Chapter 18 Object-Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML

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Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

389


True/False Questions



1.

An approach used to specify the software solution in terms of collaborating objects,
their attributes and their methods is called object oriented design.


Answer: True Page: 646 LOD: Easy



2.

An interface class is an obj
ect class that provides the means by which an actor can
interface with the system.


Answer: True Page: 648 LOD: Easy



3.

A dependency relationship is illustrated with a dashed arrow line.


Answer: True Page: 650 LOD: Easy



4.

Navigability

is illustrated with an arrowhead pointing only to the direction a message
can be sent.


Answer: True Page: 650 LOD: Easy



5.

Visibility is the level of access an external object has to an attribute or method.


Answer: True Page: 650 LOD: Eas
y



6.

Method is the software logic that is executed in response to a message.


Answer: True Page: 651 LOD: Easy



7.

In a pure object
-
oriented environment every piece of code exists inside an object class.


Answer: True Page: 648 LOD: Easy




8.

An object
-
oriented system is structured into at least three different types of object
classes.


Answer: True Page: 648 LOD: Easy



9.

Entity classes are identified during systems analysis and usually correspond to items in
real life and co
ntain information, known as attributes, that describes the different
instances of the entity.


Answer: True Page: 648 LOD: Easy

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


390

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



10.

Interface classes are a means through which the attributes will interface with the
instances of an entity.


Answ
er: False Page: 648 LOD: Medium



Rationale:

Interface classes provide a means for the user to interface with the system.



11.

The responsibility of the interface class is twofold: (1) it translates the user's input into
information that the system

can understand and use to process the business event; (2)
it takes data pertaining to a business event and translates the data for appropriate
presentation to the user.


Answer: True Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Easy



12.

Controller classes implement the b
usiness logic or business rules of the system.


Answer: True Page: 649 LOD: Easy



13.

System classes handle operating system
-
specific functionality.


Answer: True Page: 649 LOD: Easy



14.

By employing persistence classes, it allows the en
tity classes to be more
implementation neutral and potentially more reusable.


Answer: True Page: 649 LOD: Medium



15.

By employing persistence classes, it allows the entity classes to be more
implementation specific and potentially more usable.


Answer: False Page: 649 LOD: Medium



Rationale:

By employing persistence classes, it allows the entity classes to be more
implementation neutral and potentially more reusable.



16.

Persistence classes read and write to a database.


Answer: True

Page: 649 LOD: Easy



17.

Public attributes can be accessed and public methods can be invoked by any other
method in any other class.


Answer: True Page: 650 LOD: Easy


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

391



18.

Private attributes can be accessed and private methods can be inv
oked only by any
method in the class in which the attribute or method is defined.


Answer: True Page: 650 LOD: Easy



19.

A class responsibility is essentially the same thing as a class method.


Answer: True Page: 651 LOD: Medium



20.

A cl
ass responsibility is implemented by the creation of one or more methods that may
have to collaborate with other classes and methods.


Answer: True Page: 651 LOD: Medium



21.

One technique for identifying behaviors is to search the use
-
case narrat
ive for verb
phrases.


Answer: True Page: 657 LOD: Medium



22.

A class responsibility collaboration (CRC) card is a popular tool for documenting the
behaviors and collaborations for an object.


Answer: True Page: 657
-
658 LOD: Easy



23.

Se
quence diagrams show us in great detail how the objects intera
ct with each other in
time sequ
ence.


Answer: True Page: 659 LOD: Easy



24.

In actor collaboration, the use case scenarios are acted out by the participants. The
participants may assum
e the role of actors or object types that collaborate to process a
hypothetical business event.


Answer: False Page: 664 LOD: Medium



Rationale:

This describes role playing.



25.

Two overarching goals of object
-
oriented design are high coupling a
nd low cohesion.


Answer: False Page: 666 LOD: Medium



Rationale:

Two overarching goals of object
-
oriented design are low coupling and high
cohesion.

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


392

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



26.

Cohesion is the degree to which one class is connected to or relies upon other classes.


Answer: False Page: 666 LOD: Medium



Rationale:

Coupling is the degree to which one class is connected to or relies upon
other classes.



27.

Ideally, object classes created for one information system should be able to be reused
in other informatio
n systems.


Answer: True Page: 667 LOD: Easy



28.

Reusability is why operating system
-
specific code and database specific code are often
designed into system and persistence classes.


Answer: True Page: 667 LOD: Easy



29.

A design pattern

is a common solution to a given problem in a given context.


Answer: True Page: 668 LOD: Easy



30.

One advantage of using design patterns is that they provide designers with a short
-
hand notation for discussing design issues.


Answer: True Pag
e: 669 LOD: Easy



31.

GOF behavioral patterns provide guidance on the way in which classes interact to
distribute responsibility.


Answer: True Page: 669 LOD: Medium



32.

GOF creational patterns provide guidance for designing classes to inst
antiate new
objects.


Answer: True Page: 669 LOD: Medium



33.

GOF structural patterns provide guidance on how classes can be designed to form
larger structures.


Answer: True Page: 669 LOD: Medium

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

393



34.

GOF structural patterns provide gui
dance on the way in which classes interact to
distribute responsibility.


Answer: False Page: 669 LOD: Medium



Rationale:

GOF behavioral patterns provide guidance on the way in which classes
interact to distribute responsibility.



35.

An object f
ramework is a set of related, interacting objects that provide a well
-
defined
set of services for accomplishing a task.


Answer: True Page: 671 LOD: Easy



36.

A component is a group of objects packaged together into one unit. An example of a
comp
onent is a dynamic link library (DLL) or executable file.


Answer: True Page: 671 LOD: Easy



37.

A communication diagram is similar to a sequence diagram. But while a sequence
diagram focuses on the structural organization of objects in a network
format, a
communication diagram focuses on timing of messages.


Answer: False LOD: Medium



Rationale:

A communication diagram is similar to a sequence diagram. But while a
sequence diagram focuses on timing or sequence of messages, a communication
d
iagram focuses on the structural organization of objects in a network format.



38.

Communication diagrams depict the organizational units of programming code and
how they interact.


Answer: False Page: 672 LOD: Easy



Rationale:

This describes com
ponent diagrams.



39.

Deployment diagrams are also implementation type diagrams that describe the
physical architecture of the hardware and software in the system. They depict
software components, processors, and devices that make up the systems architec
ture.


Answer: True Page: 673 LOD: Easy




Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


394

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition


Multiple Choice Questions



40.

A class that would have to change if the system was ported to another operating
system would be a(n):


A)

entity class


B)

interface class


C)

control class


D)

persis
tence class


E)

system class


Answer: E Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Medium



41.

A class that contains the logic to run a use case would be a(n):


A)

entity class


B)

interface class


C)

control class


D)

persistence class


E)

system class


Answer: C

Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Medium



42.

Which of the following is NOT a UML level of visibility?


A)

private


B)

protected


C)

public


D)

persistent


E)

none of these


Answer: D Page: 650 LOD: Medium



43.

Which of the following is NOT one of
the activities of object
-
oriented design?


A)

Modeling class interactions, behaviors, and states that support the use
-
case
scenario.


B)

Refining the use
-
case model to reflect the implementation environment.


C)

Updating the class diagram to reflect the

implementation environment.


D)

Updating the ERD to reflect public attributes and persistence classes.


E)

all of these are activities of object
-
oriented design


Answer: D Page: 651 LOD: Medium

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

395



44.

This is a popular tool for documenting the b
ehaviors and collaborations for an object.


A)

cyclical redundancy collaboration (CRC) card


B)

class responsibility collaboration (CRC) card


C)

component responsibility collaboration (CRC) card


D)

classical responsibility collaboration (CRC) card


E)

none of these


Answer: B Page: 657
-
658 LOD: Medium



45.

Which of the following is a tool that can be used for discovering class behaviors and
responsibilities?


A)

CRC card


B)

sequence diagram


C)

class diagram


D)

a and b


E)

all of thes
e


Answer: E Page: 657
-
659 LOD: Medium



46.

What is an object state?


A)

a condition of the object at one time in its lifetime


B)

an occurrence that triggers a change in an object


C)

the act of simulating object behavior


D)

a method that di
splays the current state of the object


E)

none of these


Answer: A Page: 663 LOD: Medium



47.

Which UML diagram models object state


A)

sequence diagram


B)

state machine diagram


C)

class diagram


D)

deployment diagram


E)

communication di
agram


Answer: B Page: 663 LOD: Easy

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


396

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



48.

What did the Gang of Four do?


A)

create the UML


B)

popularize the use of design patterns


C)

created CRC cards


D)

created a popular object framework


E)

battled Spider
-
man in issue #142


Answer:
B Page: 669 LOD: Medium



49.

Which of the following is NOT a GOF pattern category?


A)

evolutional


B)

structural


C)

creational


D)

behavioral


E)

none of these


Answer: A Page: 669 LOD: Medium



50.

If you needed to provide a stable
interface to similar classes with different interfaces,
you could use:


A)

the strategy pattern


B)

the adapter pattern


C)

a creational pattern


D)

the organizational pattern


E)

none of these


Answer: B Page: 670 LOD: Medium



51.

If you nee
ded to design for varying and changing policy algorithms, you could use:


A)

the strategy pattern


B)

the adapter pattern


C)

a creational pattern


D)

the organizational pattern


E)

none of these


Answer: A Page: 670 LOD: Medium


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

397



52.

The pr
ocess of using object
-
oriented techniques for designing a new system is referred
to as:


A)

object oriented design


B)

class/object design


C)

reverse engineering


D)

database design


E)

none of these


Answer: A Page: 648 LOD: Easy



53.

A dia
logue box is an example of a(n):


A)

entity class


B)

interface class


C)

control class


D)

persistence class


E)

system class


Answer: B Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Medium



54.

A class that handled reading and writing to a database would be an exampl
e of a(n):


A)

entity class


B)

interface class


C)

control class


D)

persistence class


E)

system class


Answer: D Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Medium



55.

The student class in an enrollment system would be an example of a(n):


A)

entity class


B)

i
nterface class


C)

control class


D)

persistence class


E)

system class


Answer: A Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Medium


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


398

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



56.

What do you call a set of related, interacting objects that provide a well
-
defined set of
services for accomplishing a task?


A
)

class framework


B)

scenario


C)

object framework


D)

entity framework


E)

none of these


Answer: C Page: 671 LOD: Medium



57.

This is a group of objects packaged together into one unit. An example is a dynamic
link library (DLL) or executa
ble file.


A)

scenario


B)

module


C)

subprogram


D)

component


E)

none of these


Answer: D Page: 671 LOD: Medium



58.

What is a design pattern?


A)

the obligation that an object has to provide a service when requested


B)

a common solution

to a given problem in a given context.


C)

a set of related, interacting objects that provide a set of services.


D)

a group of objects packaged together.


E)

none of these


Answer: B Page: 668 LOD: Medium



59.

In which of the following are th
e use case scenarios acted out by the participants,
where participants may assume the role of actors or object types that collaborate to
process a hypothetical business event?


A)

scenarios


B)

plays


C)

role playing


D)

action play plans


E)

none of
these


Answer: C Page: 664 LOD: Medium


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

399



60.

What diagram depicts how objects collaborate in message sequence to satisfy the
functionality of a use case?


A)

state


B)

component


C)

sequence


D)

deployment


E)

communication


Answer: C Pag
e: 659 LOD: Medium



61.

What diagram depicts the life cycle of a single object?


A)

state


B)

component


C)

sequence


D)

deployment


E)

communication


Answer: A Page: 663 LOD: Medium



62.

What diagram depicts the interaction of objects,

focusing on their structural
organization?


A)

state


B)

component


C)

sequence


D)

deployment


E)

communication


Answer: E Page: 672 LOD: Medium



63.

What type of diagram is an implementation type diagram and used to graphically
depict the
physical architecture of the software system?


A)

state


B)

component


C)

sequence


D)

deployment


E)

communication


Answer: B Page: 672 LOD: Medium


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


400

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



64.

What type of diagram is also an implementation type diagram that describes the
physica
l architecture of the hardware and software in the system and depicts software
components, processors, and devices that make up the systems architecture?


A)

state


B)

component


C)

sequence


D)

deployment


E)

communication


Answer: D Page: 673 L
OD: Medium



65.

Attributes and methods that are visible from any method in the class in which the
attribute or method is defined or in subclasses of that class are said to be:


A)

private


B)

protected


C)

public


D)

persistent


E)

none of these


Answer: B Page: 650 LOD: Medium



66.

Attributes and methods that are visible from any method in any class are said to be:


A)

private


B)

protected


C)

public


D)

persistent


E)

none of these


Answer: C Page: 650 LOD: Medium



67.

Att
ributes and methods that are visible from any method in the class in which the
attribute or method is defined are said to be:


A)

private


B)

protected


C)

public


D)

persistent


E)

none of these


Answer: A Page: 650 LOD: Medium

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

401



68.

Which o
f the following steps are NOT done in transforming the OOA class diagram
into a design class diagram?


A)

add design object


B)

add attribute visibility


C)

add methods


D)

add dependency relationships


E)

all of these should be done


Answer: E Pag
e: 665 LOD: Medium



69.

Which maxim best describes the rationale for using design patterns?


A)

A stitch in time saves nine


B)

Don't reinvent the wheel


C)

Haste makes waste


D)

A rolling stone gathers no moss


E)

The squeaky wheel gets the gre
ase


Answer: B Page: 668 LOD: Easy



70.

Which of the following is NOT an activity done in constructing a state machine
diagram?


A)

Identify state transition paths


B)

Identify initial and final states


C)

Identify triggers


D)

Identify other
states an object may have during its lifetime


E)

Identify other objects that trigger changes in the object's states


Answer: E Page: 663 LOD: Medium



Fill in the Blank Questions



71.

A(n) __________________________ is a group of objects package
d together into one
unit. An example is a dynamic link library (DLL) or executable file.


Answer: component Page: 671 LOD: Hard



72.

All objects are said to have ____________________________
-

the value of its
attributes at one point in time.


Answer: state Page: 663 LOD: Hard

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


402

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



73.

A(n) _____________________________ triggers the change in state when something
happens or when the value of one of the attributes changes.


Answer: state transition event Page: 663 LOD: Hard



74.

___________________________________ are a common solution to a given problem
in a context.


Answer: design pattern Page: 668 LOD: Hard



75.

A(n) ________________________________________ card is a popular tool for
documenting the behaviors and col
laborations for an object.


Answer: class responsibility collaboration (CRC) Page: 657 LOD: Hard



76.

If an object calls its own method, it is called a(n) _______________.


Answer: self
-
call Page: 660 LOD: Hard



77.

In ________________
______________________, the use case scenarios are acted out
by the participants. The participants may assume the role of actors or object types that
collaborate to process a hypothetical business event.


Answer: role playing Page: 664 LOD: Hard



78.

________________________________ diagrams show us in great detail how the
objects interact with each other over time.


Answer: Sequence Page: 659 LOD: Hard



79.

_______________________________ is illustrated with an arrowhead pointing only

to the direction a message can be sent.


Answer: Navigability Page: 650 LOD: Hard



80.

__________________________________ diagrams show us how objects collaborate
to satisfy the functionality of a use case, focusing on the structural organizatio
n of
objects in a network format.


Answer: Communication Page: 672 LOD: Hard


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

403



81.

_________________________________ diagrams are implementation type diagrams
and are used to graphically depict the physical architecture of the software system.


Answer: Component Page: 672 LOD: Hard



82.

_________________________________ diagrams are also implementation type
diagrams that describe the physical architecture of the hardware and software in the
system. They depict software components, proc
essors, and devices that make up the
systems architecture.


Answer: Deployment Page: 673 LOD: Hard



83.

_________________________________ diagrams model the life cycle of a single
object.


Answer: State machine Page: 663 LOD: Hard



84.

Name four types of object classes that are introduced as a result of implementation
decisions that were made during systems design: ___________________.


Answer: interface, control, persistence, system Page: 648
-
649 LOD: Hard



85.

_______________
___________ classes are identified during systems analysis and
usually correspond to items in real life and contain information, known as attributes,
that describes the different instances of the entity.


Answer: Entity Page: 648 LOD: Hard



86.

_
________________________ classes are objects that are introduced to represent a
means through which the user will interface or interact with the system


Answer: Interface Page: 648 LOD: Hard



87.

The responsibility of a(n) _______________________
___ class is twofold: (1) it
translates the user's input into information that the system can understand and use to
process the business event; (2) it takes data pertaining to a business event and
translates the data for appropriate presentation to the use
r.


Answer: interface Page: 648 LOD: Hard

Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML


404

Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition



88.

_____________________________ classes are those that hold application or business
rule logic.


Answer: Controller Page: 649 LOD: Hard



89.

________________________________ classes process
messages from an interface
class and respond to them by sending and receiving messages from the entity classes.


Answer: Controller Page: 649 LOD: Hard



90.

_____________________________ classes read and write attributes to a database.


Answer:
Persistence Page: 649 LOD: Hard



91.

_________________ classes isolate the other objects from operating system
-
specific
functionality.


Answer: System Page: 649 LOD: Hard



92.

_____________________________ is the level of access an exter
nal object has to an
attribute or method.


Answer: Visibility Page: 650 LOD: Hard



93.

The process of using object
-
oriented techniques for designing a new system is referred
to as _______________________________.


Answer: object
-
oriented design

Page: 648 LOD: Hard



94.

________________________________ is the software logic that is executed in
response to a message.


Answer: method Page: 651 LOD: Hard



95.

The degree to which one class is connected to or relies upon other classe
s is called
_______________.


Answer: coupling Page: 666 LOD: Hard



96.

The degree to which all of the attributes and behaviors of a single class are related to
each other is called _______________.


Answer: cohesion Page: 666
-
667 LOD: Hard


Chapter 18 Object
-
Oriented Design and Modeling Usin
g the UML


Whitten/Bentley, Systems Analysis & Design Methods, Seventh Edition

405



97.

A(n) _____________________________________ is the obligation that an object has
to provide a service when requested, thus collaborating with other objects to satisfy
the request if required.


Answer: object responsibility Page: 651 LOD: Ha
rd



98.

During object
-
oriented design the class diagram developed during the analysis phase is
refined into a ____________________________.


Answer: design class diagram Page: 665 LOD: Medium



99.

A(n) __________________________________ is a
set of related, interacting objects
that provide a well
-
defined set of services for accomplishing a task.


Answer: object framework Page: 671 LOD: Hard



100.

The authors of the 1995 book, Design Patterns, which proposed a set of 23 patterns for
O
O design are known collectively as the __________________________________.


Answer: Gang of Four Page: 669 LOD: Hard