Nanotechnology and The

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11 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Nanotechnology and The
Virus World

Definition of nanotech: The science and technology
of building electronic circuits from single atoms and

This year is to be expected to be the first in which the
money put into nanotechnology research and
development globally by industry will exceed the money
coming from the government.”


Chemical and Engineering News May 05

*Billions of dollars are being moved around

Current Molecular Motor
Innovations and Research

ATPase : Powerhouse producing a major quantity of
ATP from ADP but can also function backwards using
ATP for energy as well.

Work of Dr. Belcher: Currently looking towards complex
formations in nature on nanoscale. (How is an Abalone
shell made?) Also, she researches applying these
natural process to second generation electronical and
magnetic nanodevices.

Universal pronciples of motors. (Man made and natural)



Complex of nine different types
of proteins.

(12nm x12nm)

A shaft composed of six
proteins that rotate on an axis.
Hiroyuki Noji and colleges
proved this in Japan with
fluorescent marking, and
based on ATP concentration
and availability compared to
rotations per minute found a
close to 100% operating

“If the motor was as big as a
person it would be able to spin
a telephone pole 2 Km long

Cornell sparked to harness this
tremendous power. 2 changes

Dr. Angela Belcher

Looks for patterns in
Nature, applies these
patterns to nano
biocomposites for second
generation materials, i.e.
Abalone shell has
evolved over long time to
form and control crystal
structures of
,using protein
regulation (3000x
stronger than solid

Evolve organisms, with
green chemistry.


To find and create
biological molecules that
will “grow and assemble
electronic materials” in a
lab setting on nanoscale.
These molecules will
hopefully also serve as
corrective enzymes.

Examples: Diatoms

Algea (Coccolithophora)

Bacteriophage (pIII minor protien


What is it and were is it going

Definition: 1)

comprises any technological
developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1 to 100 nm. (One
nanometer equals one thousandth of a micrometer or one millionth of a
millimeter .) The term has sometimes been applied to any microscopic

2) The royal academy of engineering came up with a more modem
version in it report nanoscience and nanotechnologies. As the study of
phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and
macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those
at a larger scale; and nanotechnologies as the design, characterization,
production and application of structures, devices and systems by
controlling shape and size at the nanometer scale.


From genetic
engineering to
modern day

In 1959 Richard Feynman gave a talk entitled There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.

In 1974 Norio Taniguchi

describe the precision manufacture of materials with nanometer

In 1986

K Eric Drexler, particularly in his book E
ngines of Creation: the Coming
Era of Nanotechnology


In the 1950s

show that if you grew a particular

bacteriophage on stain A then not all of them died
and then if you grew that mutant survivor of stain A and then grew the phage on the mutants
there was a high survival rate.

1960 show that the mutant bacteria was incorporating the phage DNA into it’s own DNA.

This discovery led to a great leap in understanding of genetics

Nanoscience meets Genetics

Using virus to carry medicine into host cells.

Using RNA and DNA as a building blocks for the

Self replicating Nanobots.

Molecule Motors

Cures Cancer and Genetic disorders

Potential risks

Grey Goo

Water soluble fullerene molecules cause
brain damage

Many Nanoparticles are made for heavy
metals i.e. lead, gold and silver

Nano dust

Use of surface coating to prevent

What do I think the future will bring

Intercellular self replicating nanobots

New drug delivery systems

Use of nano tech it all aspects of are lifes

Nanotechnology will take of by leaps and
bounds in the next 10 years

Universal Motor Principles

Motors using force
production and translational
motion of load (i.e. myosin,
kinesin, dynein, RNA
polymerase, winches, and
rockets???!?!?) show linear
relationships on a Motor
mass v Maximum force
output graph

F = 887 (mass

Remember this

covers 27 orders of

magnitude of motor

mass, and units are

N/kg. r

= .994

Motors using cyclical
motion have more
axial stress (flying
birds, bats and insects,
turbofans, turbines,
electric rotary motors,
and piston engines) and
also show linear

F = 55 (mass


specific net
force output averaged

57 N/kg. r

= .999


Based on the research and current paradigm shift I ill give
three prediction for advancements in
Nanotechnology and
The Virus World.

Machines that will live in your blood stream and regulate
cancer cell lines and destroy unwanted mutations before
becoming fatal.

Viruses that are used as vectors for nanowires and
computer engineering of a different kind, using
biodegradable nontoxic means of nano

Virus capsids will be used as models to the next generation
nanomachinery warehouse and delivery system.