Chpt. 3: 節奏Rhythm Flow of music (events) through time

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Chpt. 3:
節奏
剨R瑨t


Flow of music (events) through time


Divides music into equal units of time


Recurrent pulsation


Beat


Grouping of beats

拍子
Meter


Accent: emphasis placed on beat/note

Accent and Syncopation


Syncopation: emphasis placed on an
unexpected note or beat

Chpt. 3: Rhythm


Associated with emotional effect


The speed of the beat, the pace

Tempo


Tempo indicated at beginning of piece


As with dynamics, Italian terms are used


Metronome

indicates exact tempo


Molto, non troppo, accelerando, ritardando

Chpt. 4:
記譜法
M畳u挠乯瑡N楯n


Written music stores information

Notating Pitch


Letter names: A B C D E F G


Allows absent (or even dead) composers
to communicate their ideas to others


Staff


Clef signs


Treble


Bass


Grand staff

Notating Pitch

Keyboard note naming

Chpt. 4
-
Music Notation

Keyboard note naming with notation

Notating Rhythm


Music notation indicates length of tone in relation to other
tones in the piece


How note
looks indicates
duration

Chpt. 4
-
Music Notation

Notating Silence


Rests

indicate
notated
silence

Notating Meter


Time signature

indicates the meter of a piece of music


Appears at beginning of piece


Appears again later if meter changes

Chpt. 4
-
Music Notation

The Score


Includes music for every instrument


Written as two numbers, one above other


Top number: how many beats in measure


Bottom number: what type note counts 1 beat

2

4

3

2


Common & cut time, duple & triple meter


Can include 20+ lines of music at once


See example p. 57

Chpt. 5:
旋律

䵥M潤o


A
series

of single notes that add up to a recognizable
whole


Begins, moves, ends


Tension & release


Stepwise vs. leap motion


Climax


Legato vs. staccato


Made of phrases (parts)


Sequence within melodies


Cadence: Complete vs. Incomplete

Chpt. 6:
和聲

䡡牭潮H


和絃的縱

(

)

向結構橫向行進的邏輯
周攠w慹 捨潲摳 慲攠
捯湳瑲畣t敤 慮搠桯w⁴桥礠景汬潷o敡捨e潴桥h


和絃
Chord:
是指三個或三個以上的音同時被奏出

3
or more tones
sounded at once


數個音的組合穩定平和
Stable, restful chords

consonant

和諧與不和諧音
Consonance and Dissonance


和絃是一群同時發出聲響的音
Chord is simultaneous tones


旋律是一連串先後有致的單音
Melody is series of individual
tones


Progression: how chords follow each other


數個音的組合不穩定時,便被稱為「不和諧」
Unstable, tense
chords

dissonant


不和諧組合的張力給予這些音程或和絃動力,以尋找穩定的組合,
此穩定的組合便是這個不和諧組合的「解決」
Resolution

movement away from dissonance


Degree of dissonance

more & less dissonant

三和絃
The Triad


最簡單和基本的和絃為「三和絃」
(
triad)
Simplest, most basic
chord


三個音所組成
Made up of three notes

Chpt. 6
-
Harmony

琵音
(
分解和絃
)
Broken Chords (Arpeggios)


和絃裡的音單獨依序被彈奏時


以音階中第一個音

主音

為根音的三和弦,稱為「主和絃」
Triad built on 1
st

scale note called
tonic


Pieces usually begin & end on this chord


最穩定和最有決定性的合弦
Most stable, restful chord


Triad built on 5
th

scale note: dominant


Dominant to tonic movement feels conclusive


Most unstable, tense chord


Notated on 3 adjacent lines or spaces

Chpt. 7:
調子

䭥K


旋律圍繞在一個主要的音上
Centering of a melody or
harmony around a central note


Whole steps and half steps occurring in
a predetermined order


Bright, happy sound

大音階
The Major Scale


Whole steps and half steps occurring in
another predetermined order


小調音階上的音樂通常是嚴肅而哀傷
Dark,
sad sound

小音階
The Minor Scale

調號
The Key Signature


曲子以大音階為主時稱此曲的調性為「大調」

Chpt. 7
-
Key

半音階
The Chromatic Scale


八度中的十二個音

within the octave


每一個大小調都有固定的升記號或降記號


Key signature notated at beginning of piece between clef sign and
time signature


固定的升降記號稱為「調號」
Also determines
key signature


曲子是以小音階為基準調性為「小調」

minor key


鋼琴上一個八度裡白鍵黑鍵加起來的音
Includes both black and white
piano keys


This scale does not define a key

轉調
Modulation: Change of Key


不同的調性能增加變化和對比
Provides contrast within longer
piece

Chpt. 7
-
Key

主調
Tonic Key


The main key of a piece


New tone and key becomes “home”


Modulation like temporary shift in
gravity


Modulations away usually return to the
tonic key


Return to tonic creates feeling of
conclusion


Return to tonic usually occurs near end of
piece

Chpt. 8:
音樂的織體

T數瑵牥


Layering of sound, how layers relate

單聲部音樂織體
Monophonic Texture


無伴奏的旋律線的音樂織體
Single, unaccompanied melody


Literally “one sound”

多聲部音樂織體
Polyphonic Texture


兩個或兩個以上具有相似重要性的旋律
2
or more equally important
melodies sounding simultaneously

主曲調音樂織體
Homophonic Texture


一條主旋律線由和絃來伴奏時
One melody with chordal
accompaniment

改變織體
Changes of Texture


Within a piece, creates variety and contrast

Listening

Farandole
from

L’Arlesienne


Suite No. 2 (1879)


by Georges Bizet



Listening Guide: page 82


Brief Set, CD 1:38



Note contrasting textures


Chpt. 8
-
Musical Texture

Chpt. 9:
樂曲形式


Organization of musical elements in time


Simple



A B A

建立音樂形式的技巧


反覆
Repetition

restating musical ideas


對比
Contrast

avoiding monotony w/ new ideas


變奏
Variation

reworking ideas to keep them new

樂曲形式的種類
Types of Musical Form


三段式曲式
Ternary


Subdivided


aba cdc aba


Subdivided


aba cdc


Subdivided


aba

Listening

Dance of the Reed Pipes


from
Nutcracker

Suite (1892)


by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky



Listening guide p. 68


Brief Set, CD 1:43



Note ternary form

Chpt. 9
-
Musical Form

Types of Musical Form

Binary

Chpt. 9
-
Musical Form


A B


A A B


A B B


A A B B

Listening

Forlane


from Suite No. 1 in C Major for Orchestra (1717
-
1723)


by Johann Sebastian Bach



Listening guide p. 70


Brief Set, CD 1:45



Note binary form


Chpt. 9
-
Musical Form

Chpt. 10: Performance


The Performer brings to life the printed symbols laid
out by the composer


The Conductor leads a group of musicians


Judging Performance: musicians can play the same
notes and yet make different statements in the way
that they perform.

Chpt. 11: Musical Style


Based upon time period and the continuous development
of music as an art form


Western art music can be divided into:


Middle Ages

450
-
1450


Renaissance

1450
-
1600


Baroque

1600
-
1750


Classical

1750
-
1820


Romantic

1820
-
1900


20
th

Century to 1945


1945
to present


Music of each these periods reflects the
society that supported it