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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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1

Chapther

Key terms

:

*
Fermentation


*Hydroponics




*Aeroponics


*Totipoteny



*Recombination

*

Tissue Culture


*Cloning





[
B
iotechnology




A.

Meaning of biotechnology







1

Learning Objectives



To define the

term of
biotechnology.



To describe the development of
biotechnology.



To record conventional and
modern biotechnology products
in the surrounding area.



To describe the benefits and uses
of biotechnology in the food
industry.



To make some simply
biotechnology products that can
be beneficial in daily life.


Biotechnology

derived

from
the

word “bios” and
"technology"

which

can be interpreted as

the use
of living organisms or systems to
solve a problem or to produce useful
products.


Biotechnology can be defined
as the use of living things or
materials from liv
ing things to create
kinds of products that are beneficial
for human kind.


According to the levels of
complexity biotechnology is divided
into two k
inds : Conventional and
Modern B
iotechnology.


2

B.

Development of Biotechnology

















Development of science and technology has
influenced the development in the field of biology,
especially in biotechnology. Biotechnology has been
utulized since the hundreds if not thousands of years
ago, today is growing
along with the times. Here is
the
development of biotechnology products.


1.

Era first generation of biotechnology



a simple microbe biotechnology use is
still traditionally, in the production of food
and plants as well as the presenvation of
food.

Example : creating a tapai, tempeh, vineger

2.

Era second generation of biotechnology


The process of the manufacture of
products of biotechnology in the state are
not sterile.

Example :

a.

The production of chemicals such as
acetone.

b.

Citric acid.

c.

Manufacture
of compost.

3.

Era a third
-
generation biotechnology


the process of making the products of
biotechnology in sterile conditions.

Example : production of antibiotics and
hormones.

4.

New generation biotech.


The new biotevhnology.

Example : production of insulin,
interferon,
monoclonnal antibodies.


Figure 1
.
Employment
Oppertunities is product
biotehnology



3

C.

Aplication of Biotechnology

















1.

Conventional Biotechnology


Conventional bitechnology usually uses
microorganims derectly and simply.
Microorganims
used include bacteria and fungus. In daily life, examples
of conventional biotechnology implementations are as
follows.

Fermentation is a way to alterr the substrate to be
a specific product thar you want to use the help of
microbes.
Biotechnology
-
based fermentation in
largely a process of production of goods and services
by leveranging the technology of fermentation or the
use of microorganisms for producing food and
beveranges. Fermentation can be distinguished :

1.

Fermentation aerobic



The fermentation
process that requires oxygen in turn sugar into a
final result substrate pyruvate and carbon
dioxide.

2.

Fermentation anaerobic


The fermentation
process that requires no oxygen in the convertion
of sugar into a pyruvac acid, but in the p
rocess of
continuing need asetaldehid which result in final
results in the form of alcohol, ethanol, methanol,
and lactic acid.



Figure
2. Tempeh is a
conventional biotechnology
product, being a soybean
fermentation product using
Rhizopus sp
. fungus


Some other exemple micobes which utilized in produce food
biotechnology :

No

Substrat

Mikroba

Hasil

1

Straw ,
Sawdust
,

Waste paper

.

-

Agsricus bisporus

-

Lentinus edodes

-

Volvariella volvacae

Funjai product

2

Sticky rice ,
Cassava

-

Ragi

-

Saccharomyses
cereviceae

-

Endomyopsis sp

Tapai



4




















3

Soybean

-

Rhizopus oryzae

-

Rhizopus oligosporus

-

Rhizopus dtolonifor

-

Mucor

Tempeh

4

Soybean black

-

Rhizopus sp

-

Aspergillus wentii

Soy souce

5

Oilcake ,
Peanut dreg,
and Waste
materials

-

Neurospora
sitophyla

-

Neurospora crassa

Oncom

6

Milk

-

Penicillium camemberti

-

Penicillium requoforti

Cheese

7

Marine fish

-

Lactobasillus sp

Soy and Tamarind



To know how soybean are made into tempeh, pay
attention to this
chart below :



Figure
3. Chart of tempeh making


Clean the
soybean and let them soak for 12 hours

Boil them for 1 hours

Clean and remove the soybean coat

Drain, cool, and spread
the soybean on a tray

Add tempeh
fungus

Mix tem smoothly and wrap them in banana leaves
or plastic bags

Let them ferment for 2 day


5




















Experiment 1


Making Yog
h
urt

Objective
: To know how to make yoghrut in a simply way

Apparatus and Materials

: Yoghrut Canned milk A tea spoon Safety googgles
A strirre A sieve Two 250 cm3 beaker glasses A
maker Gauze Bunsen burner Tripod.

Procedure
:

1.

Mark the beaker glasses with A and B. Put three spoons of yoghrut in
each beaker glass. Heat up beaker glass A
and stir until it boils. Leave
until it is cool.

2.

Add milk up to the halfway point of the beaker glasses A and B. Close
both beaker glasses and leave them for 24 hours. Then, keep them in
the refrigerator for 1
-
2 days. Observe them and take note.

Observatio
n Table

Beaker glass

Content

After 1
-
2 days

A

Heated milk and yoghrut


B

Not heated
milk and yoghrut


Question :

1.

What element is damaged when yoghrut is heated up ?

2.

Why should the beaker glass be closed ?

3.

Which beaker glass produces substances similar
to yoghrut ?

4.

What can transform milk into yoghrut ?

Antibiotic

Antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by
microorganims which can inhibit or kill other bacteria or
microorganims. Antibiotics only work on the cell wall of
bacteria, so
they cannot cure disease which are caused
by fungus or virus.


6







Conventional biotechnology in daily life is applied in the making of tapai, tempeh,
oncom, cheese, yoghrut, a
lcholic, drinks, antibio
tics, funjai product, soy souce and
alcohol for fuels.











Antibiotic were firts discovered by
Alexander
Fleming

who then named his discorery penicillin.
Penicillin is produced by
Penillium

fungus. Penicillin
production in a big scale is carried out by culturing
Penillium

fungus in a big fermentor containing nutrient
solutions.

Antibiotic is not only produced by fungus, but also
bacteria. Some examples of antibiotics produced by
fungus are p
enicillin and ampicillin, while some
antibiotic produced by bacteria are bacitrasin,
erythromysin, and tetracycline.

2. Modern Biotechnology


I n l i n e i n t h e d e v e l o p me n t a n d i n v e n t i o n s i n a n y
a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e, b i o t e c h n o l o g y h a s i n c r e a s e d
s i g n i f i c a n t l y. M o d e r n b i o t e c h n o l o g y c a n b e b u i l t u p
b e c o u s e t h e r e a r e n e w
d i s c o v e r i e s i n mi c r o b i o l o g y,
b i o c h e mi c a l, c e l l b i o l o g y, mo l e c u l e r b i o l o g y, g e n e t i c s
a n d p h y s i c s. N o w d a y s, ma n y k i n d s o f mo d e r n
b i o t e c h n o l o g y a p p l i c a t i o n s i n r e p r o d u c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y,
h y d r o p o n i c s, a e r o p o n i c s, a n d g e n e r e c o mb i n a t i o n
t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e n n d e v e
l o p me n t.

a.

Reproductive
technology


Reproductive technology is a way of
reproduction organ by using certain applications and
techniques to enhance the quality of individual organims
over what has been expected before, for example is
tissue culture.


7




















TISSUE CULTURE


Tissue culture is denified as a way to grow plant
tissue in an artificial medium in laboratory. It is well
known becouse of the work of
Muer, Hildebrant,
and
Riker

in 1954.


Plant can be multiplied using this techniques as
plants have a
Totipotency

ability, meaning that from a
tissue can grow and development into new individuals.
Tisssue culture is used to solve food shortge problems
due to these following reason :

1.

It can produce new plant seeds in a large number
in a short period in time

with the same
characteristics and qualities as their parents.

2.

It can produce disease
-
free plant in a large
number.




Figure 4. Example of steps in performing tissue cuture




The tissue culture

technique is included into

Cloning
.
Sample cloning is
actually done frequently, for instance
by cutting down the steam of a cassava plant into five
pieces and then planting them. The five new plants are
called one
-
clone plants with the same characteristics as
their parent.




8














b.
Hydroponics and Aeroponics



Hydroponics is a modern farming system which
excludes the use of soil. Hydroponics was first
discovered by
Dr. W . F. Gericke

from the University
of California in 1936.


Hydroponics

u s e s wa t e r a n d p o r o u s ma t e r i a l s a s
me d i a , s
u c h a s : c h a f f c h a r c o a l, s a n d, p u mi c e, a n d
p e b b l e s. N u t r i e n s n e e d e b y t h e p a n t s f l o w t h r o u g h wa t e r
p i p e s. P l a n t s c a n a l s o b e p l a c e d o v e r t h e n u t r i e n t s
c o n t a i n e r wh e r e t h e i r r o o t s wi l l b e a b l e a a b s o r b
n u t r i e n t s f r o m t h e n u t r i e n t s c o n t a i n e r. Th u s i n a
h y d r o
p o n i c s s y s t e m, t h e p l a n t r o o t s a r e a l wa y s s o a k e d
wi t h n u t r i e n t l i q u i d.


Ae r o p o n i c s

i s a wa y o f f a r mi n g b y h a n g i n g t h e
p l a n t r o o t d o wn i n t h e a i r wi t h o u t t h e a d h e r i n g t o a n y
me d i a. N u t r i e n t s n e e d e d b y t h e p l a n t s a r e g i v e n b y
s p r a y i n g wa t e r c o n t a i n i n g n u t r i e
n t s o n t o t h e h a n g i n g
r o o t s. Th e s p r a y i n g i s p e r f o r me d a u t o me c a l l y b y u s i n g a
s p r a y i n g d e v i c e wh i c h i s e q u i p p e d wi t h a t i e r ( t i me
c o n t r o l l e d ).




c. Re c o mb i n a t i o n o f DN A ( g e n e )



Th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l c a n b e
mo d i f i e d b y p e r f o r mi n g g e n e t i c s e n
g i n e e r i n g, s u c h a s
wi t h t h e r e c o mb i n a t i o n o f DN A t e c h n i q u e.
Re c o mb i n a t i o n o f DN A i s t h e c o mb i n a t i o n o f DN A
( g e n e s ) f r o m d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i s ms s o t h a t a
r e c o m b i n a n t

DN A ( g e n e ) i s f o r me d.


Th e r e c o mb i n a t i o n o f DN A t e c h n o l o g y h a s g i v e n
ma n y b e n e f i c t s f o r h u ma n
b e i n g s i n d a i l y l i f e a n d s o me
t h e m h a v e b e e n u s e d t o ma k e i n s u l i n a n d
T r a n s g e n i c

o r g a n i s ms.


I n s u l i n




To o b t a i n t h e i n s u l i n a s t h a t i n h u ma n s, t h e
i n s u l i n ma k e r g e n e s s o i t c a n p r o d u c e h u ma n i n s u l i n.
N o wa d a y s, h u ma n i n s u l i n h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y
p r o d u c e d i n a ma s s i v e a mo u n t b y i n v o l v i n g
E c h e r i c h i a
c o l i

b a c t e r i a. Th e a d v e n t a g e s o f r e c o mb i n a t i o n o f DN A
i n i n
s u l i n p r o d u c t i o n a r e :

1.

P r o d u c e d i n s u l i n c o n t a i n s h u ma n p r o t e i n s.

F i g u r e
5. P l n t s a r e
c u l t i v i e d i n h y d r o p o n i c
p i p e s.

F i g u r e
6. A e r o p o n i c s
p l a n t i n g.

A

B

F i g u r e
7 a. H e x a g o n a l
I n s u l i n b. C r y s t a l I n s u l i n


9

















Modern biotechnology is applied n reproductive (tissue culture)
technology,
hydroponics, aeroponics, and DNA recombination


2
. Can be produced
in a massive amount so that it
becomes more economical and can be found
easely.

3.
The process can be carried out and stopped at any
time becouse bacteria can be kept until they are
needed.


Transgenic organims




A transgenic organisms is an organisms tha
t
receives transferred genes from another organisms in
order to become a new organism whose characteristic
quality are enhanced. The transferred gene can be from
another species, such as : a bacterium, a virus, a kind
animal, or a plant.


Adventages of gen
etic engineering are

:

1.

Resulting more products from fewer resources.

2.

The products can survive will extend fermland
and reduce real danger of femine.

3.

Genetically engineered crops are tastier and
healthier, such as : potatoes which absorb little
oil when th
ey are fried or they may even contain
a certain vaccine.

Desadventages of genetic engineerng are :

1.

Genetically modified plants that resist pesticides
can cross with its native plants resulting in weeds
that can resists pesticides.

2.

Genetically engineered ba
cteria can escappe
from laboratories or factories the consequences
of which cannot be estimated.

3.

Patenting new organisms.

4.

The possibility of gene transfer in humans.


10













A.

Choose one correct answer


1.

The difference between
conventional and modern
biotechnology is in the . . .

a.

Raw materials

b.

Benefict

c.

Procedure

d.

Result


2.

Take a look at these
biotechnoloy applications :

1)

Aeroponics

2)

Radiation

3)

Artificial insemination

4)

Cloning

5)

Tissue culture

6)

Fermentation

Aplication which are included in
reproductive technology are :

a.

1), 2), and 3)

b.

2), 3), and 4)

c.

3), 4), and 5)

d.

4), 5), and 6)



[ Summary



1.

Biotechnology is the use of orgamisms or materials obtained from
other organisms to produce beneficial products for human.


2.

According to its complexity, biotechnolog
is devided into two types,
namely conventional and modern biotechnology.


3.

In conventional biotechnology, microorgamisms are used directly,
while modern biotechnology is supported by meny science disciplines,
such as microbiology, biochemistry, celll biolog
y, molecular biology,
genetics and physics,


4.

The productin of food and beverages such as tapai, tempeh, soy souce,
oncom, cheese, yoghurt and alcohilic drinks is an example of
conventional biotechnology applications.


5.

Modern biotechnology is applied in rep
rodictive technology, radiation,
hydroponics, aeroponics, and recombination of DNA.


Exercise on Chapther 1


11

3.

Funjai from
Saccharomyces

genus is involved in the
process of making . . .

a.

Tapai and alcohol

b.

Doughnuts and tempeh

c.

Tempeh and oncom

d.

Oncom and tapai


4.

Example of dairy products
resulting from the use of bacteria
are . . .

a.

Yoghrut and cheese

b.

Alcohol and vineger

c.

Alcohol and cheese

d.

Yoghrut and vineger


5.

When Alexander Fleming grew
bacteria on nutrient gelatin in a
petri dish, the dish was
contaminated by aquamarine
funjai. In the funjai surrounding,
there was a space which was not
accupied by bacteria. The
hypothesis that Fleming used to
explain this was . . .

a.

Funjai mycelium caused the
bacteria to avoid it.

b.

Funjai secreted enzymes to
diges
t gelatin.

c.

Funjai secreted substance
that killed bacteria.

d.

Funjai
competed with
bacteria to have a place to
live and win.


B.

Complete sentence on the left with words in the
right column


1.

Nowadays, insu
lin can be produced massively
using . . . bacteria.

2.

In the fermentation process, yeast will
transform . . . into . . .

3.

In . . . technique, a plant tissue can grow and
develop into a new individual. The cells ability
to grow and form parts, such as roots,

steams,
and leaves is called . . .

4.

In . . . biotechnology, microorganisms are used
directly and in a simply way.

5.

In the . . .
method of farming, plant roots are
hung down in the air without adhering to any
media. Water which contains . . . is sprayed
regularly over the plant.



A.

Aeroponics

B.

Escherichia coli

C.

Glucose

D.

Carbohydrate

E.

Coventional

F.

Tissue culture

G.

Totipotency

H.

Neurospora
sitophila

I.

Nutrient

J.

Transgenic


12



C.

Ans
wer these questions briefly.


1.

What is the meaning of
biotechnology ?

2.

Write down 3 advantages of farming without soil.

3.

Why do cassava tubers teste sweet after turning into tapai, even thogh
no sugar is added ?

4.

Write down as much as possible about the practices of biotechnology
which have been applied since it

strarted to be used.

5.

What is the meaning of :

a.

Tissue culture

b.

Hydroponic

c.

Antibiotic

d.

Cloning














13






DNA

: D eoxrybonucleic acid ( Chemical units of genes).

Gene

: Small units that form chromosomes, which regulate the traints that will be
passed on to offspring.

G
en
etics
: the science of characteristic trasmission or inheritance.

Mutant
: An individual produced by mutation.

Mutation
: Chromosome aberration pattern

of an individual that are inherited.

Recombination

: To combine again.

Sterile

: (1) Infertile, unable to produce offspring. (2) Organisms
-
free (pest
-
free).

Totipotency

: The ability of cells to divide and produce a variety of tissue.

Transgenic organism
s

: Organisms that have genes from other organisms so that
the organosms have new properties.






G
lossary ]


14





Campbell, N.A., J. B. Reece, & L. G. Mitcell. 2005.
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Fitriningrum, Rahayu
. 2010
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Biotechnology
. Wonosobo.

Mader, S. S. 2004.
Biology
. Boston : Mc Graw
-
Hill.

Purnomo, Bangkit Wahyu. 2008.
http://www.blogspot/research/Food
Biotechnology as a Knowledge and Impact for Human .

Take in date 3
December 2011.

Sumarj
ito, Dilp.Ed. 2004.
Perforate University Favorite Strategy
. Yogyakarta :
Andi.

Sumarwan ,dkk. 2011.
Scinece for Junior High Scholl Grade IX 1St Semerter
.
Jakarta : Erlangga.

Suroso, A. & A. Permatasari. 2003.
Ensiklopedia Sains

dan Kehidupan :
Referensi
dan Petunjuk Lengkap untuk Ilmu Biologi, Fisika, dan
Kimia
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]