Biotechnology

clattergumneckΒιοτεχνολογία

23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

112 εμφανίσεις

Biotechnology


Modification or reading of an organism’s DNA



Like crop selection



Like dog breeding



Most modern biotech works with DNA

How to make transgenic organisms

1.
Chop the gene of interest out of donor
organism


2. Make a whole bunch of copies of that gene


3. Insert the gene into your target organism

Cutting DNA


Use restriction enzymes


From Bacteria and
Archaea
, lots of different ones



Enzymes that chop DNA at specific sequences


The
recognition site



Give you DNA fragments, which you can work
with

PCR


Polymerase chain reaction



A way of making lots of copies of specific parts
of a DNA sequence



Uses DNA copying machinery from a hot
-
springs bacteria

Putting genes in bacteria


Use plasmids



Chop plasmid


Insert gene of interest


Put it into bacteria


transformation



This is how we produce a lot of drugs and
hormones


Insulin, HGH, Vaccines, Etc……..

Gene therapy


Inserting a gene into a human


Using a virus



Has been one mixed success (SCID)



Mostly hasn’t worked



People are still hopeful

Genetic screening


Reading DNA is a form of biotechnology



Screening for disease


Like
Tay
-
Sach’s

in children


Breast cancer
-
related genes in women



Etc…

The information in DNA


DNA evidence


DNA fingerprinting uses different parts of the
genome


We’ll do this in lab



Who is related to whom


Matching different DNA samples

Phylogenetic trees


Using differences in DNA sequence, we can
tell how closely two organisms are



Some regions of DNA change more than
others


Regions with little change are highly
conserved

GM crops


Artificial selection does count…



Now we’ve started creating transgenic crops


Arguments for?


Arguments against?



And even animals…

Cloning


We’ve cloned sheep, cats, mice, monkeys …



Talk of using preserved tissue to clone extinct
animals, like the
Bucardo

(a Spanish mountain
sheep)



Dinosaurs?


Humans?

Next time…


Read 210
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224


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xswCrkRn
ZsQ