New Information Space and Place:

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A great university: a great library

New Information Space and Place:

The Research Library in the Digital Age

Joseph J. Branin

Director of Libraries, the Ohio State University

Branin.1@osu.edu


III International Conference on University Libraries

Mexico City

October 28
-
29, 2004


Changes in Space and Place for Research
Libraries in the Digital Age

1.
Information Space
: The evolution of collections work in
research libraries: from
collection development

to
collection
management

to
knowledge management


Why and how we have evolved towards
knowledge
management


The
Knowledge Bank

project at the Ohio State
University: building a knowledge management system

2.
Learning Place:

The integration of active teaching and
learning into the physical and virtual research library


Designing learning places: physical and virtual


The renovation of the William Oxley Thompson (Main)
Library at the Ohio State University

From Collection Development to Knowledge
Management

1950
-
1975: Collection Development

1975
-
2000: Collection Management

2000
-

:Knowledge Management

1950
-
1975: Collection Development

Major environmental factors



Rapid growth in scholarship and
libraries



Rise of government sponsored
research



Professionalization of collection
management



Collection development



Acquisitions and selection



Collection building

Increase in Mathematical Literature

0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
1870
1900
1930
1960
1995
Andrew M. Odlyzko,
Tragic loss or good riddance? The
Impending demise of traditional scholarly journals
. Notices
Amer. Math Soc. 42 (January 1995), 49

840
50,000
0
20000
40000
60000
1870
1995
Math Papers
715,500
842,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
900,000
1980
1989
Book Production
354,875
832,833
0
500,000
1,000,000
1975
1995
Articles
UNESCO Worldwide

Annual Book Titles

“Trends in Scientific

Scholarly Journal Publishing


in the US,” Tenopir and King

Annual publications in

Mathematics, Andrew

Odlyzko, AT&T Bell


Laboratories

Growth of Publication

Continuing Growth of Publication

OCLC: 2004 Information Format Trends

Professionalization of Collection Management


Charles Osburn,
Academic research and library
resources: changing patterns in America,
1979


Allen Kent,
Use of library material: The
University of Pittsburgh study
, 1979


American Library Association, Collection
Management Institutes and Guidelines,
1980’s

1975
-
2000: Collection Management

Major environmental factors




budget constraints




commercialization of scholarship


in the sciences




new digital technology

Collection management agenda



collection policy development


materials budget allocation


collection analysis



use and user studies


training and organization of


collection managers



preservation


cooperative collection



development

Cooperative Collection Development


Farmington Plan of the 1950s and 1960s


National Periodicals Center of the 1970s


RLG Conspectus of the 1980s


OhioLink created in 1993


Lessons Learned
: power of local autonomy,
highly decentralized system, difficulty of
moving print around, new opportunities in
digital environment

Advances in the Digital InformationTechnology:
Growth of the Internet

In 1996 there were 90,000 Web sites, and it is estimated that the Web doubles


in size every 50 days with a new homepage added every 4 seconds

(Nicholas Negroponte,
Wired Magazine
, 2
-
1
-
96)

Growth of the Web

Web Characterization Project <http://wcp.oclc.org/>

800,000
1,457,000
2,229,000
2,942,000
3,119,000
3,080,000
1,570,000
2,851,000
4,882,000
7,399,000
8,745,000
9,040,000
0
1,000,000
2,000,000
3,000,000
4,000,000
5,000,000
6,000,000
7,000,000
8,000,000
9,000,000
10,000,000
1996/1997
1997/1998
1998/1999
1999/2000
2000/2001
2001/2002
Public
Total
Type of Library Use by Group

and Academic Area

Faculty

Health Sciences

Humanities/Soc Science

Science/Engineering

All Faculty

Graduate Students

Health Sciences

Humanities/Soc Science

Science/Engineering

All Graduate Students

Visit in person

1998

2001

37.9


28.1

60.7


56.4

49.3


41.8

47.3


40.6


79.7


59.6

82.5


72.1

68.2


45.1

77.7


59.6


Use office
computer

1998 2001

76.2

75.7

70.2

76.7

64.7

75.4

71.0

76.1


39.8

50.6

47.5

56.1

57.4

69.4

48.1

58.5


Use home
computer

1998

2001

40.5

43.4

47.1

51.5

23.6

33.9

37.4

43


49.2

59.6

52.0

62.6

32.6

42.5

45.7

55.2

University of Washington Library Newsletter
Winter 2002

User Priorities


Delivering full
-
text to the desktop


Providing electronic full
-
text access to older
journals


Maintaining the quality of the Libraries' print
collection

University of Washington Library Newsletter Winter
2002

2000
-

:Knowledge Management

Major environmental factors


New digital opportunities and threat


Ownership and control issues with the scholarly
record


Knowledge management


Managing print and digital information systems


Consortia collections


Enterprise
-
wide content management


Web Publishing


Information policy


Reforming Scholarly Publishing

Managing Print Collections in the Digital Age


Using digital technology to better manage print
collections


Bibliographic control, document delivery,
reformatting through digitization


The future of print in a digital information system


The “physicality” of print


The “storage center” option for infrequently
-
used
material


Preservation, cooperation, last copy retention



Touch of Print: Making Sense of Information

Library Storage Needs

Low Memorial Library

1894

Butler Library

1934

Overcrowded Shelving Conditions

Less
-
than
-
ideal Storage Conditions

Ohio LINK Database Searches:

Cumulated Monthly

Cumulative Monthly All Database Searches
0
1,000,000
2,000,000
3,000,000
4,000,000
5,000,000
6,000,000
7,000,000
8,000,000
9,000,000
10,000,000
11,000,000
12,000,000
13,000,000
14,000,000
15,000,000
Jan-01
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
Article Downloads from the

OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center

156,134
224,572
380,028
663,540
680,006
1,295,113
1,449,086
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
1,400,000
1,600,000
July-Dec 1998
Jan-June 1999
July-Dec 1999
Jan-June 2000
July-Dec 2000
Jan-June 2001
July-Dec 2001
Cost Effective Purchasing Power

Average Annual Journal Cost Increase for Typical
Academic Research College Library

Average Annual Cost Increase for Journals
Licensed Through OhioLINK

2001 vs 2000

2002 vs 2001

7.7%

6.1%

8.0%

4.5%

Knowledge Management Basics

1.
Data, information, and knowledge

2.
Tacit and explicit knowledge

3.
The dynamic and social nature of knowledge
management

Peter Drucker, The Coming of the new organization,


Harvard Business Review
, 1988



Special issue on Knowledge Management in
Journal

of the American Society for Information

Science and Technology
, 2002


Knowledge Management Definitions


Data

= simple, discrete facts and figures

Information

= data organized for a meaningful purpose


Knowledge

=
Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed
experience, values, contextual information, and
expert insight that provides a framework for
evaluating and incorporating new experience and
information. It originates and is applied in the minds
of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes
embedded not only in documents and repositories
but also in organizational routines, processes,
practices, and norms
.

(
Davenport and Prusak,
Working
Knowledge
, 1998
)


Explicit and Tacit Knowledge


Formally articulated


Documented


Stored in repositories


Reports, lessons learned


Fixed, codified


Transferred through
conversations


Difficult to articulate or
unspoken


Held within self,
personal


Insight and
understanding


Judgments,
assumptions

From Claire McInernye,
JASIST
, 2002

The Nature of Knowledge Management


Knowledge happens in and among people; it is the
social life of information


Inclusive or enterprise
-
wide view of data,
information, and knowledge


Managing expertise


Creating a culture of learning and of sharing
knowledge


Dynamic process of creation, elicitation, and sharing

Huntington Archive: Asian Art

The OSU Knowledge Bank

Diverse Sources

Unified Access

Integrated Information

Trusted Archive
A Proposal for Development of an
OSU Knowledge Bank
Submitted to the
OSU Distance Learning/Continuing Education Committee
June 21, 2002
http://www.lib.
ohio
-
state.
edu
/Lib_Info/
scholarcom
/
KBproposal
.html
By
The OSU Knowledge Bank Planning Committee
Chair: Joseph J.
Branin
, Director of Libraries
The
Knowledge

Bank

Broadly Defined

The OSU
Knowledge

Bank

project proposes to create a
knowledge management system for the University that will
support the creation, organization, storage, and
dissemination of the institution’s digital information assets.

The
Knowledge

Bank

will be both a “
referatory
” providing
links to digital objects and a “
repository
” capable of
archiving the increasing volume of digital content created at
OSU for long
-
term use and preservation

Digital
Knowledge

Bank

at OSU


Online Published Material


E
-
books, e
-
journals,
government documents,
handbooks


Online Reference Tools


Catalogs, indexes, dictionaries,
encyclopedias, directories


Online Information Services


Scholar’s portal, alumni portal,
chat reference, online tutorials,,
e
-
reserves, e
-
course packs,
technology help center


Electronic Records Management


Administrative Data Warehouse


Digital Publishing Assistance


Pre
-
print services


E
-
books, e
-
journal support


Web site development and
maintenance



Faculty Research Directory


Digital Institutional Repository


Digital special collections


Rich media (multimedia)


Data sets and files


Theses/dissertations


Faculty publications, pre
-
publications, working papers


Educational materials


Learning objects


Course reserves/E
-
course pack
materials


Course Web sites


Information Policy


Research/Development in
Digital Information Services


User needs studies


Applying best practice


Assistance with Technology
Transfer


The Ohio State University


Libraries, Chief Information Officer, Office of
Research, University Press, Academic faculty and
technologists


OhioLINK


Digital Media Center, Electronic Journals Center,
Chat Reference (Ohio Super Computer Center,
Ohio Learning Network)


OCLC, Chemical Abstracts


MIT: DSpace Federation

Cooperative and Enterprise Approach to
Building the Knowledge Bank

Examples of New Approaches at the Ohio
State University


Open access dissertations


Open Access
:
the free availability of scholarly literature
on the public Internet (
Open Access News

at
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/fosblog.html
)


ArXiv


Directory of Open Access Journals


Public Library of Science


NIH Proposal




Sharing and management of images and sounds


Squeeze collection


Bird sounds


Wetlands Research Center papers and reports


Open access e
-
books and journals


Out
-
of
-
print University Press titles (with Press)


Journals in Slavic Studies and in Music (with
Departments


E
-
book on e
-
government (with Glenn Center)



Examples of New Approaches at the Ohio
State University


Open access dissertations


Sharing and management of images and sounds


Squeeze collection


Bird sounds


Wetlands Research Center papers and reports


Open access e
-
books and journals


Out
-
of
-
print University Press titles (with Press)


Journals in Slavic Studies and in Music (with
Departments


E
-
book on e
-
government (with Glenn Center)



Examples of New Approaches at the Ohio
State University


Open access dissertations


Sharing and management of images and sounds


Squeeze collection


Bird sounds


Wetlands Research Center papers and reports


Open access e
-
books and journals


Out
-
of
-
print University Press titles (with Press)


Journals in Slavic Studies and in Music (with
Departments


E
-
book on e
-
government (with Glenn Center)



Examples of New Approaches at the Ohio
State University


Open access dissertations


Sharing and management of images and sounds


Squeeze collection


Bird sounds


Wetlands Research Center papers and reports


Open access e
-
books and journals


Out
-
of
-
print University Press titles (with Press)


Journals in Slavic Studies and in Music (with
Departments


E
-
book on e
-
government (with Glenn Center)


Worldwide


Resources

Columbus &

Ohio Resources

OSU Central


Databases

OSU Academic

Unit Databases

OSU Faculty


Data

Knowledge

Bank

Engine

Internet

OARNet

OSU SONNET Network

The OSU Knowledge Bank

Unified Access

Knowledge Bank Team

Diverse

Sources

Integrated

Information

Leadership Training


Coordination Standards

Technical Support

Business Partnerships

Collaborative Research

Enriched Instruction

+

New Technology

Trusted Archive

New Roles for the Knowledge Manager


Librarians “can no longer meet the information needs of faculty
and students through the traditional avenue of simply adding to
their collections.” (
Battin and Hawkins,
Mirage of Continuity
, 1998)


New Roles



Managing knowledge content (working more closely with faculty
and students to design, organize, and maintain a broader range of
digital assets.)


Using information technology to create new organizational
(metadata), retrieval (discovery), and storage (preservation)
options


More active role in the educational and research mission of
university (integrating information resources and services in course
and research projects)


Active educators: teaching students and faculty information
literacy

Learning Place: the “Research Library” as a
“Teaching Library”


Growing importance on “information literacy” in the
open access, networked environment of the public
Internet


Growth of library instruction


New Reference Techniques


Net Tutor


Connecting information resources to teaching


Course Management Systems


Course reserves, learning objects, curriculum
materials


New learning space design in library facilities


Service Trends in ARL Libraries, 1991
-
2003


Thompson Library Renovation


$99 million
8 year project


Feasibility Study
2000


2002


Design Work
2002


2004


Construction
2005
-
2008

New Learning Space Design in Libraries


Balance between collections and user space


Open office or studios for library staff


Robust information technology infrastructure


Attention to social amenities: café, lighting,
displays, soft furniture,


Variety of spaces: quiet, private, gathering
places, much more group study, very flexible
meeting and teaching space


Space for events and programs: exhibits,
lectures, seminars, working groups,
multimedia studio work



The Original Reading Room

The Current Reading Room

Proposed Restoration

Renovated Thompson Library at

Ohio State University

Changes in Space and Place for Research
Libraries in the Digital Age

1.
Information Space
: The evolution of collections work in
research libraries: from
collection development

to
collection
management

to
knowledge management


Why and how we have evolved towards
knowledge
management


The
Knowledge Bank

project at the Ohio State
University: building a knowledge management system

2.
Learning Place:

The integration of active teaching and
learning into the physical and virtual research library


Designing learning places: physical and virtual


The renovation of the William Oxley Thompson (Main)
Library at the Ohio State University

Thank You! Muchas Gracias!