IT Infrastructure

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BUSINESS DRIVEN
TECHNOLOGY



Hardware and Software

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Introduction

IT infrastructure
-

includes
the hardware, software,
and telecommunications
equipment that, when
combined, provide the
underlying foundation to
support the
organization’s goals.



McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Client Server Architecture

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Internet


Intranet
-

Extranet

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Basics of Hardware and Software


Hardware



physical aspects of computers,
telecommunications, and other information
technology devices


Example: Keyboard, monitor



Software

-
a general term for the various
kinds of programs used to operate
computers and related devices


Example: Microsoft Excel

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Basics of Hardware and Software

Six categories of hardware:

1.
Input device

2.
Output device

3.
Storage device

4.
Central processing unit (CPU)

5.
Telecommunications device

6.
Connecting device

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Basics of Hardware and Software


Two main types of software:

1.
Application software

-

software used to solve
specific problems or perform specific tasks

2.
System software

-

handles tasks specific to
technology management and coordinates the
interaction of all technology devices


Operating system software

-

supports the application
software and manages how the hardware devices work
together


Utility software

-

provides additional functionality to the
operating system

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMPUTER CATEGORIES


Personal digital assistant

(
PDA
)

-

a small hand
-
held
computer that performs
simple tasks


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-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMPUTER CATEGORIES


Notebook computer

-

a fully
functional computer designed to
be carried around and run on
battery power



Tablet computer

-

a pen
-
based
computer that provides the screen
capabilities of a PDA with the
functional capabilities of a
notebook or a desktop computer

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Desktop computer
-

the most popular choice for
personal computing needs



Minicomputer

-

designed to meet the computing needs
of several people simultaneously in a small to medium
-
size business environment



Mainframe computer

-

designed to meet the computing
needs of hundreds of people in a large business
environment


COMPUTER CATEGORIES

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-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Supercomputers

-

the fastest, most powerful, and most
expensive type of computer

COMPUTER CATEGORIES

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-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Software


Software contains the instructions that the hardware
executes to perform an information processing task



Without the aid of software, the computer (e.g. hardware)
is useless



Two categories of software:

1.
Application

2.
System

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Application software is used for specific information
processing needs, including:


Payroll


Customer relationship management


Project management


Training


Word processing and many others



Enterprise Software including:


Supply Chain Management (SCM)


Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)




APPLICATION SOFTWARE

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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APPLICATION SOFTWARE


Personal productivity software

-

used to perform
personal tasks such as writing a memo, creating a
graph, or creating a slide presentation



Examples:


Microsoft Word


Microsoft Excel


Internet Explorer



Quicken

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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APPLICATION SOFTWARE


Vertical market software

-

application software
that is unique to a particular industry


Patient
-
scheduling software


Nursing allocation software



Horizontal market software

-

general enough to
be suitable for use in a variety of industries


Inventory management software


Payroll software

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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SYSTEM SOFTWARE


System software

controls how the various
technology tools work together along with the
application software



Two basic categories:

1.
Operating System

2.
Utility


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-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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SYSTEM SOFTWARE


Operating system software

controls application software
and manages how THE hardware devices work together


Microsoft Windows 2000 Pro


Microsoft Windows 2000 ME


Microsoft Windows XP Home


Microsoft Windows XP Pro


Mac OS


Linux



Multitasking

-

allows more than one piece of software to
be used at a time

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Utility software adds additional functionality to the
operating system



Types of utility software:


Crash
-
proof software



Uninstaller software



Disk optimization software


Spyware

software


Utility software

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Hardware


Binary digit

(
bit
)

-

the smallest unit of information
that a computer can process



ASCII

(
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange
)

-

the coding system that most
personal computers use to represent, process, and
store information



Byte

-

a group of eight bits

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON INPUT DEVICES


Input device is a tool used to capture information and commands



Examples include:


Keyboard


Point
-
of
-
sale (POS)


Microphone


Mouse


Pointing stick


Touch pad


Touch screen


Bar code reader


Optical mark recognition (OMR)


Scanner

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES


Output device is equipment used to see, hear, or
otherwise accept the results of information processing



Monitors


Cathode
-
ray tubes (CRTs)


Flat
-
panel displays


Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors


Gas plasma displays



Pixels

-

the dots that make up an image on the computer
screen


McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES


Printers


Inkjet printers

-

make images by forcing ink droplets
through nozzles


Laser printers

-

form images using an electrostatic
process, the same way a photocopier works


Multifunction printers

-

scan, copy, and fax, as well
as print


McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES


Central Processing Unit (CPU)

-

the actual
hardware that interprets and executes the
program (software) instructions and coordinates
how all the other hardware devices work
together


McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON OUTPUT DEVICES


Random Access Memory (RAM)

-

temporary
storage that holds the current information, the
application software currently being used, and
the operating system software


Megahertz (MHz)

-

the number of millions of CPU
cycles per second


Gigahertz (GHz)

-

the number of billions of CPU
cycles per second

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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A CPU contains two primary parts:

1.
Control unit

2.
Arithmetic/logic unit



Control unit

-

interprets software instructions and literally
tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the
software instructions



Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

-

performs all arithmetic
operations (for example, addition, and subtraction) and all
logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)

Characteristics of CPUs and RAM

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON STORAGE DEVICES


Two questions to ask about storage devices:

1.
Is updating or modifying the information an option?

2.
How much information needs to be stored?



Storage device capacities are measured in terms
of bytes including gigabytes, and terabytes


Gigabyte (GB)

is roughly 1 billion characters


Terabyte (TB)

is roughly 1 trillion bytes

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Storage capacity


COMMON STORAGE DEVICES

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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COMMON STORAGE DEVICES


Common storage devices include:


High
-
capacity floppy disk



Hard disk


CD
-
ROM (compact disc
-

read
-
only memory)


CD
-
R (compact disc
-
recordable)


CD
-
RW (compact disc
-
rewritable)


DVD
-
ROM


DVD
-
R



DVD
-
RW or DVD+RW



Flash memory device


Memory card

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES


Types of modems include:


Telephone modems (dial
-
up)


Cable modems


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modems


Wireless modems


Satellite modems

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES


Modem speed comparisons

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-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Communication software includes:


Connectivity software

-

enables a computer
to “dial up” or connect to another computer


Web browser software

-

enables a computer
to surf the Web


E
-
mail software

-

enables electronic
communication with other people by sending
and receiving e
-
mail

TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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CONNECTING DEVICES


Connecting devices enable the hardware to
communicate with each other


A parallel connector is used to plug a printer into a
system box


Parallel connector interfaces with a parallel port that
is connected to an expansion card

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Busses, Expansion Slots, and Expansion
Cards


Expansion bus

-

moves information from the CPU
and RAM to all of the other hardware devices



Expansion slot

-

a long skinny socket on the
motherboard into which an expansion card is
inserted



Expansion card

-

a circuit board that is inserted
into an expansion slot

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Ports

-

simply the plug
-
ins found on the outside of
the system box (usually in the back) into which a
connector is plugged into



Popular connectors include:


USB

(
universal serial bus
)



Serial connector


Parallel connector


Ports and Connectors

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Infrared

also called
IR

or
IrDA (infrared data
association
)
-

uses red light to send and receive
information



Bluetooth
-

standard for transmitting information in the
form of short range radio waves over distances of up to 30
feet and is used for purposes such as wirelessly
connecting a cell phone or a PDA to a computer



WiFi

(
wireless fidelity
)
-

standard for transmitting
information in the form of radio waves over distances up to
about 300 feet

Wireless Connection

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Wireless Connection


Wireless comparison chart