Advanced communication of Open Science: the Socionet approach

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Advanced communication of
Open Science:

the Socionet approach

Sergey Parinov

CEMI RAS, Moscow, Russia

www.euroCRIS.org

R&D Challenges


Open archives exist within some scientific data
and information space (DIS) and some research
e
-
infrastructure


how should it be organized to achieve synergism and
other benefits?


If we are focusing on benefits like better
circulation and reuse of research outputs


how can it be designed to provide reliable scientific
usage data?


If we are designing tools to achieve better
scientific usage statistics


how research practice will be changed and what
types of scientific communication will be arisen?

We are developing to gain


improved electronic presentation of research
results/outputs all types


better scientific circulation of research outputs
and efficient usage of research outputs


representative statistics about producing and
consuming of research outputs


perfective professional signaling system and
motivations


improved research practice called Open Science
and more efficient Science System

Main Technical Innovations

1.
Scientific object
-
for
-
reuse (OfR)


overcoming of commercial publishers’ veto


improving of scientific circulations by issuing of thought unit


better measuring of research outputs usage than current citation indexes

2.
Electronic citation with quality attributes


embedding of research usage metrics into citations links

3.
Monitoring of linkages


improving of scientific circulations by notifications


supporting of “liquid” publications


scientometrics of scientific usage

4.
Natural research assessment as a basis for peer
-
reviewing


complex statistical portrait of scientists and organizations


professional signaling system

Socionet background


We are implementing open access project from
1997


It was started in Novosibirsk as online Open
Archive for research papers in Social Sciences to
contribute them into RePEc data sets


In 2000 the project was called the Socionet
(
socionet.ru
), we provide tools to support open
access to research in Russia in many forms


In 2006 it moved to CEMI RAS (Moscow)


Now Socionet covers many science disciplines,
provides popular in Russia scientific portal and
soon will support Open Science business model

Socionet technology


http://socionet.ru/

1.
Information hub

2.
Scientific Data and Information

Space (DIS)

3.
Online workbench (academic assets and OA
managing, scientific reuse, semantic linkages,
personal i
-
robot, etc.)

4.
Monitoring of DIS changes, including tracing of
changes in linkages and notifications

5.
Scientometric services, including basic research
assessment data collecting

Socionet information hub (IH):

how it works


Harvesting heterogeneous
metadata

from
repositories at input and providing
standardized metadata

at output for
external reuse/processing
by software
agents

through RSS, OAI
-
PMH or
customized protocols


Socionet IH is synchronizing a
federation

of about 1200 repositories/archives with
about 4500 thematic collections (360 in
Russian) contained about 1.2 ml
metadata

records (about 170000 in Russian)

Socionet scientific data and
information space (DIS)


Visualization of full IH contents as
structured system of scientific information
objects, including navigation and search


Interfacing of federated metadata with
research e
-
infrastructure services, e.g.
with tools to make thematic linkages over
federated metadata and for other usage


Visualization of relations and linkages
between DIS objects, including semantics

Socionet Illustrations


Socionet DIS


Socionet online workbench


Personalized set of tools:


to create, manage and submit to IH
-
>DIS
collections of academic materials (in 2010
-

16 types and for all science disciplines)


to create and manage networks of semantic
linkages between DIS information objects,
including usage links with cited materials


to set up a personal information robot for
notifications and reporting


etc.

Socionet Illustrations


Socionet Workbench

1. Open Archives within Socionet


Using Socionet workbench scientists can:


create collections of scientific materials and
turn on its broadcasting with OAI
-
PMH
interface


create an institutional profile, link it with own
and/or external collections and turn on OAI
-
PMH gateway to this set of metadata


All changes and additions for both series
and linkages will update appropriate OA

Socionet Illustrations


Scope and scale of Socionet information space:


15 disciplines (9 from social sciences, informatics,
mathematics, physics, etc.)


16 data types (paper, article, book, chapter, software,
person, institution, news, comment, thesis, scheme,
project, result, product,
citation
,
artifact
)


Number of OA built within Socionet and its
examples


Registering Socionet based OA at ROAR and
other OA directories

2. Objects
-
for
-
reuse (OfR):

basic features


OfR is a unit of thought registered at DIS as
a scientific
artifact

or a
citation

designed for
its better scientific re
-
use


Artifact


a research output registered by its
author


Citation
-

any fragment of research article
which has cited or can be cited by scientists
in their research articles, created by its
author (e.g. as a fragmentation of articles) or
by any researcher

Socionet Illustrations


Data model of types citation and artifact


How to create OfR: citation and artifact

Benefits of OfR circulation


Overcoming of commercial publishers’ veto for open
access to research


OfR objects have the “citation” status, so there is no copyright
violation if its source article “belongs” to a publisher


Socionet workbench provide tools to register citations and users
can link it with their papers


Improving of scientific circulations by issuing of thought
unit


Better measuring of research outputs usage


Electronic citation with quality attributes


embedding of research usage metrics into citations


3. Research Outputs Re
-
use


Since scientific DIS based on federation
principles the information objects can be
changed only by its owners


So scientists can
reuse

public research outputs
in a visible form only by:


creating thematic collections of selected outputs


specifying scientific relations from own outputs to
others in a form of semantic linkages


We use CERIF types of scientific relations and
some own add
-
ons

CERIF Base, Result and 2nd Level Entities

Citation

CV

Prize

Qualification

ExpertiseAndSkills

Equipment

Facility

Funding

Service

ElectronicAddresse

PostalAddress

Country

Currency

Language

Event

Metrics

ResultProduct
ResultPublication
ResultPatent
ResultProduct
ResultPublication
ResultPublication
ResultPatent
Person
OrganisationUnit
Project
Person
Person
OrganisationUnit
OrganisationUnit
Project
Project
Source: Brigitte Jorg. CERIF
2008


1.2 Release
, www.eurocris.org

Socionet Illustrations


Current total number of linkages


14280


Number of linkages types


11


Examples of using linkages



personal profile


organization’s profile


electronic citation, etc.


Example of navigation by linkages

4. Scientific Relations


Usage relations
-

links with outputs that were
used as roots, basements, etc. in producing of
the current research output (citation links)


Scientific inference linkages (what scientific
statements are the basis, with what logical
relation)


Links with outputs or scientist where or by whom
the current output could be used or reviewed
(links to possible users)


Other types of relations (language versions, etc.)

Proposed “usage” metrics

(compact version)


(1) the cited research material is a
basement for author’s output;


(2) the citation approves (or is approved
by) author’s output;


(3) the citation illustrates of author’s
output;


(4) the citation is wrong or disproved by
author’s output

5. Monitoring and Scientometrics


Automated monitoring of all changes in
structure of information objects and
linkages between them, including:


Notifications of researchers about important
changes (improve scientific circulation)


Accumulating of scientometric database
(improve statistic on research performance)


Linkages support services


Monitoring services trace and informs, incl. notifications:


the author who is changing his/her article
, if the article has cited
in other articles, that she/he can violate (by this action) links and
citations that have established with the changed fragments of the
article;


the authors of articles
, if their articles include citation links to the
changed article, about a fact of made changes in the cited
article, so they should reconsider and, if it necessary, to correct
corresponding citations;


the readers

of electronic article that certain citations in reading
text can be violated because of the cited articles were changed,
and an author of the reading article has not updated suspicious
citations

Practical Usage Data


Accumulated data about scientist
-
producer activity


number of produced OfR for certain period of time


number of OfR usage for certain period of time, including quality
characteristics distribution


number of OfR reviews for certain period of time, including
quality characteristics distribution


Accumulated data about scientist
-
consumer activity


number of requests from scientists on using/reviewing their OfR


number of made citations (utilized OfR), including quality
characteristics distribution


number of made reviews, including quality characteristics
distribution



number of banned authors, queue length of requests compare
with personal rate, number of rejections



Scientometric services


Scientometric services collect data:


usual
quantitative

characteristics of researchers/organizations
and results of their activity;


quantitative

data about all existed relations between information
objects, e.g. number of persons linked with organization, number
of publications linked with a person, number of citations linked
with a publication, and so on;


qualitative

data about all existed relations between information
objects, as a graph with semantic values assigned to each edge
of the graph, e.g. a set of relations with the semantic value
"member of staff" between an organization and persons; a set of
relations with the semantic value "basement" between a
publication and citations; and so on;


data about
views/downloads

aggregated for each information
objects according linkages, e.g. numbers of views/downloads for
all publications related with a person or a sum of these numbers
for all persons related with an organization and so on

Illustrations


Graphs and tables from Socionet statistics

Conclusion: New Research
Practice


An author registers research output as a ready
for testing scientific object
-
for
-
reuse (OfR) by


specifying which research materials were used as
roots/basements for his/her output (citation links)


specifying materials/scientist where/by whom the
output could be used/reviewed (links to possible
users)


Authors of linked materials receive a notification
about created links, and


they can protest on how the materials were used


they can use suggested OfR and link it with their
materials, or can review it, or can ignore it

Conclusion: New Scientific
Communication


On a producer side



specify used OfR with
quality characteristics




request on using
-
reviewing own OfR by
linking it with other OfR
or scientists



On a consumer side



protest against usage
characteristics and/or
provide comments on it,
or do nothing


ban requests from some
authors, or specify
personal reviewing rate,
or rewrite own OfR by
using/citing suggested
OfR

Conclusion: Open Science
Business Model


Open Science paradigm is based on:

1.
open access to
research outputs/results
, and
we
propose a way to overcome a veto of commercial
publishers

2.
open access to research outputs/results
usage data
,
and we provide a way how to make visual such data
and collect it in a computer
-
readable form

3.
open access to basic research
assessment data
,
and
we provide a mechanism of natural research
assessment


Three types of openness create Open Science
as a new research practice and new scientific
communications