Active site (enzyme)
is the location on an enzyme where the
Adult stem cell
are cells found in tissues of the body such as
bones, muscle and nerve. These cells repair the tissue and some
may have the abi
lity to differentiate into other types of cells.
are members of a gene pair. One allele comes from the
mother and one allele comes from the father.
is the location on an enzyme other than
the active site.
a naturally occurring bacteria that
produces toxins specific to certain insects. Used in genetically
modifies crops such as corn to resist
European corn borer
decision making process involving
ow to best use
and apply new biological
is the use of computers and mathematics to help
study and identify biological information
is the use of
living organisms to m
products. Biotechnology has been around for thousands of years.
Genetic engineering is the “new” area of biotechnology.
the stage of development that contains an
of cells able to differentiate to all the different types
re the basic unit of all living things. Nothing smaller than a
cell is considered to be alive.
is the principle used in biology to explain how
proteins are made. It involves the processes of transcription and
where DNA is located in cells.
a copy of a gene or an organism.
Complimentary DNA (cDNA) library
collection of DNA
sequences that code for genes. cDNA is made from mRNA. An
enzyme called reverse transcript
ase synthesizes DNA from RNA.
the blueprint of all living things. It is located in the nucleus
of cells. It is made up of smaller subunits (ATCGCCATT) that
direct all of an organism’s activities and traits.
DNA fingerprint (DNA profile)
is made by
enzymes to cut DNA
. Electrophoresis is used to
various size fragments.
The unique banding pattern can be used to
identify people, species of organisms and genes.
DNA gel electrophoresis
is the use of electricity to separa
different size DNA fragments.
Embryonic stem cell
are cells that come from a developing
embryo that have not differentiated into different tissues and
is a catalyst (speeds up) used in chemical reactions.
is the stud
y of diseases, how they are transmitted
cells with a nucleus. Plant, animals, fungus and
protistans have eukaryotic cells.
the DNA sequence that make up a transcribed gene.
Alternative splicing of exons can prod
uce many different proteins
from one gene.
fined very simply as a unit of heredity or a more complex
definition would be a sequence of the DNA that may or may not
code for protein. Only 2% of all the DNA is made up of genes.
also known as
. It is using
genes from one organism and inserting them in another. T
organism produced is a GMO (Genetically M
is the location of genes on chromosomes.
an organism’s DNA to cure or
treat a disease.
is the sum of all genes in an organism.
is the study of how genes function and interact with
Genetically Modified Organism.
proteins in a
very tight and coiled structure.
Human Genome Project
the mapping of all human genes
is an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes.
are the DNA sequences that
not transcribed when
making a protein.
are pieces of DNA that
can replicate and move from one location on a chromosome to
another location or another chromosome. The
after the restriction enzyme that recognizes it) is an example of a
ene. It does not code for protein.
is cell division that takes place in the reproductive
organs and produces sex cells
egg (ovum) in the female or sperm
is a series of areas that contain DNA, RNA or
proteins and are
tagged with fluorescent dyes used to identify
genes and diseases.
is an instrument used in biotechnology to measure
and transfer very small amounts of a substance. The unit o
measurement is the microliter
( µ ). A microliter is one millio
is cell division of body cells. It is the process used for
cell growth and repair. Cancer results when cells divide without
A nano is a very small unit of measurement
one billionth of a meter.
studies and attempts to
manipulate atoms and mole
cules. By making very small
nanoparticles they can someday be used to deliver medicine or
destroy very specific cancer cells. A virus is considered a
ng block of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide is
made up of a phosphate, sugar and a base.
is a small round circular piece of DNA found in bacteria.
They contain a few genes and are used in biotechnology to insert
desired DNA sequences.
e of DNA that is tagged and can recognize specific
sequences of DNA.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
. The technique is
used to make copies
of DNA samples
are cells without a nucleus. Bacteria are
prokaryotic cells a
nd are widely used in biotechnology
are made up of building blocks called amino acids. The
20 amino acids make up over 100,000 proteins in human cells.
Proteins are large complex molecules that make up cell structure
and control many of its fu
is the sum of all the proteins in an organism
is the study of protein structure and how the
function in cells.
Ribonucleic acid is
making proteins for the cell.
Recombinant DNA te
uses restriction enzymes to cut
genes from one organism and insert them into another organism.
Restriction enzymes are special enzymes that are used to cut
DNA into smaller fragments.
cells in the zygote
potential to become any type of tissue.
the process of copying DNA into RNA.
the process of converting RNA to proteins.
can be organisms
that transmit disease to other
organisms. For example, malaria is t
Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks. In biotechnology, a vector is
a piece of DNA that carries a gene
to be inserted into a cell
Types of vectors include bacteria plasmids, and viruses.
are particles of DNA or RNA su
rrounded by protein.
They are not considered to be living because they require a host
to reproduce. In biotechnology, they are used to transfer genes
to a cell (vector).
is a fertilized. It will divide by mitosis and
differentiate into all the
tissues and organs that make up an