Biology Unit 8 Objectives: Genetics and Human Heredity

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Biology Unit 8

Objectives
: Genetics and Human Heredity

-

Sections 11.1
-
11.3 and Chapters 14
-
15

Objectives:

1.
Explain basic Mendelian inheritance including dominance and recessiveness, segregation, and independent assortment.

2. Explain why certain organisms work well for genetics studies while others do not.

3
.
Explain how genotypes (heterozygous and homozygous) contribute to phenotypic variation within a species
. (3.3 E a)

4
.
Predict the probability of the occurrence of
specific traits, including sex
-
linked traits, in an offspring by using a
monohybrid cross
. (3.3 E b)

5
.
Understand other methods of inheritance like co
-
dominance, polygenic and multiple allele traits, sex
-
linked traits, and
incomplete dominance.

6.
Expl
ain how sex
-
linked traits may or may not result in the expression of a genetic disorder (e.g., hemophilia, muscular
dystrophy, color blindness) depending on gender
. (3.3 E
c)

7
. Identify the implications of human sex chromosomes for sex determination.
(3.3 C d)

8. Give examples of how we are studying genetics and DNA and how this has both expanded our knowledge as well as
allowed us to manipulate DNA and heredity as well as to possibly cure diseases

9. Be able to discuss the ethical implications of ou
r

research into DNA and genetics.


Performance Objectives:

1. Be able to make simple one factor and two factor crosses using Punnett Squares.

2. Be able to draw and interpret simple pedigrees.

3. Be able to make and analyze simple karyotypes.


Be sure

t
o read chapter 11, 14 and 15
, and copy all the notes from the binder/web site into your biology
notebook section 2.

Unit 8 Book Work


Please answer in section 3 of your notebook.

1. page 320Analyzing Data #1
-
4

2. page 327 Analyzing Data #1
-
4

3. Pages

332
-
335 #1
-
18, 26
-
31 and 1
-
10

4. page 333 Chapter Mystery #1
-
4

5. page 400 Analyzing Data #1
-
3

6. page 402 Science and Society (5 points)

7. pages 412
-
415 1
-
30 and 1
-
10

8. page 413 Chapter Mystery #1
-
5

9. page 429Analyzing Data #1
-
4

10. page 435 T
echnology and Biology (5 points)

11. pages 442
-
445 # 1
-
32 and 1
-
10

12. page 443 #1
-
4


Day 1
Objectives:

1. Explain basic Mendelian inheritance including dominance and recessiveness, segregation, and independent assortment.

2. Explain why certain orga
nisms work well for genetics studies while others do not.

3. Explain how genotypes (heterozygous and homozygous) contribute to phenotypic variation within a species. (3.3 E a)

4. Predict the probability of the occurrence of specific traits, including s
ex
-
linked traits, in an offspring by using a
monohybrid cross. (3.3 E b)

5. Understand other methods of inheritance like co
-
dominance, polygenic and multiple allele traits, sex
-
linked traits, and
incomplete dominance.

6. Explain how sex
-
linked traits ma
y or may not result in the expression of a genetic disorder (e.g., hemophilia, muscular
dystrophy, color blindness) depending on gender. (3.3 E c)


Performance Objectives:

1. Be able to make simple one factor and two factor crosses using Punnett Squares.



1.

allele

the different forms of a single gene

2.

co
-
dominance

when two genes are equally expressed

3.

dominance

when one gene hides the expression of another

4.

F1 generation

the offspring of the original purebred parents

5.

F2 generation

the offspring of two F1

6.

fert
ilization

egg plus sperm form a zygote

7.

gamete

an egg or sperm cell

8.

gene

a piece of DNA that codes for a particular protein

9.

gene map

a picture of a chromosome showing the location of genes

10.

genetics

the scientific study of heredity (how we get our traits)

11.

ge
notype

an organism’s genetic composition (TT, Tt, tt)

12.

heterozygous

having two different alleles (Tt)

13.

homozygous

having two identical alleles (TT, tt)

14.

hybrid

a mixture of two different organisms

15.

incomplete dominance

intermediate inheritance where one allele

is not completely dominant over the other allele

16.

independent assortment

one gene has no effect on the inheritance of another gene

17.

linked genes

genes on the same chromosome that are inherited together

18.

multiple allele trait

when a gene has more than 2 forms

(ABO blood group)

19.

P generation

the original purebred parents in Mendel’s studies

20.

phenotype

an organism’s physical appearance

21.

polygenic trait

a trait controlled by many genes, has multiple possibilities

22.

probability

the likelihood that an event will occur

23.

Punnett Square

boxes used to show the probability of genetic crosses

24.

purebred

a true breeding organism with easily identifiable traits from one

generation to the next

25.

recessive

a gene that is hidden in the heterozygous condition

26.

segregation

when the genes

separate as they are passed to the offspring, only get 1

copy, random

27.

sex
-
linked trait

a trait carried on the sex chromosome, more common in males

28.

trait

a characteristic like hair color, eye color, skin color…





Day 2
Objectives:

1
. Explain how sex
-
linked traits may or may not result in the expression of a genetic disorder (e.g., hemophilia, muscular
dystrophy, color blindness) depending on gender. (3.3 E c)

2
. Identify the implications of human sex chromosomes for sex determinat
ion. (3.3 C d)

3
. Give examples of how we are studying genetics and DNA and how this has both expanded our knowledge as well as
allowed us to manipulate DNA and heredity as well as to possibly cure diseases

4
. Be

able to discuss the ethical implications of our research into DNA and genetics.

Performance Objectives:

1
. Be able to draw and interpret simple pedigrees.

2
. Be able to make and analyze simple karyotypes.


1.

artificial selection

intentional breeding for c
ertain traits

2.

autosomes

all chromosomes other than the X and Y


3.

clone

an identical copy of an organism

4.

cystic fibrosis

hereditary disorder affecting the exocrine glands. It causes the production of

abnormally thick mucus, leading to the blockage
and

respiratory infection

5.

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids
to identify
individuals

6.

Down Syndrome

trisomy 21

7.

gel electrophoresis

research technique used to separate molecules (or fragments of a molecule)

according to s
ize

8.

gene therapy

transplantation of normal genes into cells to correct genetic disorders

9.

genetic advantage

when having specific genes increases an organism’s chances of surviving

10.

genetic markers

gene or DNA sequence having a known location o
n a chromosome
and
associated with a

particular gene or trait

11.

genetically modified

alteration of the structure of
genetic

mater
ial in a living organism with
recombinant DNA

12.

genome

the entirety of an organism's hereditary information

13.

hemophilia


a disease where the blood

doesn’t clot properly

14.

Huntington’s disease

an inherited disease
with

progressi
ve breakdown (degeneration) of
nerve cells in the brain

15.

hybridization

mixing different species or varieties of
organisms
to produce mixed breeds

16.

inbreeding

breeding closely rela
ted individuals

17.

karyotype

a picture of all an organism’s chromosomes arranged by size

18.

natural selection

survival of the fittest

19.

nondisjunction

failure of the chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis

20.

PCR

a molecular technique which allows the produ
ction of large quantities of a
specific DNA

from a DNA template

21.

pedigree

a family history showing traits

22.

polyploidy

having multiple complete sets of chromosomes

23.

recombinant DNA

when the DNA of two or more organisms is combined to make a

new organism

24.

rest
riction enzymes

an enzyme from bacteria that can recognize
specific base sequences in DNA
and cut the

DNA at that site

25.

selective breeding

choosing breeding pairs to get desired traits

26.

sex chromosomes

the X and Y chromosome, determine gender of offspring

27.

sickle cell anemia

genetic blood disorder caused by the presence of an abnormal form of

hemoglobin

28.

transgenic

an organism that has DNA from another organism




Day 3
Objectives:

1.
Give examples of how we are studying genetics and DNA and how this has
both expanded our knowledge as well as
allowed us to manipulate DNA and heredity as well as to possibly cure diseases

2
. Be able to discuss the ethical implications of our research into DNA and genetics.



1.

ABO blood type


the most commonly recognized
blood proteins

2.

Barr body


small, densely staining structure in the cell nuclei of female mammals,




consisting of a condensed, inactive X chromosome

3.

bioinformatics


science of collecting and analyzing complex biological data

4.

biotechnology


exploitation o
f biological processes for industrial and other purposes

5.

cloning


research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity

6.

co
-
dominance


condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully




expressed

7.

colorblindness



geneti
c inability to distinguish differences in hue

8.

dihybrid


hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes

9.

forensics


application of scientific knowledge and methodology to legal problems




and criminal investigations

10.

genomics


branch of mole
cular biology concerned with the structure, function,




evolution, and mapping of genomes

11.

Gregor Mendel


the father of genetics

12.

hybrid


offspring of genetically dissimilar parents

13.

Klinefelter Syndrome


males having an extra X chromosome

14.

malaria


serious
infectious disease spread by certain mosquitoes

15.

male pattern baldness


progressive loss of scalp hair in men that depends on the presence of the




androgenic hormone testosterone

16.

monohybrid


organism that is heterozygous for alleles of one gene

17.

one facto
r cross


a cross involving only one trait

18.

PKU


inherited disorder in which the body is unable to process phenylalanine,




an amino acid found in proteins


19.

plasmid


a circular piece of DNA common in bacteria

20.

Rh blood type


the positive or negative blood
type

21.

sex influenced trait


a trait that varies due to sex hormones

22.

Turner Syndrome


an XO female, often sterile

23.

two factor cross


a cross involving two traits at the same time

24.

X chromosome


the larger of the two sex chromosomes, in males and females

25.

Y chro
mosome

the smaller of the two sex chromosomes, in males only