Unit 4 Keystone Vocabulary

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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Unit 4 Keystone Vocabulary

1. Agriculture

1. The artificial cultivation of food fiber, and other goods by the systematic
growing and harvesting of various organisms.

2. Biotechnology

2. Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living
organisms to develop or modify either products or processes for specific use.
This term is commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of
many applications.

3. Cloning

3. A process in which a cell, cell product, or organisms is copied from an
original source (e.g., DNA cloning, the transfer of a DNA fragment from one
organism to a self
-
replication genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid;
reproductive cloning, the tra
nsfer of genetic material from the nucleus of a
donor adult cell to an egg cell that has had its nucleus removed for the purpose
of creating an embryo that can produce an exact genetic copy of the donor
organism; or therapeutic cloning, the process of taki
ng undifferentiated
embryonic cells [STEM cells] for use in medical research).

4. Co
-
dominance

4. A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of two alleles in a
heterozygous genotype express each of the phenotype of each allele fully and
equa
lly; a phenotype which would not be expressed in any other genotypic
combination.

5. Dominant Inheritance

5. A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of one allele is
completely expressed within a homozygous and heterozygous genotype.

6. Forensics

6. The science of tests and techniques used during the investigation of crimes.

7. Gamete

7. A specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing
half the normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cells.

8. Gene Splicin
g

8. A type of gene recombination in which the DNA is intentionally broken and
recombined using laboratory techniques.

9. Gene Therapy

9. The intentional insertion, alteration, or deletion of genes within an
individual’s cells and tissues for the purpose

of treating a disease.

10. Genetic Engineering

10. A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the
genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that
would not occur naturally.

11. Genetic

11. The scien
tific study of inheritance.

12. Genotype

12. The genetic compound of an organism with reference to a single trait, a set
of traits, or the entire complement of traits of an organism.

13. Incomplete Dominance

13. A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents,
are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring will have a
phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.

14. Polygenic Trait

14. A trait in which the pheno
type is controlled by two or more genes at
different loci on different chromosomes.

15. Recessive Inheritance

15. A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of one allele is only
expressed within a homozygous genotype. In a heterozygous condi
tion with a
dominant allele, it is not expressed it the phenotype

16. Selective Breeding

16. The process of breeding organisms that results on offspring with desired
genetic traits.


17. Sex
-
linked Trait


17. A trait, associated with a gene that is
carried by either the male
or female parent (e.g., colored blindness and sickle
-
cell anemia).