Energy Efficient Data Gathering Algorithms in Sensor Networks

coachkentuckyΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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What is a Sensor Network?

Sensor networks

mainly constitute of
inexpensive sensors densely deployed
for data collection from the field in a
variety of scenarios

A sensor node is an autonomous device
with integrated sensing, processing, and
communication capabilities

Data gathering in Sensor Network

A typical application in sensor network is
gathering sensed data at a distant base

Each sensor node has power control and
the ability to transmit data to any other
sensor node or directly to the BS.

In each round of this data gathering
application, all data from all nodes need to
be collected and transmitted to the BS,
where the end user can access the data

The difficulties in collect and transmit
data in Sensor Network

Each node transmits its data directly to
the Base Station? Not suggested

BS is usually far away from sensors

such communication will be a high cost

and drain the power quickly

Sensor's battery is not replaceable, and
sensors may operate in hostile or remote

Energy consumption is considered as the
most important concern in sensor network

Approaches for Data Gathering

Direct Approach

Each sensor sends its data directly to the
base station

quickly drain the battery of the nodes and
reduce the system lifetime

the only receptions in this protocol occur at
the base station

Only the base station is close to nodes, or
the energy required to receive data is
large, direct approach

may be an
acceptable (and possibly optimal) method
of communication

MTE Based Approach

Nodes route data to the Base Station
through intermediate nodes

Intermediate nodes act as routers for other
nodes’ data and work as sensing nodes as

Intermediate nodes are chosen if and only
if the transmit amplifier energy

is minimized

Clustering Based Approach

Nodes are organized into groups, or say

Each cluster has a cluster head

Other nodes in the same cluster sends
data to its cluster head

Cluster heads transmit the data to the
Base Station

Only cluster heads can send data to the
Base Station

Clustering Based Approach (Continue)

Static &
Dynamic Clustering

The difference is the way to choose
cluster heads

Clustering Approach

has a fixed
cluster heads

Dynamic Clustering Approach has
dynamic cluster heads


An Example (Continue)

All nodes marked with the same symbol belong to the same

Cluster and the cluster
head nodes are marked with a


Chain Based Approaches

Each node receives from and transmits to close
neighbours and takes turns being the leader for
transmission to the Base Station

Assumed that all nodes have global knowledge of
the network and employ the greedy algorithm

Starts with the furthest node from the BS

that nodes farther from the Base Station have
close neighbours

Data gathering is performed in rounds. In each
round, each node receives data from one
neighbour, fuses with its own data, and transmits
to the other neighbour on the chain

Chain Based Approaches

An Example

node c(2) is the leader. Node c(0) will pass its data to node c(1).

Node c(1) fuses node c(0)’s data with its own

and then transmits to the leader.

Node c(3) and c(4) do the same thing.

Node c(2) waits to receive data from both neighbours c(1)

and c(3)

and then fuses its data with its neighbours’ data.

Finally, node c(2) transmits one message to the BS







Multiple Path


Multiple Path Construction

Data Forwarding Mechanism


Performance evaluation

NS 2 Simulation

200 Nodes

1000 m x 1000 m Area

Each simulation runs for 300 Seconds

Each Node transmission range 250 m

CBR 40 Bytes Sized Traffic

Energy at Each Node 10 J

Energy Transmitting Data 0.6W

Energy Receiving Data 0.3 W

Parameters Compared

Experiment 1

Comparison EDGM with AODV

a] Throughput

b] Nodal Life

Experiment 2

Energy Saving not considered.

Random Selection Technique was

a] Nodal Life in Dense Network,

b] Nodal Life in Sparse Network.

Throughput : EDGM vs. AODV

Nodal Life: EDGM vs. AODV

Nodal Life: Dense Network

Nodal Life: Sparse Network


Energy consumption is considered as
the most important concern.

It is hard to say which approach we
point in this paper is the best one. We
only choose the approach fitting for the
particular case.

Should talk more about there NS 2
Simulation should include Energy
Equations if any included.

Static and Dynamic nodes evaluation
should be included.