Knowledge Creation: The SECI Model

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 2 μέρες)

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Knowledge Creation: The SECI
Model

Outline


Knowledge Creation


Knowledge

Management


Types of
Knowledge


The SECI Model


Knowledge creation


Knowledge creation according to the Nonaka's

SECI model
is
about continuous transfer, combination, and conversion of
the

different types of knowledge, as users
practice, interact,
and learn.


Cook and Brown (1999) distinguish between

knowledge

and
knowing,
and suggest that knowledge creation is a
product of
the interplay between them.


The shift in condition between the possession of knowledge
and the act of knowing
-

something that comes about through
practice, action, and interaction
-

is the driving force in the
creation of new knowledge


Knowledge creation



Knowledge is created through practice,
collaboration, interaction, and education, as the
different knowledge types
are shared and
converted.


Knowledge creation is also supported by relevant
information

and

data

which can improve
decisions and serve as building blocks in the
creation of new knowledge.


It is important to support unstructured work
environments in areas where creativity and
innovation are important.


Knowledge Management


Knowledge management is essentially about getting the
right

knowledge
to the right person at the right time.


It implies a strong tie to corporate strategy, understanding
where
and in what forms
knowledge exists
, creating processes
that span
organizational functions, and ensuring that initiatives are accepted
and
supported by
organizational members.


Knowledge management may also include
new knowledge creation
,
or it may solely focus on
knowledge sharing, storage, and
refinement.


Goal is to
create value
and to leverage, improve, and refine
competences and knowledge
assets to meet organizational goals
and targets
.


Implementing knowledge management has several dimensions
including:
Organizational, Managerial, Technological,

Political



Types of Knowledge in KM

Explicit Knowledge


This type of knowledge is formalized and codified, and is
referred to as
know
-
what

. It is fairly easy to identify, store,
and retrieve . This is the type of knowledge most easily
handled by KMS, which are very effective at facilitating the
storage, retrieval, and modification of documents and texts.


It involves ensuring that

-
people have access to what they need

-
important knowledge is stored

-
that the knowledge is reviewed, updated, or discarded.


Types of Knowledge in KM

Tacit Knowledge (Embodied Knowledge)


Originally defined by
Polanyi in 1966
. It is sometimes referred to as
know
-
how,

and refers to intuitive, hard to define knowledge that is
largely experience based. It is often context dependent and
personal in nature. It is hard to communicate and deeply rooted in
action, commitment, and involvement (
Nonaka

1994).


Tacit knowledge is regarded as
valuable source
of knowledge, and
the most likely to lead to breakthroughs in the organization.


Link between lack of focus on tacit knowledge and reduced
capability for innovation and sustained competitiveness.


KMS have a very hard time handling this type of knowledge.


Tacit knowledge is found in: the
minds of human stakeholders
. It
includes cultural beliefs, values, attitudes, mental models, etc. as
well as skills, capabilities and expertise


Types of Knowledge in KM

Embodied Knowledge


Knowledge that is
locked in processes
, products, culture, routines,
artifacts, or structures Knowledge is embedded either
formally,

such as
through a management initiative to formalize a routine, or
informall
y as
the organization uses and applies the other two knowledge types.



Found in:
rules, processes, manuals, organizational culture, codes of
conduct, ethics, products, etc.


While embedded knowledge can exist in explicit sources (i.e. a rule can be
written in a manual),
the knowledge itself is not explicit
, i.e. it is not
immediately apparent why doing something this way is beneficial to the
organization.


Culture and routines
are difficult to understand and hard to change.
Formalized routines
may be easier to implement and management can
actively try to embed the fruits of lessons learned directly into procedures,
routines, and products.


IT's have some useful applications here.

The SECI Model

The SECI Model


Nonaka and Takeuchi introduced the SECI model (Nonaka &
Takeuchi 1996) which has become the cornerstone
of

knowledge creation

and transfer theory.


They proposed four ways that knowledge types can be
combined and converted, showing how

knowledge

is shared
and created in the organization.


The model is based on the two types of knowledge:
tacit ,
explicit

The SECI model


There are four basic patterns for creating
knowledge

in
any

organization:

1.

Socialization
:
From

tacit

to
tacit

2.
Externalization
:
From

tacit

to explicit

3.
Combination
:
from

e
xplicit

to explicit

4.
Internalization
:
from

explicit to
tacit

The SECI model


Socialization: Tacit to tacit


Knowledge is passed
on through practice, guidance,
imitation, and observation.



Externalization: Tacit to explicit


Tacit knowledge is
codified

into documents, manuals, etc. so
that it can spread more easily through the organization.


The use of metaphor is cited as an important externalization
mechanism.


The SECI model


Combination:
Explicit to explicit


This is the simplest form. Codified knowledge sources
(e.g. documents) are combined to create new
knowledge.

it does not extend the company’s
knowledge base

Internalization:
Explicit to tacit


As explicit

sources
are used and learned, the
knowledge is internalized, modifying the user's
existing tacit knowledge.

Points to ponder


How can our project (PECM) use KM to achieve
targets/goals? What should be the KM strategy for
the PECM project? How is knowledge created here?


“Knowledge cannot be explicit”
-
is this statement
correct? “Know
-
what”

how is it a knowledge rather
than information? How does information fit into the
SECI model?


Latest model on KC


For future talk on KC/KM


The Knowledge Creating Company


Systems methodology (eg. i
-
system)


Concept of “Ba”


Knowledge Assets

References



Nonoaka, Ikujiro, (1991)“The Knowledge Creating Company”.

Harvard Business Review


Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge
-
creating

company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics

of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press


http://mcleanglobal.com/public/MGC/publications/Nonaka%20and
%20Takeuchi.pdf


Cook, S.D., & Brown, J.S. (1999), Bridging Epistemologies: the Generative

Dance between Organizational Knowledge and Organizational

Knowing.

Organization Science
, vol. 10, no. 4


Polanyi, M. (1966).

The Tacit Dimension.

London, Routledge & Kegan Paul,
1966