BITC1311 Intro to Biotechnology Name Chapter 1. The Biotechnology Century & Its Workforce Thieman & Palladino Guided Notes

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BITC1311 Intro to Biotechnology






Name







Chapter 1. The Biotechnology Century & Its Workforce


Thieman & Palladino Guided Notes


Using your textbook and its glossary, de
fine the following terms:


(A “genetics glossary” at
http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/glassary/

and a “biotechnology glossary” at
www.biotechterms.org

may
also be
useful.)

Genetically modified


(GM) foods

Monoclonal antibody

Knock out mice

Biotechnology

Fermentation

Antibiotic

Gene cloning

Genetic engineering

Recombinant DNA technology

genome



Bioinformatics



Recombinant protein
s

Cell culture

Gene therapy

Transgenic animals

DNA fingerprinting

Bioremediation

Aquaculture

Stem cells

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

Mutations

DNA microarray

Gene chip

2. The earliest recorded forms of biotechnology date from 2000 BC with the us
e of fermentations and selective
breeding of domesticated livestock.


Describe some applications of each of these forms of early biotechnology.

3.


Antibiotics were discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming.


How are antibiotics produced today in the
p
harmaceutical industry?

4.


Modern biotechnology developed from molecular biology techniques and tools discovered beginning in the
1960s. Describe some examples of how gene cloning and genetic engineering has led to practical applications in
the phar
maceutical industry, in horticulture, and in the environmental sciences.

5.


What is the Human Genome Project and when did it begin?

a.

How many human chromosomes are there?

b.

What is the primary goal of the Human Genome Project?

c.

What are some practical

applications of the information coming from the Human Genome Project in the
practice of modern medicine?

d.

How does the Human Genome Project differ from the Human Proteome Project?

6.


How does the field of biotechnology differ from the basic scienc
es?


(Consider the distinction drawn in Figure
1.3)

7.


Over 65% of the biotechnology companies in the U.S. are involved in pharmaceutical production.

a.


In what way do biotechnology “drugs” differ from conventional drugs produced by the pharmaceutical
industry?

b.


What other products are made by the biotech companies in the pharmaceutical industry, in addition to
drugs?

c.

In what types of organisms are these pharmaceutical products made by the biotech industry?

8.


Examine Table 1.1

a.

Which compani
es have the largest number of top
-
selling biotech drugs?

b.

Which 3 drugs boost the level of blood cells?

9.


Briefly describe how microbial biotechnology can contribute to the following industries:

a.

Food processing

b.

Chemical production

c.

Wastewater tre
atment

d.

Mining industry

e.

Medicine

10.


Describe 2 ways in which genetically engineered plants can improve the quality and safety of food production.

a.

In what way can they increase crop production?

b.

What makes plants attractive hosts for the production
of recombinant proteins?

11.


Transgenic animals are being used as “bioreactors” for the production of recombinant proteins.


Describe an
advantageous strategy for the harvest of large amounts of recombinant proteins from such animals over the
course
of their lifetime.

12.


Briefly describe 6 ways that DNA fingerprinting is often put to use in our society.

13.


Briefly describe 3 ways that genetic engineering is used in aquaculture.

14.


Briefly describe how biotechnology is improving medicin
e in the following areas:

a.

preventative measures

b.

diagnosis

c.

treatment

15.


Briefly describe a use of stem cells that shows promise in human medicine.

16.


What is the difference between quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA)?


In what way a
re they the
same?

17.


What was the accomplishment of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in February of 2001?

a.

How many genes did the HGP reveal in the human genome?

b.

What is the “proteome”, and what will the study of the human proteome add to the HGP?

c.

How
has the work of the HGP helped in medical diagnoses?

d.

Describe how SNPs can be detected by DNA microarrays, or gene chips.

e.

What is “pharmacogenomics”, and how does it allow for customized medical treatments?

18.


What are 4 obstacles to the use of gen
e therapy in medicine?

19.


Examine Figure 1.15.

a.

It is estimated that nearly 1/3 of all biotechnology companies are in the U.S.


What proportion are located
in Texas?

b.

Where are the regions of the U.S. that have the largest number of biotechnology compa
nies?

20.


Examine Figure 1.16 and decide which of the following types of industrial jobs someone with a high school
degree, or an AS degree, or a BS degree, or a graduate degree is more likely to find:

a.

Analysis

b.

Production

c.

QA/QC

21.


What are the

average starting salaries for people with a bachelor’s degree, a Master’s degree and a doctorate
degree in the biotechnology industry as of 2000?



22.


What are some strategies of major importance in making yourself more marketable in the biotechnolog
y
industry?