize

Collaborate

Contact

Consciousness

Elaine Ferneley

Summary