2009-2010 Biology I/Biology I Honors Pacing Guide

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1


2009
-
2010 Biology
I/
Biology
I H
onors Pacing Guide

Content


Skills

Standards/Benchmarks

Holt

Modern Biology

Chapters

Glencoe

Biology

Chapters

Suggested Labs/Activities

1st Semester






1
st

Quarter






Scientific Method

Tools and Technology

(Integrated into topics
throughout the year
)

1. Students will gather data (make observations) in
investigations, using appropriate tools and proper
measuring techniques in the metric system.

2. Students will organize data in the form of graphs and
tables, where appropriate.

3. Students will generate inferences and explanations
based on logical interpretation of their data.

4. Students will communicate findings both orally and
in writing.

5. Identify reliable sources of information while
conductin
g research into a scientific problem,
phenomenon or concept.

6. Students will understand the nature of scientific
theory as opposed to lay perception of the term
“theory”.

LA.910.2.2.3; LA.910.4.2.2;
MA.912.S.1.2;
MA.912.S.3.2; N.1.1;
N.1.3; N.1.4; N.1.6;

N.2.1;
N.2.2; N.3.1; N.3.4


(Honors only
--

N.1.7
--
has
to do with role of
creativity in research.)

1.3 and 1.4

1.2 and 1.3

Inquiry Lab that investigates Scientific
Method steps

Microscopes

(5 days)

1. Students will identify parts of a compound light
microscope and their functions.

2. Students will produce wet mount preparations of
various specimens.

3. Students will demonstrate proper focusing methods
to view specimens under the compound microscope.

4. Students will distinguish between light and el
ectron
microscopes.

5. Students will identify advantages and disadvantages
in the use of both light and electron microscopes.

L.14.4; N.1.1




1.4, pp. 1070,
1071

7.1, pp. 138
(timeline), 1106

Microscope Techniques

Biochemistry, Enzymes,


and Properties of Water

(10 days)

1. Students will relate classes of biocompounds to their
functions.

2. Students will identify generalized structures of
L.18.1; L.18.11; L.18.12;
(Honors Only
--
L.18.2;
L.18.3; L.18.4; P.8.7;
2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2,
10.2,

10.4

6.1, 6.2, 6.3,
11.1

Model Labs, pH Labs, Catalyst labs, Food
Lab

2


biocompounds to their classes


simple sugars,
polysaccharides, amino acids, fats.

3. Students wil
l describe the importance of certain
properties of water as they relate to living systems


moderation of temperature, cohesion, dissolving ability
of ionic and polar substances, expansion on freezing.

4. Students will explain the role of enzymes as
cata
lysts that lower the activation energy of metabolic
reactions in terms of the lock
-
and
-
key model.

5. Students will identify factors such as pH and
temperature that influence the behavior of enzymes.

6. Students will interpret an energy diagram
illustrating
the energy changes that occur in a reaction with, and in
the absence of, an enzyme/catalyst.

P.8.12. These are more
detailed versions of
L.18.1.)

Characteristics of Life/

Levels of Organization

(5 days)

1. Students will describe characteristics that all
organisms have in common

cells, metabolism,
irritability, homeostasis,
reproduction, and that species
are not static through time.

2. Students will identify, describe, or draw diagrams for
examples of homeostasis.

3. Students will relate terms such as cell, tissue, organ,
system, etc. to the hierarchical organization of th
e
living world.

4. Students will distinguish between populations,
communities, and ecosystems.

5. Given a food web, students will identify producers,
consumers and decomposers.

6. Students will justify the reason for exponential
energy loss from one tr
ophic level to the next.

(7. Honors only
--

Students will identify examples of
energy conversion within ecosystems


i.e. radiant to
chemical (potential), chemical to radiant, chemical to
kinetic, etc
.
)

L.14.1; L.18.9; L.17.9

(Honors Only
-

P.10.1

Variou
s forms of energy
can be transformed from
one to the other.)



1.1 and 1.2, 4.2,
and 18.1

1.1 and 2.1, and

p 210 (diagram)

Observation and Inference
--

Plant and
Animal Traits

Cell Overview

(10 days)

1. Students will relate the contributions of Hooke,
Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow to the development
of cell theory and to scientific methods of inquiry.

L.14.1; L.14.2; L.14.3

(Honors Only
-
L.14.5


Endosymbiotic Theory)

4

7

Cell Types Lab (Animal vs. Plant,
Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic)

3


2. Students will identify cell structures in cell diagrams
and relate them to their functions.

3. Students will compare and contrast animal and plant
cell structure.

4. Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cell structure.

(5. Honors only
-

Students will describe the
endosymbiont theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells
and list at least three examples of evidence that
support
it.)


2
nd

Quarter






Membranes and
Transport

(7 days)

1. Students will describe the overall structure of a
biological membrane according to the fluid
-
mosaic
model

a bilayer of phospholipids with embedded
proteins.

2. Students will demonstrate that membranes are
semipermeable and explain how this provides a
barrier
between the cell and its environment.

3. Students will distinguish between passive and active
forms of transport, given examples of each.

(4. Honors only
--

Students will explain the role that
proteins embedded in membranes play in transport,
cel
l
-
to
-
cell recognition and reception.)

(5. Honors only
-

Students will recognize the structure
of phospholipid molecules and identify hydrophilic and
hydrophobic regions of the molecule.)


L.14.2 (Honors only
-
L.18.3; L.18.4)

5 and 4.3

7.2 and 8.1

Osmosis/
Diffusion Lab


Cell Reproduction

(Mitosis/Meiosis, Human
Reproduction, Cancer)

1. Students will identify or describe the various events
occurring within a cell in the process of mitosis.

2. In a lab practical or through diagrams or drawings,
students
will identify stages of mitosis.

3. Students will explain how crossing over and
reduction division associated with meiosis I are related
to increased variation in sexual reproduction.

4. Students will compare and contrast mitosis and
meiosis with respect
to number of divisions to
L.16.8; L.16.13; L.16.14;
L.16.16; L.16.17

(Honors onl
y
-

L.16.15)

8, 11.2, 51

8.2, 8.3, 10.2,
38.1, 38.2

Onion Root Tip or Whitefish Mitosis Lab

4


complete the process, the total number of cells
produced the chromosome number of resultant cells,
the genetic makeup of these cells compared to the
parent cell and their respective roles in sexual and
asexual reproduction.

5. St
udents will explain that the cause of cancer is
ultimately mutation in genes controlling cell division.

6. Students will identify structures associated with
human male and female reproductive systems and
relate them to their functions.

7. Students will d
escribe the major events of human
development that occur in each trimester of pregnancy.

(Honors only
-

Students will explain how mitotic cell
division is related to binary fission and how it is not.)

Immunology (General Bio
ONLY)

(3 days)

1. Students will identify functions of the various
leucocytes involved in immunity.

2. Students will distinguish between
specific and
nonspecific immune response.

3. Students will describe how vaccines and antibiotics
are used to treat/prevent disease.


4. Using specific diseases as examples, students
describe various ways that disease is transmitted.

5. Students explore
the impact of sanitation measures,
public health services, etc. on the control of disease.

HE.912.C.1.3;
HE.912.C.1.4; C.1.8;
L.14.52; L.14.6


39

AIDS Lab

2nd Semester






3
rd

Quarter






Molecular Genetics (DNA)

(10 days)

1. Students will compare and contrast the structures
and functions of DNA and RNA.

2. Students will explain how the semiconservative
nature of replication relates to conservation of genetic
information.

3. Students will apply base
-
pairing rules correct
ly to
predict the complement of a DNA sequence, its RNA
transcript and a corresponding tRNA sequence.

4. Students will use a genetic code table to determine
the amino acid sequence from a given DNA or mRNA
HE.912.C.1.3;
HE.912.C.1.4; L.14.6;
L.15.15; L.16.3; L.16.4;
L.16.5; L.16.8; L.16.9;
L.16.10


10, 11, and 12

11.2, 11.3

DNA Models

DNA Extraction Lab



5


sequence.

5. Using examples, students will jus
tify how mutation
may or MAY NOT produce changes in phenotype.
(Substitution vs. addition/deletion point mutations) and
that in order for effects to be felt, they must occur in
germline cells.

6. Students will compare and contrast transcription
and repli
cation and interpret a diagram of protein
synthesis.

7. Students will complete a poster, project, or some
other student
-
driven product that illustrates or
explores the use of biotechnology on the treatment of
disease (genetic or otherwise), in agricultur
e or some
other aspect of human society.

Mendelian Genetics

(12 days)

1. Students will relate
Mendel’s principles of
segregation and independent assortment to events
occurring in meiosis.

2.
Students

will construct Punnett squares for
monohybrid crosses and predict genotypic and
phenotypic ratios.

3. Students will predict the outcome of crosses
i
nvolving traits inherited through simple dominance,
codominance, sex
-
linkage, multiple alleles, and
polygenic inheritance.

4. Given outcomes, i.e. genotypic and phenotypic
ratios, students will determine the type of inheritance
and the genotypes of parent
s.

5. Students will explain how gender in determined in
humans.

6. Predict the possible ABO blood types of children,
given their parental types.

7. Students will explain the effect of nondisjunction on
chromosome number, and relate it to the occurrence
of
disorders such as Down and Klinefelter syndromes.

8. Students will research and produce a product, such
as a poster, presentation or paper, on a genetic
L.16.1; L.16.2


9 and 12.2

10.1 and 12

Probability Lab

Punnett Squares

6


disorder of their choice to include effects, mode of
inheritance and current research into treatmen
t, etc.

Taxonomy/Systematics

Introduction of
Kingdoms/Domains of
Life

(10 days)

1. Given the appropriate dichotomous keys, students
will determine the identity of biological
specimens.

2. Given a set of objects, or biological specimens,
students will construct a dichotomous key that can be
effectively used to identify them.

3. Students will identify properly written

scientific
names.

4. Students will apply the hierarchical
system of
classification to one or more organisms. (humans, for
example)

5. Students will justify the reasons for classification
systems being based on genetic/evolutionary
commonalities.

6. Students will distinguish the three domains and six
kingdoms of

the living world according to their
characteristics, providing examples of members of
each.

(Study of a particular group or organism would fit
here

classification of plants, or a specific species


maybe tie botany unit here, or use the leopard frog,
with

dissection, to exemplify classification, vertebrate
characteristics, and specific features of Class Amphibia,
Order Anura.)

L.15.4; L.15.5; L.15.6



17


17

Dichotomous Keys

4
th

Quarter






Evolution

(10 days)

1. Students will describe or illustrate
scientific views
regarding the origin of life on Earth


Oparin’s
hypothesis, Miller’s experiment, RNA World, etc.

2. Students will apply Darwin’s reasoning
(Reproduction exceeds available food and space,
struggle for existence, inherited variation, diffe
rential
reproductive success) to describe an example of natural
selection.

3. Students will distinguish between Darwinian and
Lamarckian theories, and how they relate, or do not
L.15.1; L.15.8; L.15.10;
L.15.13; L.15.14

(Honors only
-
L.15.2;
L.15.3; L.15.12)


14
-
16, 43.4

14
-
16

Comparison of Hominid, Ape and modern
Human Skull Features, Peppered Moth
Simulation, Natural

Selection Labs

7


relate to findings of modern genetics.

4. Students will identify examples of

homologous and
analogous structures and distinguish between them.

5. Students will describe examples of evidence from
the fossil record, comparative anatomy and
embryology, biogeography, molecular biology and
observed evolutionary change that support
evo
lutionary theory.

6. Students will describe examples of evolutionary
change through isolation, genetic drift and gene flow.

7. Students will distinguish divergent and convergent
evolution, providing examples of each.

8. Students will identify trends in
human evolution
from early ancestors 6 mya


to include brain size, jaw
size, language and manufacture of tools.

(9. Honors only


Hardy
-
Weinberg Principle
-

Students
will predict the frequency of genotypes in a population
using observed phenotypes.
Students will explain why
conditions necessary for genetic equilibrium to occur in
a population are not likely to occur in nature. )

(10. Honors only


Students will explain how molecular
clocks are used to determine dates for divergence of
groups. An ass
ociated timeline could be used here.)

(11. Honors only


Students will discuss the opposing
effects of speciation and extinction on biodiversity.)

(Other possible topics to incorporate


coevolution,
types of selection
-
including disruptive, directional,
s
tabilizing and sexual
-

and, pre and post
-
zygotic
isolation.)

Ecology

(15 days)

1. Students will construct a food web for a biological
community with at least 10 organisms occupying
different niches in the community
-
producers,
consumers and decomposers.

2. Students analyze the effects of biotic and
abiotic
limiting factors on population size.

3. Students use physical characteristics of an
E.7.1; L.17.2; L.17
.4;
L.17.5; L.17.8; L.17.9;
L.17.11; L.17.13; L.17.20

(Honors only
-

L.17.10 this
is a more explicit and
detailed version of E.7.1
found in the Bio I
18
-
20

2
-
5

Populat
ion Simulations

8


ecosystem, i.e. available light, temperature, etc., to
predict the distribution of species within it. The
benchmark addresses aquatic systems with parameters
being

water chemistry, salinity, depth and temperature.

4. Students will describe succession in a freshwater or
forest ecosystem, and after a natural catastrophe, such
as a volcanic eruption.

5. Students will interpret and draw diagrams of carbon
and water

cycles that illustrate the flow of matter and
energy through an ecosystem.

6. Students will investigate specific examples of the
effects on biodiversity due to invasion of nonnative
species, catastrophic events, or human activity.

description

biogeochemical cycles

adds nitrogen cycle
instead of just carbon and
water.)

Botany

(Classification of Plants


Honors ONLY)

(5 days)

1. Students will identify basic functions of plant organs
and tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves, etc.

2. Students will dissect flowers (one type or several)
and identify and
key out the parts.

3. Students will relate flower parts to their functions.

4. Students will explain how materials are transferred
through the vascular systems of plants.

5. Students will relate leaf structure to adaptation to
various habitats.

(6. Hon
ors only
--

Students will collect angiosperms,
gymnosperms, pteridophytes and bryophytes and
identify their distinguishing characteristics.)

L.14.7

(Honors only
-

L.14.53)



28 and 29

21.1

Tree Rings, Leaf Classification, Flower
Dissection

Photosynthesis and
Respiration

(10 days)



1. Students will identify the basic reactions, products
and function of photosynthesis.

2. Students will distinguish between the events of the
light and dark reactions of photosynthesis.

3. Students will
identify the basic reactions, products
and function of aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

4. Students will connect the role of ATP to the energy
transfer within a cell.


(Honors only


Students will explain how “energy
conversion” relates to photosynthes
is, respiration and
L.18.7; L.18.8; L.18.10;


(Honors only
-

L.18.6;
L.18.9; P.8.7; P.10.1)

6 and 7

9

Rate of Oxygen Production (pH)

Bromthymol B
lue Lab, Chromatography
Lab, Fermentation Lab

9


ATP.)

(Honors only


Students will explain the role that carrier
molecules play in energy/matter transfer


ATP, NAD
+
,
FAD
+
, NADP
+
. Students will explain the role of electron
transport in the production of ATP in both aerobic
respiration and the light reactions of photosynthesis.)

(Honors only
-

Students will explain the interrelated
nature of photosynthesis and respiration
.)

(Honors only


Students will provide examples of the
role of anaerobic respiration in human society.)

(
Honors only


Students will recognize structural
formulas of glucose and ATP and relate them to their
respective organic classes.)


All Bio I benchmarks are included except:

1. L.14.26 Major Parts of the Brain





2. L.14.36 Blood Flow in Cardiovascular System