Biotech Terminology - Tccbiotech.org

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 2 μήνες)

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1



Biotechnology Terminology


1.

Active site (enzyme)



is the location on an enzyme where the
substrate binds.

2.

Adult stem cell
s


are cells found in tissues of the body such as
bones, muscle and nerve. These cells repair the tissue and some
may have the abi
lity to differentiate into other types of cells.

3.

Alleles
-

are members of a gene pair. One allele comes from the
mother and one allele comes from the father.

4.

Allosteric site

(enzyme)



is the location on an enzyme other than
the active site.

5.

Bacillus thur
igiensis

(Bt)


a naturally occurring bacteria that
produces toxins specific to certain insects. Used in genetically
modifies crops such as corn to resist

the
European corn borer

infestation.

6.

Bioethics


complex
decision making process involving
biological

issues. H
ow to best use
, allocate
and apply new biological
technologies.

7.

Bioinformatics



is the use of computers and mathematics to help
study and identify biological information
-

genes

and proteins
.


8.

Biotechnology



is the use of
living organisms to m
ake useful
products. Biotechnology has been around for thousands of years.
Genetic engineering is the “new” area of biotechnology.

9.

Blastocyst


the stage of development that contains an
inner mass

of cells able to differentiate to all the different types
of cells.

10.

C
ells

-
a
re the basic unit of all living things. Nothing smaller than a
cell is considered to be alive.

11.

Central Dogma


is the principle used in biology to explain how
proteins are made. It involves the processes of transcription and
translation
.

12.

Chromosome
s

-

are

the structure
s

where DNA is located in cells.


13.

Clone



a copy of a gene or an organism.

14.

Complimentary DNA (cDNA) library



is a
collection of DNA
sequences that code for genes. cDNA is made from mRNA. An
enzyme called reverse transcript
ase synthesizes DNA from RNA.




2

15.

DNA
-

the blueprint of all living things. It is located in the nucleus
of cells. It is made up of smaller subunits (ATCGCCATT) that
direct all of an organism’s activities and traits.

16.

DNA fingerprint (DNA profile)

-

is made by

using restriction
enzymes to cut DNA
. Electrophoresis is used to
separat
e the
various size fragments.
The unique banding pattern can be used to
identify people, species of organisms and genes.

17.

DNA gel electrophoresis

-

is the use of electricity to separa
te
different size DNA fragments.

18.

Embryonic stem cell
s



are cells that come from a developing
embryo that have not differentiated into different tissues and
organs.

19.

Enzyme



is a catalyst (speeds up) used in chemical reactions.

20.


Epidemiology


is the stud
y of diseases, how they are transmitted
and controlled.

21.

Eukaryotic cells
-

cells with a nucleus. Plant, animals, fungus and
protistans have eukaryotic cells.

22.

Exons
-

the DNA sequence that make up a transcribed gene.
Alternative splicing of exons can prod
uce many different proteins
from one gene.

23.

Gene
-

de
fined very simply as a unit of heredity or a more complex
definition would be a sequence of the DNA that may or may not
code for protein. Only 2% of all the DNA is made up of genes.

24.


Genetic engineering
-

also known as
recombinant DNA
. It is using
genes from one organism and inserting them in another. T
he
organism produced is a GMO (Genetically M
odified
O
rganism).

25.


Genetic map

-


is the location of genes on chromosomes.

26.


Gene therapy


genetically change

an organism’s DNA to cure or
treat a disease.

27.


Genome

-

is the sum of all genes in an organism.

28.


Genomics
-

is the study of how genes function and interact with
other genes
.

29.


GMO
-

stands for
Genetically Modified Organism.

30.


Histone proteins

chromosomes
wind around
histone

proteins in a
very tight and coiled structure.

31.


Human Genome Project
-

the mapping of all human genes
. There
is an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes.



3

32.


Introns
-

are the DNA sequences that
are

not transcribed when
making a protein.

33.


Jum
ping genes


also called
transposon

are pieces of DNA that
can replicate and move from one location on a chromosome to
another location or another chromosome. The
Alu
gene (named
after the restriction enzyme that recognizes it) is an example of a
jumping g
ene. It does not code for protein.

34.


Meisois


is cell division that takes place in the reproductive
organs and produces sex cells
-

egg (ovum) in the female or sperm
in males.

35.


Microarray
-

is a series of areas that contain DNA, RNA or
proteins and are
tagged with fluorescent dyes used to identify
genes and diseases.

36.


Micropipette

-

is an instrument used in biotechnology to measure
and transfer very small amounts of a substance. The unit o
f
measurement is the microliter

( µ ). A microliter is one millio
nth of
a liter.

37.


Mitosis


is cell division of body cells. It is the process used for
cell growth and repair. Cancer results when cells divide without
stopping.

38.


Nanotechnology


A nano is a very small unit of measurement


one billionth of a meter.

Nan
otechnology
studies and attempts to
manipulate atoms and mole
cules. By making very small
nanoparticles they can someday be used to deliver medicine or
destroy very specific cancer cells. A virus is considered a

biological “nanobot!”

39.

Nucleotide
-

the buildi
ng block of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide is
made up of a phosphate, sugar and a base.

40.


Plasmid
-

is a small round circular piece of DNA found in bacteria.
They contain a few genes and are used in biotechnology to insert
desired DNA sequences.

41.


Probe


a piec
e of DNA that is tagged and can recognize specific
sequences of DNA.

42.


PCR
-

stands for
Polymerase Chain Reaction
. The technique is
used to make copies
(amplify)
of DNA samples
.


43.


Prokaryotic
-

are cells without a nucleus. Bacteria are
prokaryotic cells a
nd are widely used in biotechnology



4

44.


Proteins
-

are made up of building blocks called amino acids. The
20 amino acids make up over 100,000 proteins in human cells.
Proteins are large complex molecules that make up cell structure
and control many of its fu
nction.

45.


Proteome
-

is the sum of all the proteins in an organism

46.


Proteomics
-

is the study of protein structure and how the
y

function in cells.

47.


RNA (m
-
RNA, r
-
RNA, t
-
RNA)


Ribonucleic acid is
involved in
making proteins for the cell.

48.


Recombinant DNA te
chnology
-

uses restriction enzymes to cut
genes from one organism and insert them into another organism.

49.


Restriction enzymes are special enzymes that are used to cut
DNA into smaller fragments.

50.


Totipotent cells


cells in the zygote

(blastocyst)

that h
ave the
potential to become any type of tissue.

51.

T
ranscription



the process of copying DNA into RNA.

52.


T
ranslation



the process of converting RNA to proteins.

53.


V
ectors

-

can be organisms
that transmit disease to other
organisms. For example, malaria is t
ransmitted by
mosquitoes,
Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks. In biotechnology, a vector is
a piece of DNA that carries a gene

to be inserted into a cell
.
Types of vectors include bacteria plasmids, and viruses.

54.


Viruses

-

are particles of DNA or RNA su
rrounded by protein.
They are not considered to be living because they require a host
to reproduce. In biotechnology, they are used to transfer genes
to a cell (vector).

55.


Zygote


is a fertilized. It will divide by mitosis and
differentiate into all the
tissues and organs that make up an
organism.