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VMware Notes


ESX/ESXi Log files


hos
t
d.log

and
messages



Contain entries made during bootup and while the system is running


ESX also has
vmkernel
,
vmksummary.txt

and
vmkwarning

log files



Track service console availability, VMkernel alerts, warning,
messages and ESX host
availability



Remote command prompt management



VMware
vSphere Command Line Interface

(
vCLI
) application



VMware vSphere Management Assistant

(vMA) virtual appliance

o

A platform for running a variety of toolkits such as vCLI, vSphere SD
K for Perl and
vSphere API



VMware vSphere PowerCLI

o

Automation tool for administering a vSphere environment

o

Distributed as a snap in to Windows Power Shell


vCenter Server Maximums



1,000 hosts



10,000 powered on VMs



15,000 registered VMs


vCenter S
ervices



Core Services



management of resources and VMs, task scheduling, statistics logging,

management of alarms and events, VM provisioning and host and VM configuration



Distributed Services



vMotion, DRS and HA


vCenter Hardware

and Software

Requirements



Two

64 bit CPUs or one 64 bit dual core processor (
2.0 GHz

or higher)



3GB

RAM minimum



3GB
disk storage minimum



Gigabit network recommended



64 bit OS


XP Pro 64 bit SP2, 2003 Enterprise SP2, 2008 R2 64 bit


vCenter Supported Databases



SQL 2005 and 2008



Oracle

10g and 11g



IBM DB2 9.5



SQL 2005 Express






vCenter Ports



443
-

HTTPS



80
-

HTTP



902


UDP heartbeat



8080
-

Web Services HTTP



8443
-

Web Services HTTPS



60099


Web services change service notification



389


LDAP



636


SSL


vCenter
Java Virtual Machine (
JVM
)

Memory



VMware VirtualCenter
Management
Webservices



Requires 1
-
4GB of additional memory



1GB for less than 100 hosts



4GB for more than 400 hosts


vCenter Windows Services



VMware Mount Service for Virtual Center



Used during guest OS customization

such
as
cloning or deploying from a template.



VMware vCenter Orchestrator Configuration



Used for Orchestrator which is a
workflow engine that helps admins automate existing manual tasks.



VMware VirtualCenter Management Webservices



Allows configuration

of vCenter
management services.



VMware VirtualCenter Server




VMwareVCMSDS


Provides vCenter Server LDAP directory services.



vCenter Plugins



vCenter Storage Monitoring



Allows vCenter Server to monitor and report on

storage

and adds the
Storage Views

tab to the vSphere client



vCenter Service Status

(health status)


adds the vCenter Service Status icon to the

Administration panel in the vSphere client



vCenter Hardware Status


Allows vCenter to display the hardware status of the

hosts

and adds the
Hardware Status tab to the vSphere client.



vCenter Server uses the root account to add hosts to the inventory and creates a special user
account named
vpxuser

for all future authentication


Lockdown Mode

(ESXi only)


Disables remote access for the admin
istrator account to ensure
the
host is only managed by vCenter


You can add ESX 2.5.x and later as well as ESXi 3.5 and later

hosts to the vCenter Inventory





VPXA Process



vCenter Server agent that pr
ovides access to ESX/ESXi hosts



Resides on ESX/ESXI
host
-

Installed when the host is added to vCenter



Vpxa

process communicates with the host agent known
as the
hostd

process to relay

the tasks to perform on the host
.



It’s

n
ot used if logged in directly to the host but instead communications use hostd

di
rectly


vCenter can also manage licenses for legacy hosts such as ESX 3.x and ESX
i

3.5 using a separate
license server.


You can’t have 2 Virtual switches (Layer 2 devices) mapped to the same physical NIC.

You can have 2 or more physical NICs mapped to the

same virtual switch.


Standard virtual switch



Maximum of
4,088

virtual switch ports per switch



Maximum of
4,096

virtual switch ports per host



120

switch ports created by default



Virtual switch ports used for VM connections and for uplinks to physical NICs



Some ports used for internal purposes by the VMkernel


VLANs



Can be configured at the port group level



ESX/ESXi host
s provide

VLAN support through virtual switch tagging (gives a port group
a VLAN ID)

o

VMkernel then takes care of all the tagging



A switch p
ort on the physical host must be define
d

as a static trunk port



No VLAN configuration is needed on the VM


Network Policies



Security, Traffic shaping and NIC teaming



Defined at the standard virtual switch level for the entire switch



Can also be defined for

a VMkernel port, VM port group and ESX service console



Policies defined for an individ
ual port or port group override

the default policies defined
for the switch.







Network security policy exceptions



Promiscuous Mode



when set to reject, placing a gu
est adapter in promiscuous mode
has no effect on which frames are received by the adapter (default is
Reject
)

o

Set
Promiscuous mode

to
Accept

if you want to use an application in a VM that
analyzes of sniffs packets.



MAC Address Change



When set to Reject, if the guest attempts to change the MAC
address assigned to the virtual NIC, it stops receiving the frames. (default is
Accept
)



Forged Transmits



When set to Reject, the virtual NIC drops any frames that the guest

sends, where the s
ource address field contains a MAC address other than the assigned
virtual NIC MAC address (default is
Accept
)



Set
MAC Address Changes

and
Forged Transmits

to
Reject

to help protect against
certain attacks launched by a rouge guest operating system.



Leave
MAC Address Changes

and
Forged Transmits

at their default values of
Accept

if
you applications change the mapped MAC address.


Traffic shaping shapes outbound network traffic only when used on a stand
ard virtual switch



Off by default


ESX/ESXi hosts shape outbound traffic only by establishing parameters for 3 traffic
characteristics:
Average Bandwidth
,
Peak Bandwidth

and
Burst Size
.



Establish the policy at the virtual switch level or the port group level



Settings at the port group level

override the settings at the switch level

Average Bandwidth



Establishes the number of
kilobits

per second to allow across a port, averaged over
time.



The average bandwidth is the allowed average load.

Peak Bandwidth



The maximum number of
kilobits

per sec
ond to allow across a port when it is sending a
burst of traffic.



This tops the bandwidth used by a port whenever the ports is using it burst bonus.

Burst Size



The maximum number of
kilobytes

to allow in a burst.



If this parameter is set, a port might gain

a burst bonus if it does not use all its allocated
bandwidth.


NIC Teaming



Policies include load balancing and failover settings



Default policies are set for the entire Standard Switch



Policies can be overridden at the port group level



Virtual Port ID
load balancing



a VMs outbound traffic is mapped to a specific physical
NIC. This method is simple and fast and does not require the VMkernel to examine the
frame for necessary information.



MAC Hash load balancing



Each VMs outbound traffic is mapped to
a specific physical
NIC’s MAC address. This method has low overhead and is compatible with all switches
but may not spread traffic evenly across physical NICs.



IP Hash load balancing



A NIC for each outbound packet is chosen based on its source
and destin
ation IP address. This method has higher CPU overhead but a better
distribution of traffic across physical NICs.

It also requires 802.3ad link aggregation
support or EtherChannel on the switch.


Network failure is detected by the VMkernel, which monitors:



Link state only



Detects cable pulls and physical switch failures. Doesn’t detect
configuration errors.



Link

state plus beaconing



VMkernel sends out and listens for probe packets on all
NICs in the team

Switches can be notified whenever:



There is a fail
over event



A new virtual NIC is connected to the virtual switch

Failover implemented by the VMkernel based on configurable parameters:



Failback



Determines how a physical adapter is returned to active duty after recovering
from a failure
. If set to Yes, t
he failed adapter is returned to active duty immediately
after recovery, displacing the standby adapter that took its place. If set to No, the failed
adapter is left inactive after recovery until needed.



Load

balancing option: Use explicit failover order



Always use the highest order uplink
from the list of active adapters that pass failover detection criteria.



VMFS



A clustered file system that allows multiple physical servers to read and write to the
same storage simultaneously.



A VMFS datastore can be
configured to use an 8MB block size to support virtual disk
files up to 2TB.



A VMFS datastore uses subblock addressing to make efficient use of storage for small
files.


NFS



File sharing protocol used to communicate with a NAS device



NFS datastores are tre
ated like VMFS datastores



can hold VM files, ISOs, templates
and use vMotion etc.



ESX/ESXi supports NFS version 3 over TCP only



ESX/ESXi hosts do not use the standard Network Lock Manager (NLM) protocol



VMware uses its own locking protocol. NFS locks are

implemented by creating lock files
on the NFS server. Lock files are named
.lck
-
<fileID>,

where <fileID> is the value of the
fileID field. The lock file generates small 84
-
byte WRITE requests to the NFS server.


RDM


Raw Device Mapping



Acts as a proxy
for a raw physical device



Stores data directly on a raw LUN



Can be used for data, VM clustering and storage array snapshots



Allows you to use your existing SAN commands to manage storage for the disk



Used when clustering VMs using Microsoft Clustering Serv
ice (MSCS)



A VMFS datastore can be used to hold RDMs that point to raw iSCSI volumes.


Thin provisioning disks can reduce the cost of storage for virtual environments by up to 50%.


SCSI Storage Devices



Use a SCSI ID


The unique address of a SCSI device



Canonical name



The Network Address Authority ID. Globally unique identifiers that

are persistent across system reboots.



The T10 identifier is another unique identifier. It can appear on any SCSI device.

They always begin with the string
t10



mpx

is a VMw
are namespace that is used when no other valid namespaces can
be obtained from the LUN. It is not globally unique or persistent across reboots.



Runtime

name is the name of the first path to the device. It is created by the host. It is
not reliable or persi
stent.


ESX/ESXi support 2 types of IP storage



iSCSI


Used to hold one or more VMFS datastores



NFS


Used to hold one or more NFS datastores



Both support vSphere features like vMotion, HA and DRS

ESX/ESXi supports:



Up to 64 NFS volumes



iSCSI or NFS over
a 10GbE interface



iSCSI or NFS in an IPv6 environment (experimental only)

ESX/ESXi supports booting from an iSCSI SAN



ESX hosts: From
independent

hardware iSCSI



ESXi hosts: From software iSCSI and
dependent

hardware iSCSI



The network adapter
must support

only the iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) format.


The ESX/ESXi host is configured with a software or hardware iSCSI initiator



Hardware is an iSCSI HBA



Software is an iSCSI Initiator



Software initiator is VMware code built into the VMkernel.



Hardware init
iator is a 3
rd

party adapter capable of accessing iSCSI storage over TCP/IP



The Dependent hardware initiator depends on VMware networking and on iSCSI
configuration and management interfaces provided by VMware. You need to bind the
adapter and an appropria
te VMkernel iSCSI port.



An independent hardware adapter handles all the iSCSI and network processing and
management for the ESX/ESXi host.


LUN Masking is available for iSCSI and works the same as in Fibre Channel.


Ethernet switches don’t use Zones like F
C but rather use VLANs instead.


iSCSI Names



iSCSI qualified name (IQN) or the Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)


IQN

-

iSCSI qualified name



Can be up to 255 characters long



Uses the prefix
iqn



Has a date code specifying the year and month in which the
organization registered the
domain or subdomain uses as the naming authority string



Has an organizational naming authority string which consists of a valid, reversed domain
or subdomain name



May have a colon (:) followed by a string of the assigning organi
zation’s choosing



Example
-

iqn.2001
-
04.com.example
or

iqn.2001
-
04.com.example:storage.disk2.sys1.xyz


EUI
-

Extended Unique Identifier



Uses the prefix
eui

followed by a 16 character name. The name includes 24 bits for a
company name that is assigned by th
e IEEE and 40 bits for a unique ID, such as a serial
number



Example
-

eui.02004567A425678D


Configuring a iSCSI software initiator



Create a VMkernel port

on a virtual switch



Enable the software iSCSI initiator



Configure one or more target discovery
addresses so that the iSCSI initiator can
determine which storage resources on the network is available for access. You cannot
change the IP address, iSCSI name, or port number of an existing target. To make
changes, remove the target and make a new one



Co
nfigure Challenge Handshake
Authentication

Protocol (CHAP)

if needed.



ESX/ESXi supports per
-
target CHAP where you use different credentials for each target
(Software iSCSI only)








ESX/ESXi supports two iSCSI target discovery methods



Static Discovery



The initiator does not need to perform discovery. It knows in advance
all the targets it will be contacting and uses their IP addresses and domain names to
communicate with them.



Dynamic Discovery (SendTargets discovery)



Each time the initiator contacts

a
specified iSCSI server; it sends the SendTargets request to the server. The server
responds by supplying a list of available targets to the initiator. The names and IP
addresses of these targets appear as static in the vSphere client.



CHAP



Unidirectional (one way CHAP)



the target authenticates the initiator, but the initiator
does not authenticate the target. You specify the CHAP secret.

(Hardware and software
iSCSI).



Bidirectional (mutual CHAP)



The initiator is able to authenticate the
target as well
(Software iSCSI only).



Only Unidirectional CHAP is available for hardware initiators


Configuring the iSCSI initiator



Install the iSCSI hardware adapter



Modify the iSCSI name and configure the iSCSI alias



Configure iSCSI target addresses



Con
figure iSCSI security (CHAP)


NFS Privileges



NFS privileges are assigned to the root user



When
root_squash

is on, the NFS server treats access by the root

user as access by any
unprivileged user and might refuse the ESX/ESXi host access to VM files stored
on the
NFS volume.



You must use the

no_
root_squash

option instead to export an NFS volume. It allows the
root user to be recognized as root.



The NFS administrator must allow read and write privileges to the NFS datastore with
no_
root_squash

if
you are depl
oying VMs on the NFS datastore.


Configuring an NFS Datastore



Separate it from the iSCSI network for better security and performance



Provide the NFS server name or IP address



Provide the folder on the NFS server



Choose whether to mount the NFS file system
read
-
only or not. Use read
-
only for ISO
libraries and read/write for VMs



Choose the NFS datastore name


To see NFS datastores go to the Storage Views tab and display the Show all NAS Mounts


To unmount an NFS datastore right click the datastore and select
Unmount

or select the
datastore and click the
Delete

link.


Fibre Channel



ESX/ESXi supports 8Gb Fibre Channel and Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)



You can boot ESX/ESXi from a Fibre Channel SAN LUN


The BIOS of the Fibre Channel
adapter must be configur
ed with the World Wide Name (WWN) and LUN number of the
boot device.


A Fibre Channel SAN consists of:



Storage System



Physical hard disks (array) and one or more intelligent controllers. The
storage system supports the creation of LUNs (logical volumes)



LUN



The address of a logical unit (LU). An LU can be a JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks)
, a
RAID set or part of a storage container



Storage Processor



A storage processor can partition a JBOD or RAID set into one or
more LUNs. Each connection is referenced b
y the HBA’s WWN.



HBA



Connects the ESX/ESXi host to the Fibre Channel network. A minimum of 2 HBA
adapters are used for FT



Fibre Channel Switches



One or more Fibre Channel switches form the Fibre Channel
fabric. The Fibre Channel fabric interconnects mu
ltiple nodes.


Soft Zoning



Controls LUN visibility per WWN and is done at the Fibre Channel switch


Hard Zoning



The control of storage processor visibility per switch port


Fabric Zoning



Controls target presentation and tells an ESX/ESXi host whether

a target exists


WWNs are assigned by the manufacturer of the SAN. HBAs and storage processors have WWNs.
They are used to identify equipment for zoning purposes.


LUN Masking



Controls LUN visibility per host. Can be done in the ESX/ESXi host or at the
storage processor level (more secure and better data integrity)


The VMkernel scans for LUNs 0
-
255 (256 total). You can’t have a LUN with an ID over 256.


The
Storage Views

tab

allows you to review associations between all storage entities available
in vCenter and analyze storage usage.

Reports are updated every 30 minutes.






VMFS



Use VMFS 3 datastores whenever possible



VMFS is optimized for storing and accessing large files



A VMFS can have a maxi
mum volume size of 64 TB (32 x 2
TB
-
512k extents)



Offers some functions that NFS doesn’t support



Use RDMs if your VM is performing SAN snapshotting, is clustered using MSCS or has
large amounts of data that you don’t want to convert i
nto a virtual disk


You cannot store an RDM on an NFS datastore but you can store an RDM on a VMFS datastore


You cannot use MSCS to cluster a VM that resides on a NFS datastore


Overcommitted datastore

-

When there are many thin provisioned virtual disks
that use close
to their allotted disk space.


Increasing the size of a VMFS datastore



Add an extent to the VMFS datastore. You can add any extent to any VMFS datastore up
to 32 extents



Expand the VMFS datastore. Increase the size of the VMFS datastore
within its extent if
it has free space


To expand a RDM’s underlying raw LUN on the array, you have to remove the RDM and re
-
create it


Deleting a VMFS datastore permanently deletes the pointers to the files on the datastore, so
the files cannot be retriev
ed


Multipathing allows continued access to SAN LUNs in the event of hardware failure and also
provides load balancing


Hardware iSCSI

Multipathing



Use 2 or more hardware iSCSI adapters


Software or dependent hardware iSCSI

Multipathing



Use multiple NICs



C
onnect each NIC to a separate VMkernel port



Associate VMkernel ports with
an
iSCSI initiator

so that each VMkernel port connected
to a separate NIC becomes a different path


Multiple paths can exist to a datastore on an ESX/ESXi host



Click the host’s
Confi
guration

tab



Click the
Storage

link



Right click the datastore and select
Properties



Click Manage Paths


Path selection policies



Fixed



The host always uses the preferred path to the disk when that path is available.
Fixed is the default policy for active
-
active storage devices.



Most Recently Used



The host uses the most recent path to the disk until this path
becomes unavailable.
The
host does not revert back to the preferred path. Most
Recently Used is the default and required type for active
-
passive storage devices.



Round Robin



The host uses a path
-
selection algorithm that rotates through all
available paths. RR supports load balan
cing across the paths.


Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA)



A VMkernel layer responsible for managing multiple storage paths



A collection of VMkernel APIs that allow third party vendors to insert code directly into
the ESX/ESXi storage I/O path (multipath
ing plug
-
ins MPPs)



VMware provides a generic M
P
P by default called Native Multipathing Plug
-
in (NMP)



When naming VMs, its best practice to avoid using special characters including spaces in the
name since the VM name is used to name the files that make
up the VM.


Files that make up a V
irtual Machine



<VM_name>.vmx



Virtual machine configuration file



<VM_name>.vmdk



File describing virtual disk characteristics



<VM_name>.
-
flat.vmdk



Pre
-
allocated virtual disk file that contains the data



<VM_name>.nvram



Virtual machine BIOS



Vmware.log

&
vmware
-
#.log



Virtual machine log file and files containing old virtual
machine log entries



<VM_name>.vswp



Virtual machine swap file



<VM_name>.vmsd



File that describes the virtual machine’s snapshots



<Template_Name
>.vmtx



Virtual machine template configuration file



If a VM is converted to a template, a virtual machine template configuration file (.vmtx)
replaces the virtual machine configuration file (.vmx)



If a VM has more than one disk file, the file pair for the

second disk file and later is
named
<VM_name>
_#
.vmdk

and

<VM_name>
_#
.
-
flat.vmdk

where # is the next
number in the sequence starting with 1.



6 of the archive log files are maintained at any one time. Name
-
1.log, name
-
2.log etc.


A virtual disk consists of
2 files



The .vmdk files which describes the virtual disk’s characteristics



A

flat.vmdk file which contains the virtual disk’s data



The datastore browser only shows the .vmdk file


You can add multiple USB devices to a VM that resides on an ESX/ESXi host t
o which the device
is physically attached. The device is only available to VMS that reside on that host. A USB device
is available to only one VM at a time.


VMware virtual SNP allows you to take advantage of configuring a virtual machine with up to 8
virt
ual CPUs, allowing larger CPU
-
intensive workloads to run on ESX/ESXi hosts.


Adding the first virtual disk to a VM implicitly adds a virtual SCSI adapter for it to be connected.
ESX/ESXi offers a choice of adapters:



BusLogic Parallel



LSI Logic Parallel



LSI

Logic SAS



VMware Paravirtual




Independent disk mode



Persistent



Use if you want changes to be immediately and permanently written to disk



Nonpersistent



Use if you want to discard changes when the VM
is
powered off or
reverted to a snapshot




Virtual Machine Network Adapters



Flexible



Functions as a
vlance

adapter i
f

VMware tools is not installed on the VM. It
functions as a
vmxnet

driver if VMware tools are installed on the VM
.



vlance



An emulated version of the AMD 79C970 PCnet32 LANCE NIC. Drivers
are
available in most 32 bit operating systems
.



vmxnet


A virtual network adapter that has no physical counterpart or vendor drivers
and is optimized for performance in a VM. The VM needs

to have VMware tools
installed
.



e100



An emulated version of the Intel 8254EM Gigabit Ethernet NIC with drivers
available in most newer operating systems. It’s the default adapter for 64 bit guest
operating systems.



vmxnet2 (Enhanced vmxnet)


Based on t
he vmxnet adapter but provides high
performance features commonly used on modern networks such as jumbo frames and
hardware off
-
loads.



vmxnet3


The next generation of paravirtualized NIC designed for performance. It’s not
related to vmxnet or vmxnet2. It

offers all the features of vmxnet2 plus multiqueue
support (Receive
-
Side Scaling in Windows), IPv6 off
-
loads, MSI/MSI
-
X interrupt delivery,
fault tolerance and record/replay. Only supported by a limited set of guest operating
systems and only available on

VMs with hardware version 7



The virtual CD/DVD drive can point to:



The CD/DVD drive or floppy drive of the ESX/ESXi host



A CD/DVD IS
O

image or floppy (.flp) image



The CD/DVD or floppy on your local system


Features of VMware Tools



Device Drivers

o

SVGA di
splay

o

Bus Logic SCSI driver

o

vmxnet/vmxnet3

o

Balloon driver for memory management

o

Sync driver for quiescing I/O

o

VMware mouse driver



Virtual Machine Heartbeat



Time Synchronization



Ability to shut down a virtual machine



VMware Tools control panel



Scripts to
help automate guest operating system operations



VMware user process


lets you copy/paste




Virtual Appliances



Typically includes a preinstalled guest OS



VAs are deployed as an Open Virtual Machine (OVF) template.



To import VA go to
File>Browse VA marketp
lace

then complete the deploy OVF
template wizard to download it and add it to the vCenter Server inventory



vSphere client allows you to import and export any file in OVF format



Specify OVF filename or URL that points to the file



Exp
orting VMs allows you t
o create

virtual appliances that can be imported by other
users


VMs can be changed into templates without the need to make a full copy of the virtual machine
files and the creation of a new object


You can create a template by:



Cloning a VM to a template



Converting a VM to a template



Cloning a template


When you clone a VM to a template, the original VM is maintained.

When you convert a VM to a template, the original VM is replaced by the template.

When you clone a template, you make a copy of a template.


Clone

to Template offers you the choice of format in which to store the VMs virtual disks



Same format as source



Thin provisioned disk



Thick format


Convert

to Template does not offer a choice and leaves the VMs disk file intact.


View templates from the
VMs and Templates inventory view or from Hosts and Clusters view by
selecting a container and clicking its Virtual Machines tab.


To deploy a VM from a template, right click the template and choose
Deploy Virtual Machine
from this Template
.


To convert a t
emplate to a VM, go to the VMS and Templates inventory view. Right click the
template and select
Convert to Virtual Machine
. You can also use the vCenter Update
Manager.


You can’t clone a VM if connected directly to an ESX/ESXi host.



When you clone a V
M that is powered on, services and applications are not automatically
quiesced when the VM is cloned.



When you clone a VM or deploy from template, you can customize its guest OS
beforehand
.



Use the Guest Customization wizard during cloning or deployment.



Or create customization specifications and apply to the new VM



vCenter must be configured for customizations



For Windows 2000, XP and 2003 you must install the Sysprep tools on the vCenter
Server



Sysprep tools are built into Vista and 2008



You can provis
ion VMs across datacenters in vCenter. You can also create a template in one
datacenter and then deploy a VM from that template into a different datacenter.


vCenter Converter tasks



Converts physical machines to VMSs



Convert and import VMs created by
VMware Workstation or Microsoft Virtual Server
2005



Convert third party backup or disk images to vCenter VMs



Restore VMware Consolidated Backup images to vCenter VMs



Export vCenter VMs to other VMware VM formats



Reconfigure vCenter VMs so they are bootable



Customize vCenter VMS


vCenter Converter Components



vCenter Converter Server



Enables the import and export of VMs . Install it on a
vCenter Server or an independent server with access to vCenter Server



vCenter Converter agent



Prepares a powered on phy
sical or virtual machine for
import



vCenter Converter client



Plugin which provides access to the vCenter Converter
Import, Export and Reconfigure wizards from the vSphere Client.



Converter and Converter Client only run on Windows



Converter supports Windo
ws and Linux for importing and exporting



Installation file


100MB



vCenter Converter client


25MB



vCenter Converter server


300MB



vCenter Converter agent


100MB



When performing a hot clone
\
live clone
, vCenter Converter requires 350MB on the
source machi
ne



vCenter Converter supports only pure IPv4 or IPv6 environments and the source,
destination and vCenter Converter server and agent must run the same version of IP


vCenter Converter uses cloning and the destination virtual disk might not be an exact copy

of
the source disk


4 stages of hot cloning performed by vCenter Converter



Preparing the source machine for conversion

o

vCenter Converter installs the vCenter Converter

agent on the source machine

o

The agent then takes a

snapshot of the source volume

o

vCenter Converter creates the snapshot with Microsoft’s Volume Snapshot
Service (VSS)



Preparing the VM on the destination machine

o

vCenter Converter creates a new VM on the destination ESX/ESXi host



Completing the conversion process

o

vCenter Converter instal
ls required drivers to allow the OS to boot in the virtual
machine



Cleaning Up

o

The agent removes all traces from the source machine. The VSS snapshot
created in stage one is deleted and the
vCenter Converter agent is uninstalled
from the source



The Impor
t Machine wizard allows you to import from the following sources



Powered on machine (physical or virtual)



VMware infrastructure VM



VMware Workstation or other VMware VM



Backup image or third party VM supported by vCenter Converter



Hyper
-
V Server VM


Data i
s copied to the destination using volume
-
based or disk
-
based cloning

during importing



Volume
-
based cloning

o

Used for hot cloning and importing existing VMs

o

All volumes in the destination VM are basic volumes regardless of the source
volume

o

Volume based
cloning at the file level is when you specify a size smaller than the
original volume

o

Volume based cloning at the block level is performed when you specify the same
or a larger volume

size

o

Supports all types of source volumes that Windows recognizes



Disk
-
b
ased cloning

o

Transfers all sectors from all disks and preservers all volume metadata

o

The destination VM receives the same partitions, of the same type, as the
partitions of the source VM

o

All volumes on the source machine’s partitions are copied as they are

o

Disk based cloning supports all types of basic and dynamic disks


VM importing supports basic
and dynamic volumes except RAID
, Windows NT 4 fault
-
tolerant
and

GUID partition table volumes.


Importing services



You can select which services to stop before v
Center Converter synchronizes the data
between the source and destination machine.


You can transfer data for the second time by copying only the changes made during the first
transfer of data. This process is called synchronization.

Only available for Wi
ndows XP or later
source operating systems.


Settings that remain identical include operating systems configuration, computer name, SID,
user accounts, profiles, preferences, applications and data files, and the volume serial number
for each disk partition
.



Modifying VM Settings



CPU hot plug


add CPU and memory to a VM while its powered on (enabled by default)



You must install VMware Tools and the VM must use hardware version 7 or later



The guest OS in the VM must support CPU and memory hot plugging



The
hot plug option must be enabled in the Options tab of the VM’s properties


You can increase the size of a virtual disk that belongs to a VM that is powered on if it is a flat
virtual disk in persistent mode and the VM does not have snapshots.


Raw Device
Mapping (RDM)



When you create a raw device mapping, vCenter Server creates a file in the specified
VMFS volume that points to the raw LUN



Encapsulating disk information in the file (the RDM) allows the VMkernel to lock the
LUN so that only one virtual mach
ine can write to it.



An RDM supports 2 compatibility modes:

o

Physical Compatibility mode



Allows the guest OS to access the hardware directly. Useful if you are
using SAN
-
aware applications in the VM



Cannot be cloned, made into a template or migrated if the
migrations
involves copying to the disk

o

Virtual Compatibility mode



Allows the VM to use VMware snapshots and other advanced
functionality.



Allows the LUN to behave as if it were a virtual disk



Can be cloned or made into a template (content of LUN copied to

a
virtual disk file
-

.vmdk
)


Virtual Machine Snapshots



Organized in a linear process or as a process tree



Linear Process



Each snapshot has one parent and one child, except for the last
snapshot which has no children



Process Tree



Each snapshot has one

parent, but one snapshot can have more than
one child


A snapshot captures the entire state of the VM at the time you take the snapshot including:



Memory State



The contents of the VMs memory (if powered on)



Settings State



The VMs settings



Disk State



The state of all the VMs disks


In the Snapshot Manager you can do 3 things:



Delete



Commits the snapshot data to the parent snapshot and then removes the
selected snapshot



Delete All



Commits all the intermediate snapshots before the current state icon (You
are here) to the base disk and removes all snapshots for that VM



Go to



Allows you to restore, or revert to, a particular snapshot. The snapshot you
restore to becomes the curren
t snapshot



A virtual machine

can have one or more snapshot
s
. Each snapshot consists of:



Memory state file

-

<VM_name>
-
Snapshot#.vmsn

where # is the next numb
er the
sequence starting with 1



Snapshot description file
-

<VM_name>
-
00000.vmdk



This file is a

small text file that
contains information about the snapshot



Snapshot delta file
-

<VM_name>
-
00000#
-
delta.vmdk



This file contains changes to
the virtual disk’s data at the same time the snapshot was taken


<VM_name>.vm
sd

is the snapshot list file, creat
ed at the time the VM is created. It contains
information about all the snapshots that belong to the VM. This information includes the name
of the snapshot
.vmsn

file and the name of the virtual disk file


To create a vApp, use the New vApp wizard and then

modify its settings



Resource allocation


Determines how CPU and memory should be allocated for the
vApp



IP allocation policy



Determines how IP addresses are allocated for the vApp

o

Fixed (static)

o

DHCP

o

Transient


IP addresses are automatically allocated

using IP pools from a
specified range


The distribution format for a vApp is OVF



When you delete a VM from a datastore, it is removed from vCenter Server and all VM files are
deleted from the datastore


Concurrent VM migrations



A host can be involved in up to
2

migrations with vMotion or Storage vMotion at one
time



A maximum of
8

simultaneous vMotion, cloning, deployment, or Storage vMotion
access to a single
VMFS
-
3

datastore is supported

o

Maximum of
4
for a
NFS

or
VMFS
-
2

datastore



Comparison of Migration Types




Storage Tiering



Migrating VMs from Fibre Channel to iSCSI or NAS or within or between
enclosures with Storage vMotion


Upgrading datastores without VM downtime with Storage vMotion



You can migrate running VM
s from a
vMFS
-
2

datastore to a
VMFS
-
3

datastore and
upgrade the VMFS
-
2 datastore without affecting VMs




Storage vMotion limitations:



VMs with snapshots cannot be migrated with Storage vMotion



VM disk must be in persistent mode or be RDMs



You can’t do a v
Motion and Storage vMotion at the same time with the VM powered on



Access Control



Defined with the following concepts



Privilege



The ability to perform a specific action or read a specific property



Role



A collection of privileges



Object



An entity upon which actions are performed



User or Group



A user or group who can perform the action



The combination of a role, a user or group and an object equals a
permission


Users who are in the Active Directory group ESX Admins are automatically
assigned the
Administrator role. On ESXi you can use the Direct Console User Interface (DCUI) and technical
support mode to log in with AD accounts.


vCenter Server and ESX/ESXi hosts manage their own set of roles. A role that is created on the


vCenter S
erver is
not

visible to an ESX/ESXi host if a user logs in directly to a host.


A role is assigned to a user or group

All roles are independent of one another


Objects are entities on which actions are performed



Objects include datacenters, folders, resour
ce pools, clusters, hosts, datastores,
networks and virtual machines

All objects have a Permissions tab



This tab shows which user or group and role are associated with the selected object


To assign a permission:



Select a user



Select a role



Propagate the
permission to child objects (Optional)


You can view all of the objects to which a role was assigned and all of the users or groups who
were granted the roles (
Home>Administration>Roles
)


You can override permissions set at a higher level by explicitly
setting different permissions for
a lower level object


When a user is a member of multiple groups, and these groups have permissions on the same
object in the inventory, the user is assigned the union of privileges assigned to the groups for
that object.


Permissions defined explicitly for the user on an object take precedence over a user’s group
permissions on that same object.


Mechanisms for optimizing virtual machine resource use (3 groups)



Mechanisms that are managed by the VMkernel



Mechanisms that ar
e used at the discretion of each virtual machine’s owner



Mechanisms that are used by the vSphere administrator to set policies for virtual
machines


Resource management

is the allocation of resources from providers (hosts, clusters, and
resource pools) to
consumers (virtual machines)
.

Resources include CPU, memory, storage and
network


Resource allocation settings



CPU and memory is controlled by using
shares
,
limits

and
reservations



Storage I/O is controlled by using shares and limits

A virtual machine has
3 user defined settings that affect its CPU resource allocation:



CPU limit

defines the maximum amount of CPU, measured in megahertz, that this VM is
allowed



CPU reservation

defines the amount of CPU, measured in megahertz, reserved for the
VM when CPU cont
ention occurs



Shares

specify the relative priority or importance of a VM. If a VM has twice the CPU
shares as another virtual machine, it is entitled to consume twice as much CPU when
these VMs are competing for resources


The
Proportional Share

mechanism applies to CPU, memory, and storage I/O allocation. It
operates only when VMs are contending for the same resource


Shares

guarantee that a VM is given a certain amount of a resource



You can add shares to a VM while it is running, and it will ge
t more access to that
resource (assuming competition for the resource)








A virtual machine has 4 user defined
memory settings

that affect its memory resource
allocation:



Available memory

is the amount of memory of given to the VM at the time it was
cr
eated



Memory limit

defines the maximum amount of virtual machine memory that can reside
in RAM, not to exceed available memory



Memory reservation

is the amount of RAM reserved for that VM. Unused memory
reservations, like CPU reservations, are not wasted



M
emory shares

control how often it wins competition for RAM when RAM is scarce


Storage I/O Control

provides quality of service capabilities for storage I/O in the form of I/O
shares and limits that are enforced across all virtual machines accessing

a datas
tore, regardless
of which host they are running on


When you allocate storage I/O resources, you can limit the input/output operations per second
(IOPS)

that are allowed for a virtual machine.


Configuring Storage I/O Control is a 2 step process:



Enable St
orage I/O Control for each datastore that you want to control



Set the number of storage I/O shares and upper limit of IOPS for each VM


By default, all VM share are set to
Normal (1000),

with unlimited IOPS



A
Resource Pool

is a logical abstraction for hierarchically managing CPU and memory resources



It is used on standalone hosts or clusters enabled for VMware Distributed Resource
Scheduler (DRS)


The topmost resource pool is called the
root resource pool
. Each standalone h
ost and each DRS
cluster has an (invisible) root resource pool that groups the resources of that host or cluster.



The root resource pool does not appear, because the resources of the host (or cluster)
and the root resource pool are always the same


A vApp

is not only a container for VMs but also a resource pool for its virtual machines


Benefits of resource pools:



Flexible hierarchical organization



Isolation between pools and sharing within pools



Access control and delegation



Separation of resources from
hardware



Management of sets of virtual machines running a multitier service



Resource pool attributes:



Shares



Low, normal, high and custom



Reservations
,
in MHz and MB



Limits

in MHz and MB
(unlimited by default)



Expandable reservation
?

o

Yes


VMs and
subpools can draw from this pool’s parent

o

No


VMs and subpools can draw only from this pool, even if its parent has free
resources


You can create a resource pool on an ESX/ESXi standalone host, DRS cluster, or in another
resource pool.


Except for the ro
ot resource pool, every resource pool has a
parent resource pool
. A resource
pool might contain child resource pools or only VMs that are powered on within it


A
child resource pool

is used to allocate resources from the parent resource pool for the child’
s
consumers. Administrative control can also be delegated to individuals or organizations. A child
resource pool cannot exceed the capacity of the parent resource pool. Creating a child pool
reserves resources from the parent pool, whether or not any virtu
al machines in the child pool
are powered on.


Expandable reservation

allows a resource pool that cannot satisfy a reservation to request
through its hierarchy to find unreserved capacity to satisfy the reservation request.


Admission Control

is used to en
sure that you cannot allocate resources that are not available.
Certain operations must satisfy admission control



Powering on a VM



Creating a resource pool with its own reservations



Increasing a resource pool’s reservation


The resource pool
Summary

tab di
splays information that applies to the host machine and its
resources:



The
General

pane displays basic information about VMs in the resource pool, as well as
child resource pools



The
CPU

pane displays host CPU usage



The
Memory

pane displays host memory usa
ge



The
Commands

pane allows you to perform actions like creating a VM, creating a
resource pool, and editing a resource pool’s settings



The
Resource Allocation

tab allows you to display information about a resource pool’s
CPU, memory and storage resources


You can schedule a task to change the resource settings for a resource pool or virtual machine

You can configure a
VM

with up to
8

virtual CPUs. The VMkernel include
s

a CPU scheduler that
dynamically schedules vCPUs on the physical processor of the host system.


Hyperthreading provides more logical CPUs on which vCPUs can be scheduled. It does not
double the power or a core. Hyperthreading is enabled by default. You can enable
hypertheading
in the system BIOS.


Logical processors on the same core have adjacent CPU

numbers. Logical processors 0 and 1 are
on the first core together; logical processors 2 and 3 are on the same core, and so on.


Every 2
-
40 milliseconds (depending on the socket
-
core
-
thread topology), the VMkernel looks to
migrate vCPUs from one logical p
rocessor to another to keep the load balanced. The VMkernel
does its best to schedule virtual machines with multiple vCPUs on 2 different cores rather than
on 2 logical processors on the same core.


For ESX hosts only, the service console always runs on th
e first logical processor and is never
migrated to another one.


If a logical processor has no work, it is put into a halted state. This action frees its execution
resources.



The VMkernel manages a machine

s entire memory



Part of this memory is used by t
he VMkernel



Some of this memory is used by the service console (ESX only)



The rest is available for use by VMs (configured memory, plus overhead)


VMS can use more memory than the physical machine has available (
Overcommitment
)


Memory compression

improves

virtual machine performance when memory is overcommitted.



When memory becomes overcommitted, virtual pages are compressed and stored in
memory



Compressed memory is faster to access than memory swapped to disk



Enabled by default



When a host’s memory becom
es overcommitted, ESX/ESXi compresses virtual pages
and stores them in memory



Accessing compressed memory is faster than accessing memory that has been swapped
to disk


The Service Console typically uses 300MB


The VMkernel dynamically scans memory to look for duplicate pages. The VMkernel detects
when different virtual machines have memory pages with identical content and arranges for
those pages to be shared.

That is, a single physical page is mapped into each
VM’s address
space. If a VM tries to modify a page that is shared, the VMkernel creates a new, private copy
for that VM and then maps that page into the address space of that VM only. The other VMs
continue to share the original copy.


The

Balloon Driver

r
efers to the
vmmemctl

device driver



Used to perform memory deallocation or reallocation



Installed on the guest OS when you install VMware Tools



It demands memory from the guest OS and later to relinquishes it under the control of
the VMkernel



When a syste
m is not under memory pressure, no VM’s balloon is inflated. But when
memory becomes scarce, the VMkernel chooses a VM and inflates it balloon telling the
balloon driver in the VM to demand memory from the guest OS


VMkernel Swap File



Each VM has its own



C
reated when the VM is powered on and deleted when it’s powered off



Default location is the same VMware vStorage, VMFS volume as the VM’s boot disk.



Size is equal to the difference between the memory guaranteed to it, if any, and the
maximum it can use



Allo
ws the VMkernel to swap out the VM’s machine entirely if memory is scarce



Used as last resort since performance is slow

If a VM can’t get enough memory through ballooning, the VMkernel forcibly reclaims memory
from other VMs. The VMkernel copies the conten
ts of the pages of these VMs to their
corresponding swap files before giving the pages to the VM that needs memory.


By default,
up to 65%

of a VM’s memory can be taken away in the ballooning process, subject
to the memory reservation settings.


VMware Too
ls includes a library of functions called the
Perfmon DLL
.



Perfmon allows you to access key host statistics in a guest VM.



The Perfmon performance objects (
VM Processor

and
VM Memory
) allow you to view
actual CPU and memory use alongside observed CPU and

memory use of the guest OS.



Click
Overview

to display charts for the most common data counter for CPU, disk,
memory, and network metrics.



Click
Advanced

to view data counters not supported in the overview performance
charts, to export chart data, and to print charts.



The key to interpreting performance data is to observe the range of data from the guest
operating system, the virtual machine, and the host’
s perspective


Multiple Virtual Machines are
constrained

by CPU if:



There is high CPU use in the guest OS



There are relatively high CPU ready values for the VMs


Ready Time

refers to the interval when a VM is ready to execute instructions but cannot,
because it cannot get scheduled onto a CPU


When a VM experiences ballooning activity, some of the guest operating system’s physical
memory is being reclaimed from the VM by the

balloon driver. If a VM experiences high
ballooning values, this might not be a problem if the VM continues to have the memory that it
needs. But if a VM experiences high ballooning activity over time and its guest operating system
stars to page, the VM m
ight be constrained for memory.


Monitoring for increases in active memory on the host



Host active memory

refers to active physical memory used by virtual machines and the
VMkernel



If amount of physical memory is high, this could lead to VMs that are memor
y
constrained


Disk
-
intensive applications can saturate the storage or the path. If you suspect that a VM is
constrained by disk access:



Measure the throughput and latency between the virtual machine and storage



Use the advanced performance charts to monit
or:

o

Read rate

and
write rate

o

Read latency

and
write latency

If you select a host object, you can view throughput and latency for a datastore, a storage
adapter, or a storage path. The storage
adapter

charts are only available for Fibre Channel
storage. The

storage
path

charts are available for Fibre Channel and iSCSI storage,
not

NFS.


To monitor
throughput
, view the
Read rate

and
Write rate

counters. To monitor
latency
, view
the
Read latency

and
Write latency

counters


Find disk problems by monitoring disk

latency and data counters



Kernel Command Latency

o

Measures the average amount of time, in
milliseconds
, that the VMkernel
spends processing each SCSI command

o

For best performance, the value should be 0
-
1 milliseconds



Physical Device Command Latency

o

Measure
s the average amount of time, in
milliseconds
, for the physical device to
complete a SCSI command

o

Depending on your hardware, a number greater than 15 milliseconds indicates
that the storage array might be slow or overworked





If you suspect a VM is cons
trained by the network:



Confirm that VMware Tools is installed and that the
enhanced network drivers

are
available



Measure the effective bandwidth between the VM and its peer system



Check for dropped
receive packets

and dropped
transmit packets



To determine whether packets are being dropped, use the advanced performance
charges to examine the
droppedTx

and
droppedRx

network counter values of a VM


Alarms



The predefined alarms are configurable



To create an alarm, right click an object in the inven
tory and select
Alarm>Add Alarm



The Alarm Settings dialog box has 4 tabs:
General
,
Triggers
,
Reporting

and
Actions



In the
General

tab, you name the alarm, give it a description,
enable or disable the
alarm,
give it an alarm type

and select what to monitor

o

Monitor for specific conditions or state

o

Create conditions based alarms for VMs, hosts and datastores

o

Monitor for specific events occurring on this object

o

Create event based alarms for VMs, hosts, clusters, datacenters, datastores,
networks, distributed vi
rtual switches, and distributed virtual port groups



Triggers

tab



Alarms have 2 types of
T
riggers
: condition or state triggers and event triggers



Condition or State Triggers

o

Monitor the current condition or state of virtual machines, hosts and
datastores

o

Co
nditions or states include power states, connection states, and
performance metrics such as CPU and disk usage



Event Triggers

o

Monitor events that occur in response to operations occurring with a
managed object in the inventory or the vCenter Server itself


If you add multiple triggers, you can choose to trigger the alarm if any one of the conditions is
satisfied or if all the conditions are satisfied


Reporting tab



Used to define a tolerance range and trigger frequency for condition or state triggers
(not
available for event triggers)



Reporting further restricts when the condition or state trigger occurs. You can specify a
range

or a
frequency

o

If using a range, the triggered alarm is repeated when the condition exceeds the
range

o

If using a frequency, the tr
iggered alarm is repeated every so often (in minutes)



Actions tab



Every alarm can send a notification email, send a notification trap, or run a command



You can set alarms to trigger when the state changes:

o

From a green circle to a yellow triangle

o

From a
yellow triangle to a red diamond

o

From a red diamond to a yellow triangle

o

From a yellow triangle to a green circle

o

For every action, you can specify an option for each color transition:



Empty indicate
s

no interest in the transaction



Once tells vCenter to do

the action only one time



Repeat tells vCenter to repeat the action until another color change
occurs. The default if 5 minutes and the maximum is 2 days



Virtual machine and host alarms have more actions such as:

o

Power on a VM

o

Power off a VM

o

Suspend a VM

o

R
eboot host

o

Shut down host



You can configure up to 4 receivers of SNMP traps.

o

They must be configured in numerical order

o

Each SNMP trap requires a corresponding host name, port and community


Data Protection



After you configure, change the configuration,
or upgrade an ESXi host, backup your
configuration



The serial number is backed up and restored when you restore your configuration



The serial number is not preserved when you run the recovery CD (ESXi Embedded) or
perform the repair operation (ESXi Install
able)



Use the
vicfg
-
cfgbackup

command to do the backup from the vCLI from Windows or
Linux



Use the recovery CD or the repair option if the host does not boot up because the file
partitions or MBR on the installation disk might be corrupted


Use the followi
ng methods when backing up the Service Console:



File backed backup

o

Treat the service console a
s

a physical machine with a deployed backup agent



Image based backup

o

Use third party software to create a backup imaged that you can restore quickly






Virtual
Machine Backups

VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)



Used with supported third party software to do backups of virtual machine disks.



Centralizes backup on the VCB proxy server



VCB is the previous generation backup technology (vStorage APIs for Data Protection

and Data Recovery is most current)


vStorage APIs for Data Protection



Allows backup and recovery o
f

entire VM images across SAN storage or LANs



Is an easy
Smart Plug
-
in (
SPI
)

that is directly integrated with backup tools from third
party vendors



Enables
you to remove load from the host and consolidates backup load onto a central
backup server



Protects VMs that use any type of storage supported by ESX/ESXi (Fibre Channel, iSCSI,
NAS or local storage



Part of a larger set of APIs know as vStorage APIs and co
nsist
s

of the following sets:

o

Site Recovery Manager

o

Array Integration

o

Multipathing

o

Data Protection


VMware
Data Recovery

(VDR)



Agentless disk based backup and recovery appliance



Based on the vStorage APIs for Data Protection



VMware vCenter plugin



Supports
up to
10

appliances per vCenter Server instance



Supports up to
100

VMs per appliance



Intended for small to mediums sized environments



Different backup appliances do not share information about backup jobs



All backed up VMs are stored in a deduplicated
store. The deduplicated store can be
stored in a VMFS, RDM, NFS, or Common Internet File System (CIFS) share
s



Requires an absolute minimum of 10GB of free space



Need Essentials Plus, Advanced, Enterprise or Enterprise Plus licensing



VDR components communic
ate with each other over TCP

o

Connects to vCenter Server Web services on ports
80

and
443

o

Client plugin and File Level Restore connect to the backup appliance over port
22024

o

The backup appliance connects to an ESX/ESXi host over port
902






VDR
Deduplication



RDMs are recommended for deduplication stores



To maximize deduplication rates, ensure that similar VMs are backed up to the same
destination



The deduplication store completes the following processes:

o

Integrity check



Verifies and maintains dat
a integrity



VDR completes an incremental integrity check every 24 hours



VDR performs an integrity check of all restore points once a week

o

Recatalog



Ensures that the catalog of restore points is synchronized with the
contents of the deduplication store

o

Recl
aim



Reclaims space on the deduplication store



Runs daily or when a backup job requires more space than is available on
the deduplication store



Supports dedupl
ication stores that are up to
1
TB

in size on VMDKs and RDMs and
500GB
on CIFS shares



Each backup a
ppliance is limited to using 2 deduplication stores



VDR installation



Install the client plugin



Install the backup appliance



Add a hard disk to the backup appliance


Configuration



Power on the appliance and change the root password



Configure network
settings, and reboot if necessary



Connect the appliance to the vCenter Server



Configure the backup destination on the appliance



Default username is
root

and password is
vmw@re


VDR backup jobs



A maximum of
8

jobs can run simultaneously



Backup jobs can backup
100

VMs total



By default, backup jobs run at night Monday through Friday and at any time Saturday
and Sunday


Rehearsal Restore



Used to test how a VM would be restored through restore operations



Does not replace the current VM


File
Level Restore



Can be installed in Windows or Linux VMs



Requires administrator privileges



Not supported on physical machines


vCenter Linked Mode



Log in simultaneously to all vCenter Server systems



View and search the inventories of all vCenter Server
systems



You cannot migrate hosts or VMs between vCenter Server systems in Linked Mode



Can have up to
10

linked vCenter Server systems



Can have up to
3,000

hosts across the linked vCenter Server systems



Supports
30,000

powered on VMs and
50,000

registered V
Ms across linked vCenter
Server systems



Uses Microsoft’s Active Directory Application Mode
(ADAM)

to store and synchronize
data across multiple vCenter Server instances



Using peer to peer networking, the vCenter Server instances in Linked Mode replicated
s
hared global data to the LDAP directory



The vSphere Client can connect to other vCenter Server instances by using the
connection information retrieved from ADAM.



The
Apace Tomcat Web service

running on vCenter Server enables the search capability
across m
ultiple vCenter Server instances



For inventory searches, vCenter Linked Mode relies on a Java based Web application
called the
query service
, which runs in Tomcat Web services



The search service queries Active Directory for information about user permissio
ns. So
you must be logged in to a domain account to search all vCenter Server systems in
vCenter Linked Mode


When adding a vCenter Server instance to a Linked Mode group, the user running the installer
must be a local administrator on the machine where vC
enter Server is being installed and on
the target machine of the Linked Mode group. Generally, the installer must be run by a domain
user who is an administrator of both systems



The following requirements apply to each vCenter Server system that is a mem
ber of a Linked
Mode group:



DNS must be operational for Linked Mode replication to work



The vCenter Server instances in a Linked Mode group can be in different domains if the
domains have a 2 way trust relationship. Each domain must trust the other domains

on
which vCenter Server instances are installed



All vCenter Server instances must have network time synchronization. The vCenter
Server installer validates that the machine clocks are no more than 5 minutes apart


Install the first vCenter Server instance

as a standalone instance


The vCenter Server instances in a Linked Mode group do not need to have the same domain
user login


During vCenter Server installation, if you enter an IP address for the remote instance of vCenter
Server, the installer converts
it into a fully qualified domain name


To join a vCenter Server system to a Linked Mode group click on
Start>Programs>VMware>vCenter Server Linked Mode Configuration


vCenter Server Status

shows information such as:



A list of all vCenter Server systems and

their services



A list of all vCenter Server plugins



The status of all listed items



The data and time of the last change in status



Messages associated with the change in status


Roles are replicated when a vCenter Server system is joined to a Linked Mode g
roup



If role names differ on vCenter Server systems, they are combined into a single common
list and each server will have all the user roles



If role names are identical, they are combined into a single role if they have the same
privileges



If role names a
re identical, and the roles contain different privileges, these roles must be
reconciled


Use the vCenter Server Linked Mode Configuration wizard to isolate (remove) a vCenter Server
instance from a Linked Mode group



Start>Programs>VMware>vCenter Server Li
nked Mode Configuration



Click Modify linked mode configuration and click Next



Click Isolate this vCenter Server instance from linked mode group



Host Profiles



Basic workflow to implement host profiles:

o

Setup and configure a host for a reference

o

Use the
Create Profile wizard to create a profile from the designated reference
host

o

Attach the host or cluster to the profile

o

Check the host’s compliance against a profile to ensure that the host continues
to be correctly configured

o

Check new hosts for compliance

against the host profile. You can easily apply the
host profile of the reference host to other hosts or clusters of hosts that are not
in compliance


You can also import and export a profile file to a host profile that is in the VMware profile
format (.vp
f)


After the host profile is created and associated with a set of hosts or clusters, you can check the
compliance status from various places in the vSphere Client



Host Profiles main view



Displays compliance status of hosts and clusters, listed by
profil
e



Host Summary tab



Displays compliance status of the selected host



Cluster Profile Compliance tab



Displays compliance status of the selected cluster and
all the hosts within the selected cluster


Whenever a new host is added into a cluster, it is check
ed for compliance against the host
profile that has be
en

applied


You can also schedule tasks in vSphere to help automate compliancy checking


To apply a host profile:



Go to Home>Management>Host Profiles



Select the host profile in the inventory and click
the Hosts and Clusters tab



Right click the host and select Apply



vNetwork Distributed Switch



vCenter Server owns the configuration of the distributed virtual switch. The
configuration will be consistent across all the hosts that use it



A distributed virtual switch can support up to
350

hosts



A distributed virtual switch can benefit from the performance of 10GbE physical NICs



Provide
s

support for private VLANs



Distribute
d

ports migrate with their clients


Private VLANs

allow you to use VL
AN IDs within a private network without having to worry
about duplicating VLAN IDs across a wider network

Some configuration is specific to the host. A host’s uplink ports are allocated to the distributed
virtual switch and are managed in the host’s networ
k configuration. Similarly, the VMkernel and
service console ports are managed in the host’s network configuration as well.


You connect a virtual machine to a distributed virtual switch by connecting the VMs NIC to a
port group on the distributed virtual
switch


A distributed virtual switch is a managed entity configured in vCenter Server


Each distributed virtual switch includes distributed ports. A distributed port represents a port to
which you can connect any networking entity, such as a VM, a VMkernel

interface, or a service
console interface (ESX only)


Ports can exist without port groups


An uplink is an abstraction to associate the vmnics from multiple hosts to a single distributed
virtual switch


VMs on different hosts can communicate with each oth
er only if both VMs have uplinks on the
same broadcast domain


The distributed virtual switch architecture consists of 2 planes: the
control
p
lane

and the I
/O
p
lane



The control plane resides in vCenter Server and is responsible for configuring distributed
virtual switches, distributed port groups, distributed ports, uplinks, NIC teaming etc.



The I/O plane is implemented as a hidden virtual switch in the VMkernel of each
ESX/ESXi host. The I/O plane manages the I/O hardware on the host and is responsible
for

forwarding packets


Editing general switch properties



The settings dialog box has 3 tabs:
Properties
,
Network Adapters

and
Private VLAN



The Network A
dapters tab is a read only form

that allows you to verify which physical
adapters are connected to the dis
tributed virtual switch



The Private VLAN tab allows you to setup private VLANs for the distributed virtual switch



The Network Adapters and Private VLAN tabs are only available for distributed virtual
switches, not for distributed ports or distributed port
groups



Settings on the Properties tab are grouped into the categories General and Advanced.
General

properties

for the distributed virtual switch allow you to edit the information
specified when creating the distributed virtual switch



Advanced properties

o
n the distributed virtual switch allow you to define the maximum
transmission unit (MTU), the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) status, and the
administrator contact details


MTU

(
Maximum Transmission Unit
)

determines the maximum size of frames in this distributed
virtual switch. The distributed virtual switch drops frames bigger than the specified size. If your
environment supports jumbo frames, use this option to enable or disable jumbo frames on the
distri
buted virtual switch. To enable
jumbo frames

on the distributed virtual switch, set the
Maximum MTU

to 9000. To use jumbo frames, the network must support it end to end.
ESX/ESXi supports jumbo frames in the gest OS and on VMkernel ports.




CDP

has 3 oper
ation modes:



Listen mode (default)



The ESX/ESXi host detects and displays information about the
associated Cisco switch port. But information about the virtual switch is not available to
the Cisco switch admin



Advertise mode

-

The ESX/ESXi host makes inf
ormation about the virtual switch
available to the Cisco switch admin



Both mode



does both



Network resource pools

determine the priority that different network traffic types are given on
a distributed virtual switch. By default, Network I/O Control is d
isabled. When Network I/O
Control is enabled,

distributed virtual switch traffic is divided into the following network
resource pools:



FT traffic



iSCSI traffic



vMotion traffic



Management traffic



NFS traffic



VM traffic


Network shares and limits apply to a
host’s outbound network I/O traffic only


To enable Network I/O Control



Go to Home>Inventory>Networking



Select the distributed virtual switch in the inventory and click the
Resource Allocation

tab



Click the
Properties

link and select
Enable network I/O con
trol on this vDS



To modify the shares or limits of a particular network resource pool, right click the
resource pool and select
Edit Settings




vMotion Migration

The state information includes the current memory content and all the information that defin
es
and identifies the virtual machine


vMotion Migration consists of the following steps:

1.

The VMs memory state is copied over the vMotion network from the source host to the
target host

2.

After most of the VMs memory is copied from the source host to the