Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e

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The Learning Organization and
Knowledge Management


Fundamentals of



Organizational Behavior 2e






Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation


by Charlie Cook

Chapter

14

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

2

Learning Objectives

1.
Describe the
4I

framework of a learning
organization.

2.
Identify the building blocks, or key
characteristics, of a learning organization.

3.
Recognize organizational conditions favoring
knowledge management.

4.
Specify methods for sharing information within
an organization.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

3

The Learning Organization

An organization that is skilled at
creating, acquiring, and transferring
knowledge, and at modifying behavior
to reflect new knowledge and insights.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

4

The 4I Framework of

Organizational Learning

Organizational

Learning

Individual Level

(Intuiting and Interpreting)


Group Level

(Integrating)


Organizational Level

(Institutionalizing)

EXHIBIT

14
-
1

Source:

Mary M. Crossan, Henry W. Lane, and Roderick E. White, “An Organizational Learning
Framework: From Institution to Institution,” Academy of Management Review, July 1999, p. 525.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

5

The 4I Framework


Organizational
Learning Processes


Intuiting


Interpreting


Integrating


Institutionalizing

Organizational
Learning Levels


Individual Level


Group Level


Organizational Level

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

6

Building Blocks of a Learning Organization


Double
-
Loop Learning


Confronting the validity of the goal or the values implicit in a
situation by questioning, based on feedback, the core
premise of the situation.


Action Learning


Acquiring skills while working in teams on real problems that
are reusable at later stages in resolving the problem.


Systems Thinking


Developing a point of view of the organization as a system
that affects and is affected by the external environment.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

7

Building Blocks of a Learning Organization


Shared Vision


Developing a common purpose and commitment for the
organization to keep learning.


The Challenge of Mental Models


Overcoming powerful assumptions and mental models that
prevent people from working together can open up a world
of opportunities.


Team Learning


Engaging in collective problem solving by sharing
information and opinions with coworkers.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

8

Building Blocks of a Learning Organization


Personal Mastery of the Job


Developing the individual expertise necessary to master
the demands of the job.


Translation of New Knowledge into New Ways
of Behaving


Using knowledge to change behavior through learning.


Systematic Investigation and Problem Solving


Instigating the widespread use of the scientific method to
investigate and solve problems.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

9

Building Blocks of a Learning Organization


Experimentation


Developing the risk
-
taking, entrepreneurial attitude to seek
out new opportunities through experiments in improving
organizational performance.


Learning from Other Organizations


Studying competitors to acquire insights to be used as
benchmarks for improving the effectiveness and efficiency
of the organization.


Healthy Disrespect for the Status Quo


Challenging whatever exists (e.g., work processes) and
seeing if anything can be improved upon.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

10

Building Blocks of a Learning Organization


High Impact Learning


Taking steps to increase significance of high impact
learning in moving the firm forward and preventing
potential problems by:


Building a commitment to a learning capability among
members of the organization.


Generating ideas with impact by developing deliberate
approaches to acquiring knowledge.


Using cross
-
functional team to disseminate ideas with
impact throughout the organization.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

11

Knowledge Management (KM)

Knowledge is managed more effectively in a
learning organization.


Information is systematically shared to achieve goals.


Intellectual capital is a resource for competitive advantage.


Organizational Conditions Favoring KM


Being a learning organization.


Having an organizational culture that emphasizes sharing
information through an incentive reward system for
contributing to the organizational knowledge base.


Providing top
-
management leadership for the KM effort.


Demonstrating the value of KM to encourage commitment.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

12

Knowledge Management Strategies and
Techniques


Hire the Right Persons


Employ people who are good at learning and teaching; who
are intelligent, can accumulate knowledge, and are
intellectually curious.


Create Knowledge


Use intelligence, creativity, and innovation to create new
bundles of knowledge leading to new products or services.


Competitive Knowledge Management


Develop mechanisms that allow knowledge and expertise
(competitive intelligence) outside of the firm to be tracked.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

13

Knowledge Management Strategies and
Techniques


Codification versus Personalizing Knowledge


Codification:


Companies with standardized products and services store
information in way that it can be readily assessed and
repeatedly used.


Personalization:


Companies with unique products and services share
information through interpersonal contacts.


The choice for codification or personalization of knowledge
is largely determined by the products or services the
company produces.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

14

Knowledge Management Strategies and
Techniques


Appointing a Chief Knowledge Officer


Duties of a Chief Knowledge Officer


Arranging conferences where workers share information.


Assimilating databases of company knowledge.


Teaching people how to learn at a deeper level.


Getting people to reflect on their experiences and profit
from their mistakes.


Selling people on the idea that brainpower is the
company’s true source of competitive advantage.

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

15

Knowledge Management Strategies and
Techniques


Closing the Gap between Knowing and Doing


Do not allow stored knowledge to go unused; convert
knowledge to action.


Build a culture of action

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior
, Second Edition. Copyright
©
2002 by South
-
Western.

14

16

Methods for Sharing Information

1.
Create an in
-
house Yellow Pages.

2.
Install an intranet communication system.

3.
Provide personalized explanations of success
factors.

4.
Foster dialogue among

organization members.

5.
Create shared physical

facilities and informal

learning situations to

promote information

sharing.