for Relevance and Impact

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Building Capacities for Knowledge Management
and Development Results in Africa



Busan 2011 and beyond


20th Anniversary Summit of the ACBF, Kigali, Rwanda

‘The Future of Africa is Now! The critical Role of Capacity Development’

8&9 February 2011’


www.LenCD.org

Connecting Communities of Practice
for Relevance and Impact

Thomas Theisohn, LenCD


Overview


1.

Building Capacities for KM & DR …

2.

… in Africa

3.

Connecting Communities of Practice

4.

Knowledge Management

5.

Development Results

6.

Africa’s Future is now

7.

Busan 2011 and beyond




www.LenCD.org

Building Capacities



Knowledge Management

www.LenCD.org

for

CD for KM needs to take full account of CD learning

Enabling Environment

transparency

accountability


managing for development results

harmonization

alignment

ownership


trust

partnership

solidarity

interest

power

Change management

choice of inputs

Transformation

Incentives

“HOW”

Competence

Training

Experts

TC

www.LenCD.org

Capacity Development

Complex Systems

Political economy

5

www.LenCD.org

Home
-
grown

External support

e.g. ACBF

A shift in paradigm

Capacity Development

For

Knowledge Management

www.LenCD.org

in Africa

There are regional instruments to join up efforts

AU/NEPAD C
apacity

D
evelopment

S
trategic

F
ramework

7

www.LenCD.org


Leadership
Trans
-
Formation


Citizen

Trans
-
formation

Knowledge

-

Based And
Innovation

-

Driven

Processes

Ultilising
african
potentials
, skills
and

resources for
development


Capacity Of
Capacity
Builders

Integrated
Plannng &
Implementation
Approaches


Managing
capacity
development
processes

CD Strategic Framework:
https://sites.google.com:443/site/lencdorg/documents
-
1/AU_NEPAD_CDSF.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1

Cornerstone 3:
KNOWLEDGE
-
BASED AND INNOVATION
-
DRIVEN DECISION AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES:

8

www.LenCD.org

CD Strategic Framework:
https://sites.google.com:443/site/lencdorg/documents
-
1/AU_NEPAD_CDSF.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1

What are promising strategies and processes to bring about change?


Strengthening of knowledge and information
networks

for sharing, joint
programming and across the actors for better economies of scale and scope.


Development of
knowledge management systems
within
and across
organisations.


Re
-
thinking and renewal of
administrative processes
and systems for efficiency.


Re
-
orientation of knowledge and scientific organisations towards
more holistic and
integrated approaches to science and technology

including research and
development.


Development of a
learning, sharing and feedback culture
in African organisations.


Re
-
thinking the interface between research/science and practice along the lines of
integrated assessments in development thus
institutionally reconfiguring the rules
of engagement.



Africa Platform for Development Effectiveness

9

www.LenCD.org

Core objectives:





platform for consultation, dialogue, information and
knowledge sharing


supporting African countries and RECs in the
implementation PD/AAA



Africa common perspective
and a voice on issues in development cooperation


African information and knowledge base
of issues, practices, experiences and
cases



determining, monitoring and
reporting on priority capacity needs



guide to capacity developing institutions
for the focus of their interventions.



engagement with existing related initiatives
(OECD/DAC WP_Eff, TT
-
SSC, UNDCF


Advance
African ownership and leadership
as advocated by the AU & NEPAD.




“The goal of the Africa Platform is the achievement of development
effectiveness through SSC, AE and CD in African countries.

Development effectiveness is about development results.”


A COMMITMENT TO DEVELOPMENT RESULTS IN AFRICA

Connecting Communities of Practice

www.LenCD.org


Build on what is there!

Connecting the knowledge communities

“Horizontal CoPs”

Governance and Accountabiliy

“Vertical CoPs”

-

S
ectoral, thematic application areas

Knowledge Management

Organization development

Public administration & management

EDUCATION

Capacity Development

HEALTH

AGRICULTURE

LAW AND JUSTICE

ENVIRONMENT

DISASTER RISR REDUCTION

Leadership development

C
hange management

TRANSPORTATION

Connecting Communities of Practice

www.LenCD.org

Horizontal Communities of Practice

www.LenCD.org


Horizontal CoPs comprise professional
disciplines that have influenced capacity
development thinking and practice.


Examples include public administration and
organisational development, but there are
many more (see diagram).


While they do not necessarily embrace an
explicit capacity development perspective,
they underpin its theory and practice.




Vertical Communities of Practice

www.LenCD.org


Vertical CoPs typically include groups such as
civil servants, professionals and interest
groups that come together around a specific
sector or thematic development challenge,
such as health, education or rural
development.


While capacity development may not be their
main professional area or focus, it remains an
important cross
-
cutting issue that all need to
address to achieve development results.


Development Results are a function of

www.LenCD.org

“Technical knowledge”

Better

Understanding

of CD

=


Better

Support

to CD

www.LenCD.org

Knowledge Management



Knowledge Sharing

The human and social dimension is at the core


“… comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an
organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and
enable adoption of insights and experiences.” (WIKI)



There are lots of technological tools that support
knowledge management
including electronic bulletin boards, discussion forums,
knowledge directories, groupware, databases, intranets, intelligent search engines, personal
web pages, electronic mail, virtual conference rooms, libraries, corporate yellow pages, among
many others.


But the technology does not guarantee any sharing of
knowledge. There are many obstacles!


16

“Knowledge Management (KM)”

www.LenCD.org


“Knowledge is power”
/ and money


“Want to be perceived as expert”


“Success of other is not mine”

/
“Not invented here”



Look less knowledgeable
” / Failure to admit to failure


Job security concerns “unwilling to share mistakes and failures”


Corporate cultures that discourage open communication


Failure to see the benefits




Lack of trust, Lack of
incentives


Lack of time
/ Activity trap
/
Complexity


Lack of a
disciplined collaborative process
(eg. CoP)


Narrow results
-
orientation

17

Obstacles that prevent knowledge sharing

Mindsets


Culture



Incentives



Conducive processes

www.LenCD.org

Development Results


A results straight
-
jacket ?

www.LenCD.org

Institutional turf destroys collective learning for results

“Development Results”

19

www.LenCD.org

Results orientation

is useful also for

capacity development.


BUT, …


… short
-
visioned results logic and pressures
to deliver can create perverse incentives and
seriously undermine sustainability.

Results

orientation
can

(and
often

does
):

20

www.LenCD.org


... create an incentive to emphasize
the delivery of short
-
term
tangible
results over process dimensions of (transformational) change



discourage risk taking
and experimentation, critical to any learning
process, and leave little space to accommodate emergent demands


… privilege the collection
of hard quantifiable data
over softer
qualitative data



reward fast disbursement
rates, timely reporting, and good records
rather than the impact of activities on capacity.

An in terms of donor
-
funded activities, some additional reasons:


Tendency to substitute
rather than addressing capacity challenges


Focus on outputs
, rather than knowledge exchange and learning.


Obligtions crowd out building relationships
, understand & adapt

Within organizations


there are tremendous problems of mainstreaming CD in
sector work (“silo mentality”)


At least corporate means exist to shift to a knowledge
sharing culture

Between organizations


incentives tend to be stacked against sharing


institutional turf and flags, search for attribution,
fragmentation, duplication of efforts, competition rather
than synergy, products rather than process …



21

& undermine collective learning

www.LenCD.org

Africa’s Future is now !


It is time to connect

www.LenCD.org

The choices made now will decide on what will evolve

“Horizontal CoPs”

Governance and Accountabiliy

“Vertical CoPs”

-

S
ectoral, thematic application areas

Knowledge Management

Organization development

Public administration & management

EDUCATION

HEALTH

AGRICULTURE

LAW AND JUSTICE

ENVIRONMENT

DISASTER RISR REDUCTION

Leadership development

C
hange management

TRANSPORTATION

Connecting Communities of Practice

www.LenCD.org

“Horizontal CoPs”

Governance and Accountabiliy

“Vertical CoPs”

-

S
ectoral, thematic application areas

Knowledge Management

Organization development

Public administration & management

APRM

IDEG

NEPAD

ACBF

CODESRIA

AfDB

Leadership development

C
hange management

PSCBS

Connecting Communities of Practice

www.LenCD.org

Network of connectivity

www.LenCD.org

The image highlights the
network of connectivity
between popular capacity
development websites, as
reported by Google's
database of related sites
and visualized in seconds
using TouchGraph.com to
graph the results for
“capacity development”.


Scoping Study:

Rationalizing the CD knowledge
architecture www.LenCD.org



Connecting for Relevance and Impact




www.LenCD.org

How?

Getting beyond “business as usual” and silos

Requires leadership and smart processes


Beyond business as usual

www.LenCD.org


Regional Knowledge Integration
Build on what is
there, e.g. APDev rely on partners


Apply CD knowledge
to KM


Codify and share
experience ”in heads of people”


Use knowledge of others


Establish incentives
TOR & Performance Reviews


Make CD&KM leadership priority


Beyond knowledge silos

www.LenCD.org


Nurture Connectors

/ go
-
betweens
to

help cross
-
fertilise and carry knowledge back and forth.






Use CD advocates
that help inform mainstream development
efforts


Multi
-
disciplinary education
:
Combine technical with
horizontal skills at university


Connect CoPs at the country level
around
specific strategic and operational challenges


Sector development
as priority

Beyond institutional islands

www.LenCD.org


Corporate decisions to share

eg ACBF take active
stake in APDev, manages elements for the collective effort …


Recognize institutional incentives
be realistic
about what is possible, seek win
-
win


Rationalize the CD knowledge architecture
build synergies, complement, combine, don’t duplicate


Apply technology

with little additional
transaction cost,
eg. RSS feeds, Drupal, social networking, ..


Conducive processes
for knowledge
sharing
Closing learning loops, Blogs, Learning processes


The critical Role

of Capacity Development

www.LenCD.org

Busan 2011 and beyond


Just do it !

Busan 2011 and beyond: Just do it !

www.LenCD.org

1.
Paris principles and AAA go a long way
but need
to be translated into meaningful practice

2.
Reform results frameworks
to be more conducive
to
sustainable CD
take off straight
-
jacket

3.
Make sector development more effective
based
on a CD perspective
connect CoPs

4.
Invest in KM / Knowledge Sharing
(!) as driver of
development results
in organizations, regions, globally

5.
Mutual accountability on country level
for serious
collective efforts for CD and KM for Development Results

Make it happen

Practice

Evidence

Policy

www.LenCD.org

Thank
you!