Nanotechnology and The

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11 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Nanotechnology and The
Virus World

Definition of nanotech: The science and technology
of building electronic circuits from single atoms and
molecules


This year is to be expected to be the first in which the
money put into nanotechnology research and
development globally by industry will exceed the money
coming from the government.”


-

Chemical and Engineering News May 05



*Billions of dollars are being moved around

Current Molecular Motor
Innovations and Research


ATPase : Powerhouse producing a major quantity of
ATP from ADP but can also function backwards using
ATP for energy as well.


Work of Dr. Belcher: Currently looking towards complex
formations in nature on nanoscale. (How is an Abalone
shell made?) Also, she researches applying these
natural process to second generation electronical and
magnetic nanodevices.


Universal pronciples of motors. (Man made and natural)


Brief:

ATPase


Complex of nine different types
of proteins.


(12nm x12nm)


A shaft composed of six
proteins that rotate on an axis.
Hiroyuki Noji and colleges
proved this in Japan with
fluorescent marking, and
based on ATP concentration
and availability compared to
rotations per minute found a
close to 100% operating
efficiency.


“If the motor was as big as a
person it would be able to spin
a telephone pole 2 Km long
(1rev/sec).


Cornell sparked to harness this
tremendous power. 2 changes

Dr. Angela Belcher


Looks for patterns in
Nature, applies these
patterns to nano
-
biocomposites for second
generation materials, i.e.
Abalone shell has
evolved over long time to
form and control crystal
structures of
CaCO
3
,using protein
regulation (3000x
stronger than solid
CaCO
3
).


Evolve organisms, with
green chemistry.

Goals:

To find and create
biological molecules that
will “grow and assemble
electronic materials” in a
lab setting on nanoscale.
These molecules will
hopefully also serve as
self
-
corrective enzymes.


Examples: Diatoms


Algea (Coccolithophora)


Bacteriophage (pIII minor protien
manipulation)

Nanotechnology

What is it and were is it going

Definition: 1)
Nanotechnology

comprises any technological
developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1 to 100 nm. (One
nanometer equals one thousandth of a micrometer or one millionth of a
millimeter .) The term has sometimes been applied to any microscopic
technology.

2) The royal academy of engineering came up with a more modem
version in it report nanoscience and nanotechnologies. As the study of
phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and
macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those
at a larger scale; and nanotechnologies as the design, characterization,
production and application of structures, devices and systems by
controlling shape and size at the nanometer scale.

History

From genetic
engineering to
modern day

In 1959 Richard Feynman gave a talk entitled There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.

In 1974 Norio Taniguchi

describe the precision manufacture of materials with nanometer
tolerances

In 1986

K Eric Drexler, particularly in his book E
ngines of Creation: the Coming
Era of Nanotechnology
.

GENETIC ENGINEERING


In the 1950s

show that if you grew a particular

bacteriophage on stain A then not all of them died
and then if you grew that mutant survivor of stain A and then grew the phage on the mutants
there was a high survival rate.



1960 show that the mutant bacteria was incorporating the phage DNA into it’s own DNA.



This discovery led to a great leap in understanding of genetics



Nanoscience meets Genetics


Using virus to carry medicine into host cells.


Using RNA and DNA as a building blocks for the
future


Self replicating Nanobots.


Molecule Motors


Cures Cancer and Genetic disorders

Potential risks


Grey Goo


Water soluble fullerene molecules cause
brain damage


Many Nanoparticles are made for heavy
metals i.e. lead, gold and silver


Nano dust


Use of surface coating to prevent
breakdown.


What do I think the future will bring


Intercellular self replicating nanobots


New drug delivery systems


Use of nano tech it all aspects of are lifes


Nanotechnology will take of by leaps and
bounds in the next 10 years



Universal Motor Principles


Motors using force
production and translational
motion of load (i.e. myosin,
kinesin, dynein, RNA
polymerase, winches, and
rockets???!?!?) show linear
relationships on a Motor
mass v Maximum force
output graph


F = 887 (mass
0.667
)



*
Remember this

covers 27 orders of

magnitude of motor

mass, and units are

N/kg. r
2

= .994



Motors using cyclical
motion have more
multi
-
axial stress (flying
birds, bats and insects,
turbofans, turbines,
electric rotary motors,
and piston engines) and
also show linear
relationship.

F = 55 (mass
0.999
)



*

Mass
-
specific net
force output averaged


57 N/kg. r
2

= .999


Conclusion


Based on the research and current paradigm shift I ill give
three prediction for advancements in
Nanotechnology and
The Virus World.


Machines that will live in your blood stream and regulate
cancer cell lines and destroy unwanted mutations before
becoming fatal.


Viruses that are used as vectors for nanowires and
computer engineering of a different kind, using
biodegradable nontoxic means of nano
-
machinery
engineering.


Virus capsids will be used as models to the next generation
nanomachinery warehouse and delivery system.