Information and ICT

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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1

Information and ICT

Higher/Int 2


Business Management

2013
-
2014

2

Unit Outline


What is information?


Sources of
information


Types of information


Value of information


Uses of information
in business



Types of ICT


Business software


Costs and benefits of
ICT


Effects of ICT


Legislation


3

Data and Information

Data:



collections of facts
or quantities, which
have been
assembled in some
formal manner

Information:



data that has been
processed into a
form that will
assist in decision
-
making and planning

4

Sources of Information


Primary




Secondary


Internal




External

5

Primary Information


first
-
hand information gathered and
processed for a particular purpose



mainly collected by observation,
interview, questionnaire etc

6

Secondary Information


second
-
hand information gathered for one
purpose but reused for another



mainly collected from reference books,
business and government statistics, market
research companies, competitors,
newspapers, Internet websites

7

Internal Information


data and information that come from the
organisation’s own records eg sales records



only people within the organisation can use
this information



used for control purposes within the
organisation

8

External Information


data and information that come from
sources outwith the organisation



used for decision
-
making and planning



analysis of factors outwith the
organisation’s control


9

Primary Information

Advantages



Specific for purpose


Information is private


Up
-
to
-
date


Source can be verified

Disadvantages



Market research costs
are high


Research flawed eg
sample size


Respondents may have
lied


Time consuming


Researcher bias

10

Secondary Information

Advantages



Inexpensive


Ease of access


Wide variety of
sources


Disadvantages



May not be relevant


May have author bias


May be out
-
of
-
date


Available to
competitors

11

Internal Information

Advantages



Accurate information
after the business is
established


Accurate records help
achieve targets


Ease of access


Disadvantages



Costs of setting up a
recording system


New organisations
have no information


Regular updating
required

12

External Information

Advantages



Wide range of sources
available


Relatively inexpensive


Useful for strategic
decisions when used
with PESTEC


Disadvantages



May contain bias


Can’t guarantee
integrity


May be out
-
of
-
date


Available to
competitors


Time consuming to
gather

13

Types of Information

Quantitative



Definable



Measured



Expressed in figures



Used for comparisons eg
target monitoring


Qualitative



Descriptive



Value judgements



Opinions



Useful to analyse people’s
views



What can be done to
improve a service?

14

Types of Information

Presentation



Written



text eg reports, memos, letters



Oral



verbal eg telephone calls, presentations, meetings



Pictorial



pictures and photos



Graphical



graphs/charts eg pie, line, bar



Numerical



numbers eg tables, spreadsheets


15

Value of Information

T
imely

A
ccurate

A
ppropriate

A
vailable

C
omplete

C
oncise

C
ost
-
effective

O
bjective

C
cc
O
A
aa
T

16

Uses of Information in
Business


helps to monitor and control



assists in decision making



measures performance



identifies new business opportunities

17

Types of ICT

Mainframe computer:


expensive and powerful computers eg
Ministry of Defence and NASA


Server computer:


runs server applications, often under heavy
workloads, unattended, for extended time

18

Types of ICT

Personal Computers (PC):


computers found in homes and offices


their power has increased significantly
over recent years


Computer Network:


PCs can communicate across networks
(cabled or wireless in either a
LAN

or
WAN
)

19

Local Area Network (LAN)


computers within an organisation or
within a local area



owned by one organisation only



useful to share files and manage
resources eg printing

20

Wide Area Network (WAN)


computers in remote locations are linked
by telephone lines or satellite links



there can be many owners/organisations
linked to the system



communication is the main use rather
than data transfer

21

Business Software



Word Processing



Databases



Spreadsheets



Desk
-
Top Publishing



Computer
-
Aided
-
Design (CAD)



Personal Productivity Software



Presentation software

22

The Internet


a worldwide system of computer
networks



includes:


Web pages (www)


ability to cross reference


File transfer (ftp)


Email facilities


IRC (Internet Relay Chat) eg Google Hang outs


VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol)

23

The Internet


can be used to advertise products



banking services
-

including e
-
commerce



staff may use the Internet
inappropriately


need company policies in
place

24

E
-
commerce


products displayed

on a website



customers can
order online

and can
pay
electronically



enables a
worldwide market

place



internet
-
only businesses
cut costs

as they don’t
have the burden of large premises and high
numbers of sales staff

25

Electronic Mail


fast and
efficient method

of communication



can be sent to
more than one person



can
attach files

eg graphs, electronic forms etc



messages can be
prepared in advance



can be
printed if necessary



can be
forwarded

onto others

26

Electronic Mail

Some problems:



increase in
unnecessary communications



important messages may get lost



reduces interpersonal

communications



only of use if everyone is
trained

in using it and
does use it

27

Video Conferencing


enables people in different locations to
have meetings without the need to travel



saves travelling and accommodation costs
as well as lost work time due to travel



connections can be poor or disrupted



the number of people who can effectively
take part in a video conference is limited

28

Interactive DVD


used for
training exercises



users make choices

and see the
consequences

of their decision



a common example is
flight simulation

29

Computer Aided Manufacture
(CAM)


involves
robots and computer
-
controlled machines

in
production



saves on
labour costs



produces
consistent quality



does not stop for
rest breaks



__________________________



breakdowns

can halt production



expensive

and
time consuming

to fix breakdowns

30

EPOS

Electronic Point of Sale



records all purchases

made throughout the day



used to
predict demand

and assist in the
placing of orders



linked with
store cards

provides
customer profiling



can use customer profiles to
alter the marketing mix

to suit
individual geographical requirements

31

Costs of ICT

Costs



price of hardware/software



staff
training



loss of efficiency

(until familiar)



errors/glitches



data loss

or
corruption



commercial espionage



Health and Safety

32

Benefits of ICT

Benefits



increased speed of information handling

and decision making



flexibility

of integrated systems



increased productivity

and administrative
efficiency



enhanced
reputation



competitive edge



reduction in staffing costs



relocation of administrative centres to
cost effect locations



facilitates
home
-
working and tele
-
sales centres

33

Gorfingly Good
Deliveries


You have an unlimited budget! Please advise …



Gorfingly Good Deliveries wish to move into the technology era
and invest in ICT



They are a
haulage firm

providing services to other businesses up
and down the country.



They need ICT in order to manage customer lists, finance, win new
contracts, communicate with drivers, schedule meetings for
managers, prepare final accounts.



In addition they have thought about opening another office in
the North of Scotland.



There are 10 offices with 2 admin staff and 3 drivers per
branch.

Work in

Groups of 3

34

Effects of ICT on Employees


greater productivity
-

fewer staff required



remaining staff will require
retraining



older staff
may feel under pressure

being unable
to cope



relations with customers

change



staff do not have the same
personal contact

with
each other



staff may take advantage of
homeworking

35

Effects of ICT on
Organisations


can lead to
decentralised decision making



additional departments

may be created


eg e
-
commerce



redundancies

and
delayering

may occur



the
span of control

of managers may decrease

36

Data Protection Act 1998


obtain

and
process information fairly and lawfully



register

the purposes for which they hold it



not disclose the information

in any way that is different from those
purposes



only hold information that is
adequate, relevant and not excessive

for the
purposes they require



only hold
accurate information

and keep it
up
-
to
-
date where

necessary



not hold the information for
longer than necessary



give
individuals copies

of the information held about themselves if they
request it


amending/erasing as necessary



keep

information safe

Data users must:

KEY POINT OF LAW

IN PRACTICE

obtain data fairly and lawfully



people
must be told
what use
will be made of the
information they supply about
themselves

data must be adequate, relevant
and not excessive for its purpose



when designing forms to
collect data,

make sure only
key questions are asked

data must be accurate and,
where necessary, kept up
-
to
-
date



ensure that there are
procedures in place
to check,
up
-
date or destroy inaccurate
information

data must be held for no longer
than is necessary



data shoul
d
be destroyed as
soon as its purpose has been
served
eg credit card details



38

Computer Misuse Act 1990


accessing computer material without permission

e.g. looking
at someone else's files



accessing computer material without permission with
intent to commit further criminal offences

e.g.
hacking

into the bank's computer and increasing the amount in your
account



altering computer material without permission

e.g. writing a
virus to destroy someone else's
data




writing a
virus

or deliberately spreading one is illegal.



Key points:

KEY POINT OF LAW

IN PRACTICE

unauthorised access of
computerised material



do not access material

you
have no right to access



do not give your password

to
any other person



do not explore areas

where
you are not an authorised user

unauthorised access with
the
intent to commit or help further
offences



only supply information to
authorised members

of staff



do not supply information
held at work to friends

or
members of the public

unauthorised changes to
contents of any computer



changes to data must be
author
ised



data must be
real



only enter data you have
been instructed to enter



40

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
1988


It gives the
creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic
works

the right to control the ways in which their material may be
used.



The rights cover:
broadcast and public performance, copying,
adapting, issuing, renting and lending copies to the public
. In
many cases, the creator will also have the right to be identified as
the author and to object to distortions of his work.



Copyright arises when an individual or organisation creates a work,
and applies to a work if it is
regarded as original, and exhibits a
degree of labour, skill or judgement.



If a work is
produced as part of employment

then normally the
work belongs to the person/company who hired the individual.



Only the owner, or his exclusive licensee
can bring proceedings in
the courts against an infringement
.

Key points:

KEY POINT OF LAW

IN PRACTICE

books, songs, films belong to the
author/composer/artist



if copyright,
do not copy text
unless you have permission

to do so



display copyright summaries
at each photocopier



display copies of licence
agreements

IT

pirating of
copyright
-
protected software; copying of
pirated software into the memory
of a computer



ensure
all software on the
premises is licensed



do not allow employees to
copy software

if suspicious, owners can apply
to court for the right to search
premises for
pirated software



ensure employees
only use
software bought by the
company



display a
summary of the key
points of copyright
legislation



42

Freedom of Information Act 2002


The Freedom of Information Act came into
force

on 1st January 2005.



It gives you the
right

to ask any public body

for
all the information they have
on any subject

you
choose.





Unless there’s a good reason,

they have to give it
you within a month
. You can also ask for all the
personal information they hold on you.


43

Congratulations

You have completed


Information and ICT


in


Higher/Int 2


Business Management