AP Biology CO 2013x

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1

QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
SEC

Copyright © 1988
-
2013

COURSE OUTCOMES


AP B
IOLOGY

(Secondary)


(
July
2013
)


Course Overview
:


AP Biology is designed to be the equivalent of a two
-
semester college introductory biology
course usually taken by biology majors during their freshman year.



This science course is
for
students who are highly motivated and have a strong interest in science.



Major topics of
study include biochemistry, cells, cellular energetics, genetics, evolution, classification,
organism structure/function, and ecology.



As in college biology, t
he AP Biology course is
designed to have both a lecture and a lab component.



Labs conducted by AP Biology
students are the equivalent of those experienced by college biology students.


At the
completion of this course, students are expected to take the C
ollege Board’s AP Biology
exam.


Some students may earn college credit if they earn high enough marks on this
exam.



In class, the format of each chapter test is similar to the AP Biology exam.


Students
are expected to demonstrate critical thinking skill
s through their answers to both multiple
choice questions and free response questions.


Instructional Context
:

This course is offered to select multicultural students based on evaluation of previous
academic records and attitudes. Students must have compl
eted first year biology and either
completed chemistry or currently be enrolled in a chemistry class with a minimum GPA of
3.5, display a keen interest in science as an evolving process and have the consent of the
instructor. Science is a way of looking de
eper into the world, find out what is really there,
make connections about how everything coherently works together, and understand that the
vast majority of science has yet to be discovered and is currently evolving every day. This
course is limited in en
rollment and is normally only open to students with secondary II
-
IV
status.


This course is divided into 10 essential units covering three general areas as described in the
AP Biology course description:




Molecules & Cells (25%)



Heredity & Evolution (25%)



Organisms and Populations (50%)


The Big Ideas

This course is organized around four big ideas, the enduring understandings within the big
ideas and the essential knowledge within said understandings.




Big Idea 1:

The process of evolution drives diversity a
nd unity of life.



Big Idea 2:

Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to
grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
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Copyright © 1988
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2013



Big Idea 3:

Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information
essential to life processes.



Big Idea 4:

Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions poses
complex properties.


Major Themes


A goal of the AP Biology course is
to give students an understanding of biology as a process
rather than to make the course and learning process nothing more than an accumulation of
discrete and unrelated facts to be memorized. Eight major themes have been identified:




Theme 1: Science as a

Process

Science is a way of knowing. It can involve a
discovery process using inductive reasoning, or it can be a process of hypothesis
testing.

Example: The theory of evolution was developed based on observation and
experimentation.




Theme 2: Evolution

E
volution is the biological change of organisms that occurs
over time and is driven by the process of natural selection. Evolution accounts for the
diversity of life on Earth.

Example: Widespread use of antibiotics has selected for antibiotic resistance in
disease
-
causing bacteria.




Theme 3: Energy Transfer

Energy is the capacity to do work. All living organisms
are active (living) because of their abilities to link energy reactions to the biochemical
reactions that take place within their cells.

Example: Th
e energy of sunlight, along with carbon dioxide and water, allows plant
cells to make organic materials, synthesize chemical energy molecules, and ultimately
release oxygen to the environment.




Theme 4: Continuity and Change

All species tend to maintain th
emselves from
generation to generation using the same genetic code. However, there are genetic
mechanisms that lead to change overtime, or evolution.

Example: Mitosis consistently replicates cells in an organism; meiosis (and hence
sexual reproduction) res
ults in genetic variability.




Theme 5: Relationship of Structure to Function

The structural levels from
molecules to organisms ensure successful functioning in all living organisms and
living systems.

Example: Aerodynamics of a bird’s wing permits flight.




Theme 6: Regulation

Everything from cells to organisms to ecosystems is in a state
of dynamic balance that must be controlled by positive or negative feedback
mechanisms.

Example: Body temperature is regulated by the brain via feedback mechanisms.



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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
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Copyright © 1988
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2013



Theme
7: Interdependence in Nature

Living organisms rarely exist alone in
nature.

Example: Microscopic organisms can live in a symbiotic relationship in the intestinal
tract of another organism; the host provides shelter and nutrients, and the
microorganisms dig
est the food.




Theme 8: Science, Technology, and Society

Scientific research often leads to
technological advances that can have positive and/or negative impacts upon society as
a whole.

Example: Biotechnology has allowed the development of genetically mod
ified plants.


Essential
Unit
s
:

(
Titles and Timeline
)


E01


Scientific Inquiry and Introduction to Biology (3 weeks)


E02


Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (3 weeks)


E03


Cellular Energy and Related Processes (3 weeks)


E04


Cellular Communication (3

weeks)


E05


Genetic Basis of Life (3 weeks)


E06


Gene Activity and Biotechnology (3 weeks)


E07


Evolution and Phylogeny (3 weeks)


E08


Diversity of the Biological World (3 weeks)


E09


Ecology (3 weeks)


E10


Research Experiment (6 weeks)*


*
It is highly recommended that students simultaneously engage this unit as an independent
student project in conjunction with an essential unit.


Instructional Resources


Textbook (recommended):

Campbell Biology, Reece, Urry and Cain, et al., 9th edition,
2011.


Textbook (alternative):

Starr, Cecie; Ralph Taggart; Christine Evers; and Lisa Starr.

Biology: The Unity and Diversity
of Life
. 12th. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2009.


Digital Textbook (optional):


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
SEC

Copyright © 1988
-
2013

Akre, Barbara, Jean Brainard
, PhD, Niamh Gray
-
Wilson, and Douglas Wilkin, Ph.D. Biology
I
-

Honors (CA DTI3). CK
-
12 Foundation, www.ck12.org, 2012. eBook.
<
http://www.ck12.org/book/Biology
-
I
---
Honors
-
%28CA
-
DTI3%29/
>.


Online support material:




http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/

Howard Hughes Medical Institutes
Biointeractive



http://sciencecases
.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/

National Center for Case Study Teaching in
Science



http://www.dnalc.org/

Dolan DNA Learning Center



http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/

Learn Gene
tics: University of Utah



http://phet.colorado.edu/

Interactive Science Simulations



http://www.johnkyrk.com/index.html

Cell Biology Animations



http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/

Pearson / Prentice Hall
The Biology Place Lab Bench Virtual Labs



http://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

Classzone Virtual Biology Labs



http://star.mit.edu/genetics/?gclid=CLeYpvmZ0q8CFcKIDgodtSdtEg

Star: Genetics



http://www.uniprot.org
UniProt Online Molecular Database



http://fasta.bioch.virginia.edu/fasta/lalign.htm

FASTA Sequence Comparison at the U.
of Virginia



http://www.youtube.com/user/XsavageXsecretX/videos?view=0
Youtube AP Biology

lectures by Craig Savage



http://www.ck12.org/biology/

cK
-
12 Biology Resources



http://www.biologyjunction.com/ap_powerpoints_7th.htm

(A
P Biology PowerPoints)


Scientific Journal Articles:




Grant, Rosemary and Grant, Peter. BioScience,

October 2003 / Vol. 53 No. 10.
What Darwin’s Finches can Teach us about the Evolutionary Origin and Regulation
of Biodiversity.



Gingerich, Philip D., Simo
ns, Elwyn L., Smith, Holly. Science New Series, July 13,
1990 / Vol. 249 No. 4965.
Hind Limbs of Eocene Basilosaurus: Evidence of Feet in
Whales
.



Shimamura, Mitsuru, Hiroshi Yasue, Kazuhiko Ohshima, Hideake Abe, Hidehiro
Kato, et al. "Molecular evidence f
rom retroposons that whales form a clade within
even
-
toed ungulates."
Nature
. 388. 14 August (1997): 666
-
670.


Lab Resources:




AP Biology Investigative Labs: an Inquiry Based Approach
(
http://www.collegeboard.com/html/apcourseaudit/courses/pdfs/cb
-
biology
-
lab
-
manual
-
1
-
24
-
12.pdf
)



Practicing Biology: A Student Workbook for Campbel
l Biology, Heitz and Giffen,
2011


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
SEC

Copyright © 1988
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2013



http://www.smartscience.net

(Online Virtual Labs aligned with AP Biology
curriculum)



http://sciencecourseware
.org/vcise/drosophila/

Drosophila Virtual Labs


The Investigative Laboratory Component
:

Students are given the opportunity to engage in student
-
directed laboratory investigations
throughout the course for a minimum of 25% of instructional time. Students will conduct a
minimum of eight inquiry
-
based investigations (two per big idea throughout
the course).
Additional labs will be conducted to deepen students’ conceptual understanding and to
reinforce the application of science practices within a hands
-
on, discovery based environment.
All levels of inquiry will be used and all seven science
-
pract
ice
-
skills will be used by students
on a regular basis in formal labs as well as activities outside of the lab experience. The course
will provide opportunities for students to develop, record, and communicate the results of
their laboratory investigations
.


Science Practices
:



1.

The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena
and solve scientific problems.

2.

The student can use mathematics appropriately.

3.

The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or
to guide
investigations within the context of the AP course.

4.

The student can plan and implement data collection strategies appropriate to a
particular scientific question.

5.

The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.

6.

The student can wo
rk with scientific explanations and theories.

7.

The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts
and representations in and across domains.


Units of Instruction


Each Unit of Instruction includes at least one summative and

multiple formative assessments.

Each Unit also includes guided questions for students to complete prior to class.


Suggested Rubric
:


The students will be evaluated for each unit according to the following rubric:





Above Mastery (A)

Mastery (B)

In
Progress (P)

Multiple Choice Unit
Exam (s)

93% or better

86%
-

92.9%

85.9% or lower

Free Response
Question

8 or better on the
unique rubric written
for each question

5


7 on the unique
rubric written for
each question

4 or below on the
unique rubric
w
ritten for each
question


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
SEC

Copyright © 1988
-
2013

Laboratory
Experiment (s)

Laboratory
experiments were
performed, data
collected and
analyzed, and written
in a concise, clear,
and accurate manner
with
graphics/diagrams
neat and complete
and appropriate
terminology
according to
teacher’s instructions.
If formal lab is
requested


use Lab
Report Rubric

Laboratory
experiments were
performed, data
collected and
analyzed, and
written in a
concise, clear, and
accurate manner
with
graphics/diagrams
relatively neat and
complete and
gene
rally
appropriate
terminology
according to
teacher’s
instructions. If
formal lab is
requested


use Lab
Report Rubric

Laboratory
experiments were
performed and
written in a
concise, clear, and
accurate manner
with
graphics/diagrams
lacking in
neatness and

completeness and
some appropriate
terminology
according to
teacher’s
instructions. If
formal lab is
requested


use
Lab Report
Rubric.

Study Guide,
Worksheets,
Homework, and
Notebook

Study Guides,
Worksheets, and
Notebooks are
consistently up to
date, n
eat, and
accurate.


Information can be
easily accessed.

Study Guides,
Worksheets, and
Notebooks are
relatively up to
date, neat, and
accurate


Information can be
somewhat easily
accessed.

Study Guides,
Worksheets, and
Notebooks are not
up to date, neat,
and accurate.


It is difficult to
access
information.


If a student falls within the “P” range the following steps will be taken to complete the
outstanding unit:

1.

The student will be automatically be assigned to the after
-
school homework tutorial
for the
duration of the next unit or until mastery of the outstanding unit, whichever
comes first. In the after school homework tutorial, the following steps should be
taken:

a.

First, the student must complete all unfinished work for the outstanding unit.

b.

Second,

the student will use his/her time to study the necessary material and
ask for additional help if necessary.

c.

Third, student will retest if necessary. If the student masters the subject matter
the second time around with an 86% or better and finished all p
ast work with at
least a B according to the rubric, he/she will earn a “B.”



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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
SEC

Copyright © 1988
-
2013

2.

If the student doesn’t master the outstanding unit according to the rubric during
current unit, the unit will be assessed with an H, W, or D. If a W is awarded then no
credit for

that unit may be obtained in the current calendar school year, but the student
still may participate in the AP exam in May.


Mandatory Assessments


A student will earn their grade according to the rubric found in each essential unit, but
each unit will co
nsist of three mandatory assessments to better prepare the student for
success on official AP exam. They include:


1.

Teacher generated multiple
-
choice exams. The majority of the questions
should require students to use higher order thinking skill of synthe
sis and
evaluation that allows the student to combine knowledge and skills across the
unit. The exam should be structured in a way that approximately 50% of the
exam includes diagrams, graphs, and/or laboratory data. Teachers may create
their own questio
ns or use questions from several published AP Biology
examination books.

2.

Teacher generated or AP published free
-
response question. Free response
questions can be generated directly from the teacher, or they may use in
-
text
critical thinking questions or

questions included in any AP Biology
examination book. However, the teacher would have to create a unique rubric
for each of these generated questions. Also, free
-
response questions can be
taken directly from AP Central site with pre
-
determined rubrics a
lready created
to follow.

3.

Laboratory write
-
up according to teacher’s instructions. Teachers may assign a
full lab report down to only answering questions posed in the laboratory
experiment depending on the laboratory experiment performed.


Additional Te
chnology Links


Each unit will have at least one technology link that corresponds to the material being taught.
Also, below are some general biology links that could be used within several units.




The
Biology Project:


This site has excellent bio links that include biochemistry,
genetics, developmental biology, cell bio, human bio and more.


Each link includes
tutorials and sample multiple
-
choice questions.




T
he Biology Place:


Click on
biology place

and then click on
biocoach
for the
excellent interactive tutorials and reviews of biological concepts.




McDougal Littell
Classzone Biology
: Great online resource with animations, virtual
labs, assessments and more.



Onine Biology Book
:
hosted by Estrella Mountain Community College in Arizona,

and written and maintained by Michael J. Farabee, PhD.



Wikipedia on Biology
:
try links in the introduction such as

Microbiology
,

Cellular
Biology
, and

Molecular Biology
)



MIT’s OpenCourseWare
:
(see specifically the
7.01x classes in the

Biology section
.)


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
SEC

Copyright © 1988
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2013



The On
-
line Medical Dictionary
: Excellent dictionary of medical and general
biological terms. It has a wo
nderful set of educational resources for biologists.



Access Excellence
:


Has a variety of teaching and student resources.



BSCS Blue Web
Resource:
This is a new site that is keyed to the honors biology
BSCS book.




AP Biology Web Page
:

This web page created by Chris Halloran from North Warren
High School comes

with a complete o
nline syllabus. It has excellent web links and
practice problems.



Biology Study Problems
:


This site has an excellent assortment of multiple choice
questions.


The questions are

linked to a college level text (different from ours), so are
most useful for AP students, since the answers can be accessed from the site.



LabWrite
:

A great resource for teaching students how to write lab r
eports.



Biologymad:

Useful websites related to Biology



Biology Junction Virtual Labs: An assortment of Pre
-
AP and AP virtual labs.


The
Scientific Method and Lab Reports
:

In addition to the lab activities and the abbreviated online lab reports, students will be
expected to write up more formal lab reports. These reports will be prepared individually and
will be peer reviewed. During peer r
eviews, students will upload their lab reports and see and
assess each other's reports. Students may also be required to assess the work of several other
students. Note that not every lab will require written lab report.


The Scientific Method
:

The Scienti
fic method is central to critical thinking and the development of scientific
conclusions. The following scientific method is based on IB and AP methodology for
teaching the Scientific Method.


I.

Design

a.

Observations of phenomenon

b.

Question

c.

Background

d.

Hypothesis

e.

Experiment (procedure)

f.

Variables

g.

Trials


II.

Data.

a.

Data Collection

i.


Qualitative data

ii.
Quantitative data

b. Data presentation/organization


III.

Conclusion / Evaluation

a.


Analysis

i.

Statistical

ii.

Critical review of data quality

b. Draw a conclusion


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
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Copyright © 1988
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2013

c. Tie the conclusion the hypotheses

d. Next steps / new question


Lab Report Format
:


General Comments:

• All final reports must be typed (except for the recording of raw data).

• Raw data and observations must be recorded as
neatly as possible in blue/black ink when
you are doing lab work. If you type your data later for the final report, attach the raw data
and observations recorded in lab as an addendum. If you record a number in error, mark
through it with 1 line (no erasur
es or whiteout).

• Include chemical reactions in the report, where applicable.

• Do not write in 1st person singular (don’t use ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘he’, etc…Example of an appropriate
statement: The acid was added to the beaker.)

• In your reports, be sure to gi
ve references as needed


Heading of first page:
write NAME, DATE, & LAB NAME in right
-
hand corner


Elements of the formal report:

Whenever writing a formal lab report, this format is the default format. Sometimes there will
be additional expectations t
hat attend an individual assignment. This report is to be written in
sections

as indicated below using the language forms indicated.


TITLE (descriptive)


BACKGROUND OR INTRODUCTION

• Explains observations, information given in class, and previous inform
ation that led you to
your question. You may include reasons for raising the question. If you changed the
question during the course of the experiment, because of what happened or failed to happen,
discuss the shift in this section. Write this section in
p
aragraph
form.


QUESTION

• Write your question in its final form. Use the
interrogative form.


HYPOTHESIS

• Explain how what you knew led you to your experimental design. Explain your assumptions
and reasoning but
not
the details of your steps.
Specifically describe the factors that are to
be controlled. Describe what you will watch, measure and use as your criterion. Describe
independent and dependent variables. If there was a shift of questions discussed above, your
hypothesis is to speak to th
e hypothesis that goes with your final question. Conclude your
discussion of the hypothesis with a
conditional statement
of your working hypothesis
(“If…, then…” statement relating independent and dependent variables)


MATERIALS

• List all materials
(not

in
sentence format)


PROCEDURES


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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
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Copyright © 1988
-
2013

• Describe the steps that you took as a set of numbered
statements.
Explain adjustments that
you made and the conditions that prompted these adjustments. Make your description
sufficiently clear that I could repeat your e
xperiment
and get the same results
that you got.

• Be certain to include quantities, dimensions, and other measurements that would be helpful
to a person trying to repeat your results.

• Procedural steps should be numbered and make use of an
economy of w
ords.

• Note any safety concerns.

• Specifically describe the factors that needed to be controlled including how control was
achieved. What factors did you monitor? If this is well covered in your hypothesis or
background, do not repeat yourself.

• Draw

a
diagram
of the experimental
plan
and refer to the diagram in your description.


RESULTS

• Consists of 2 parts: (label & write each individually)


(a)
Data Collection & Presentation:
• Data collected may be quantitative or qualitative

• Express the raw data by using a
data chart.
Be careful to report only what was observed
(even if unexpected), expressing the observation in measurable terms.

• Data tables should be properly formatted with title, labels on columns and rows, and units.

• Record uncertainties in your measurements

• Attach raw data to end of report (state that there is an attachment in your report)


(b) Data Processing & Presentation:
• Show the transformations of this raw data that you
used to bring meaning to your observations.


• To assist you in your interpretation, you may want to process your data by finding measures
of central tendency (mean, median, mode, standard deviation, ra
nge, domain, frequency)
and or statistical correlations to determine if any patterns exist.

• If the data can be expressed in the form of a graph, do so. Diagrams may be used.
All
graphs, tables, etc. should be clearly labeled (axes, title, units), points

should be clearly
plotted; graphs may be neatly hand drawn on graph paper, but it is highly recommend you
do them on Excel

• Calculations and other transformations should be placed in your paper in an easy to follow
manner
according to the style requirem
ents of the transformations
you have chosen. Show
at least one sample calculation of each type

• Make comparisons, note trends.


CONCLUSIONS
:


• Discuss how your results answer the question
in terms of your hypothesis.

• Discuss sources of error and the l
imitations of your conclusions. Resolve any alterations in
the question or hypothesis sections. In this section you are
evaluating your

data and its
interpretation. Write this section in
paragraph
form.

• Where applicable, compare experimentally determine
d results with literature value; note
reference

• Where applicable, calculate % error

• Review and evaluate the procedures you used. Explain how the procedure was successful as
well as how the procedures may have led to error. Suggest modifications to th
e design of the

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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
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Copyright © 1988
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2013

procedure that would have led to more reliable results and greater validity of conclusions.
Write this section in
paragraph
form.


Suggested Lab Report Rubric


Section Descriptions

A

B

P

Title




Describes the lab content concisely,
adequately,
and appropriately




Abstract




Summarizes each part of the lab in proper order




Overall sense is conveyed using minimal number
of words




Introduction (this section should include at
least 1 citation)




Identifies and explains the
scientific concepts
related to this lab




Presents objective(s) and goal(s) of the lab




States hypothesis and provides logical reasoning
for it




Methods




Describes the procedure used to gather data




Gives enough details to allow for
replication




Predicts measurable results that will support the
hypothesis including equations, if applicable




Results




Opens with effective statement of overall findings




Presents data table(s) with appropriate title(s) and
units




Presents
graph(s) with appropriate title(s), units,
axis determination, and spacing




Presents verbal narrative that summarizes all




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QSI AP BIOLOGY CO
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2013

figures used

Discussion




Opens with effective comparison of results and
hypothesis




Relates the specific data gathered in

the lab to the
scientific concepts mentioned in the introduction




Suggests specific areas for further investigation
that with either help to reconcile discrepancies
between your hypothesis or provide interesting
research to enhance your data




Conclusion




Restates the purpose of the lab by addressing
what has been learned




Summarizes results without details