Sections 9.4 9.6 and 8.6 Part I Matching

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Biology II






Name: ________________________

Chapter
9


Frontiers of Biotechnology

Section
s 9.4



9.6 and 8.6


Part I


Matching


a.

Bacteria

b.

Clone

c.

Genetically modified
organism

d.

Operator

e.

Operon


f.

Plasmid

g.

Promoter

h.

Repressor

i.

Transcription
factors

j.

Recombinant DNA








1.

_______
-

a cluster of genes involved in a metabolic pathway along with their control sequences


2.

_______
-

a control sequence that acts like a switch determining whether or not RNA polymerase can
attach to
the promoter


3.

_______
-

proteins that regulate

DNA transcription (making mRNA) in eukaryotes


chemical signals
act on them to activate or deactivate


4.

_______
-

a control sequence in an operon where RNA polymerase attaches to DNA to make mRNA


5.

_______
-

a
gene product that binds to the operator and blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase


must be inactivated for RNA polymerase to function


6.

_______
-

a member of a population of genetically identical organisms produced from a single cell


7.

_______
-

the workh
orse of genetic technology


a single
-
celled organism


8.

_______
-

combines genes from different sources (even different species) into a single DNA molecule


9.

_______
-

a small, circular DNA molecule separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome; carries

genes and can replicate itself


10.

_______
-

any organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means


Part II


Multiple Choice


_____1
1.
Which of the following are examples of clones?

a.
flowers from one plant

b.
kittens from t
he same litter

c.
identical twin sisters

d.
offspring of glowing mice


_____1
2.
DNA that contains genes from more than one organism is called

a.
restricted DNA.

b.
cloned DNA.

c.
recombinant DNA.

d.
plasmid DNA

_____1
3.
Scientists commonly use bacteria in genetic engineering because bacteria

a.
naturally make insulin.

b.
infect viruses.

c.
mutate quickly.

d.
can contain plasmids.




______1
4.
Which statement is tru
e of all genetically engineered organisms?

a.
They have altered genomes.

b.
They are implanted with the
Bt
gene.

c.
They age more quickly than normal.

d.
They contain bacterial genes.


______1
5.
Plants that contain
recombinant DNA are called

a.
clones.

b.
knockouts.

c.
transgenic.

d.
plasmid

______
1
6
.
The two main goals of the Human Genome Project are to sequence all of the DNA

base pairs of the
human chromosomes and to

a.
compare
the human genome with those of other species.

b.
identify all of the genes within the genome.

c.
classify all of the alleles that cause genetic disorders.

d.
find the closest living relative to humans.


______17
.
Gene sequencing defines the order of

a.
DNA nucleotides in genes or genomes.

b.
genes on chromosomes.

c.
chromosomes in an organism’s genome.

d.
amino acids in proteins

_____18
.
The study of the proteins that result from an organism’s genome is called

a.
genomics.

b.
bioinformatics.

c.
proteomics.

d.
gene sequencing.


_____19
.
Which of the following terms is used to describe the use of computer databases to analyze and
organize biological data?

a.
ge
ne sequencing

b.
DNA microarrays

c.
proteomic studies

d.
bioinformatics


______20
.
DNA microarrays can be used to compare different cell types by showing

a.
recombinant DNA sequences.

b.
patterns of gene expression.

c.
very small DNA fragments.

d.
functions of proteins

_____2
1.
The main purpose of genetic screening is to

a.
look for the genes that cause every kind of cancer.

b.
assess the risk of having or carrying a genetic disorder.

c.
prevent
carriers from ever passing on genetic disorders.

d.
identify every possible genetic defect in a given person.


_____2
2.
Which of the following genetic disorders can be identified through genetic screening?

a.
avian influenza

b.
tuberculosi
s

c.
cystic fibrosis

d.
yellow fever


______2
3.
How are viruses used in gene therapy?

a.
to attack the immune system

b.
to carry new genes into cells

c.
to infect disease
-
causing bacteria

d.
to kill cancer cells that hav
e "suicide genes"


______2
4.
The goal of gene therapy is to replace defective or missing genes in order to

a.
make genetic screening easier.

b.
improve our adaptability.

c.
decrease recessive alleles.

d.
treat some genetic disorders

_____2
5.
Which factor has so far kept gene therapy from becoming an effective treatment for genetic disorders?

a.
the difficulty of getting new genes to become part of a cell’s DNA

b.
the complexity of
sequencing the entire human genome

c.
the lack of success in finding genes that are responsible for genetic disorders

d.
the ethical questions about making transgenic humans

______26.
In prokaryotes, gene expression is regulated by controlling

a.
transcription.

b.
replication.

c.
translation.

d.
processing.


______
2
7
.
The bacterial
lac
operon is switched on when

a.
the operator binds to the promoter.

b.
lactose binds to the
lac
operator.

c.
the operator binds to the
lac
genes.

d.
lactose binds to the
lac
repressor.


______28
.
In a eukaryotic cell, where does mRNA processing take place?

a.
cytoplasm

b.
nucleus

c.
ribosome

d.
operator


______29
.
What is the term for the nucleotide sequences that are removed during mRNA

processing?

a.
operators

b.
promoters

c.
exons

d.
introns


______30
.
What is the main function of a promoter?

a.
codes

for enzymes that break down sugar

b.
blocks the action of RNA polymerase

c.
tells RNA polymerase where to start

d.
keeps eukaryote genes permanently “off ”


Part III


Fill in the Blank

(Use the following word bank)


DNA

animals

cap

chromosome

copy

enhancers

exons

gene
therapy

gene sequencing

(2x’s)

genes (used 2 x's)

genetic engineering

genetic screening

genome

genomics

introns

mass

operons


omoter

recombinant

silencers

tail

trait

traits

transgenic


31.
A plasmid is a small, circular _________________ molecule that is separate from the much larger
bacterial ______________________. Plasmids carry genes and can __________ itself.


32.
When the genes of two different species are c
ombined, the resulting part, animal or microorganism is
said to be ________________________.


33.
Which of the following would be considered a transgenic organism? ______

a.

a plant grown in culture from a single plant cell

b.

a human treated with insulin prod
uced by
E. coli

bacteria

c.

a sheep developed from an egg cell fertilized in the laboratory

d.

a sheep that produces a cow protein

34.
Cloning

involves c
opying
of not just one gene but an
organism’s
entire _________________. This has
been done for hundreds of
years in plants, but just recently in _______________. Cloning allows
for
the
___________ production of animals with the same, favorable _______________________.


35.
Cloned, or copied, genes are inserted into the DNA of a different organism to give the
organism a new
________________________. This changing of an organism’s DNA is called
_____________________________________________. It is based on the use of
______________________________ DNA which is DNA that contains genes from more than one
organism
.



36.
An organism’s genome is all of its genetic information. ___________________________ is the study
of genomes, which includes the sequencing of all of an organism’s DNA. By comparing
___________________________ both within and among species, scien
tists can study evolutionary
relationships and identify genes related to disease. All studies of genomics rely on
________________________________________________, or finding the order of DNA nucleotides in
genes or genomes.


37.
Through the process of _
________________________________________, alleles which may be
involved in human disease and genetic disorders can be detected. Usually, this process is used to search for
specific ___________________ that are known to be related to a particular illness s
uch as types of cancer or
cystic fibrosis. If a defective allele is found, _____________________________________ may be used to
replace the defective genes. Although only successful in a small number of cases, this process hold promise
for the future.


3
8.
In prokaryotic cells, genes are often organized into _______________________, which are sets of
genes that code for all the proteins needed to carry out a particular task. These genes are transcribed as a
unit and are often controlled by a DNA sequenc
e called a __________________________ which help RNA
polymerase know where the gene starts.


39.
Eukaryotes also have DNA sequences that help regulate transcription. These include promoters,
_____________________________ and _________________________.


40.
The mRNA in eukaryotic cells must undergo processing. The expressed sequences are called
_____________________, while the sequences that are removed during processing are called
_______________________. In addition, a ________________ is added tha
t helps prevent break down and
directs the mRNA to a ribosome. A ______________________ is added that helps mRNA exit the nucleus.


41.
Describe two applications of transgenic organisms (9.4 in your text!)




42.
Describe the goals of the Human Genome P
roject (9.5 in your text!)





43.
How are pedigree analysis and DNA testing used together in genetic screening? (9.6)




44.
What is an operon? List and describe the
three parts of an operon:








45.
Describe how the presence of lactose turns on the
lac

operon in bacteria.