Dr Bernie Domanski

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Capacity Planning in
Distributed Environments

Dr Bernie Domanski

City University of New York/CSI

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

2

Should Capacity Planning Be
Treated With the Same Reverence
As in the Past?



Let’s all sing the hymn
-



But That’s How We’ve Always
Done It.”

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

3

Objectives & Agenda


View

IT

as

a

Service

Provider
;

focus

on

service

delivery

for

the

survival

of

the

company
;


Does

doing

CP

the

same

old

way

make

sense

because

“That’s

How

We’ve

Always

Done

It”?


Does

the

mainframe

costing

model

make

sense

today?


When

does

make

sense

to

do

CP

?



There

are

alternatives

to

complex

tools

that

model

down

to

the

disk

revolution
.

The Key Message

CP

in

a

distributed

environment

should

allow

IT

to

make

intelligent,

cost
-
effective

decisions

regarding

the

resources

required

that

will

rapidly

enhance

the

service

given

to

its

customers
.

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

5

Moore’s Law
-

Capacity
Doubles Every 18 Months

Intel Microprocessor Evolution
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
100000000
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Year
#

o
f

T
r
a
n
s
i
s
t
o
r
s
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
100000000
4004 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium PC2000?
MIPS
MIPS
# of Transistors
©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

6

Service Delivery


Timely delivery of services to
customers


Global view of resource use


Cost mainaining a CP staff
-

what is the
ROI? Cost of studying vs. just buying!


The difference for making mistakes is
orders of magnitude different in price
.


©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

7

What’s the Real Reason to Do
Capacity Planning?


If mission
-
critical business applications
become
overloaded
,


Then poor performance could have a very
serious consequence:


Revenue can be lost

if dissatisfied
customers move to the competition
.


If

you

can't

do

it

right

yourself,

pay

someone

else

to

do

it

for

you!

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

8


Providing too much capacity? Ties up
$$$


When

is CP done? If that new appl could
negatively impact customers


Why

is CP done? To be
competitive
; new
features/functions implies sizing the
underlying architecture correctly


What

about business vs. technical
requirements? Needs are ASAP and cheap
=> use modeling for broad evaluations

Key Questions

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

9


Success is a lousy teacher

-

Bill Gates


Out
-
of
-
date? 8
-
track tape player,
vacuum tube television, or the monolithic
mainframe computer.


The key to understanding mistakes is
the need to
initiate

rather than to
follow

trends. Let’s look at some actual
history:

Scaleability and Compatibility

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

10

History


50’s / 60’s: Different machines/op.
Systems for different computing
purposes


65: IBM/Tom Watson =>
scaleable

360
architecture; you could move your work
up


DEC/Ken Olsen => PDP alternative; VAX
in 77 offered scaleability too

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

11

What’s the Lesson Here?


IBM

&

DEC

saw

a

need

that

business

had





to fill incremental computing needs in
different ways ...



… without having to waste prior IT
investments


This

same

need

is

still

with

us

today!


Need

more

computing

power?

Get

it

for

the

mission
-
critical

application

software

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

12

Market
-
driven Compatibility


Originally is was difficult and expensive to

change brands



Amdahl, HDS, StorageTek, EMC => where
would we be today?


Proliferation of
UNIX



IBM PC clones
-

Look at
Apple
!


Internet

acceptance: Netscape, IE cross
platforms


JAVA

allows dynamic distributed systems

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

13

CP is Driven by New Business


What

Drives

CP

for

Distributed

Systems?


Scaleable

architectures


Market
-
driven

compatibility



The

key
:

the

network

-

it’s

the

glue!


CP

becomes

less

about

counting

MIPS,

&




becomes

more

about

being

driven

by

anticipated

new

business

that

has

to

be

processed

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

14

WhadaWeWant?


we want to
scale

our applications up to
process more work;


we want them to
run

on the new hardware
we acquire;


we need to
connect

applications (i.e. data)
that currently exist on different platforms;
and


we
don’t

want to
re
-
invent or convert

anything, if we can help it, to keep our
costs down and our productivity up.



©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

15

Bill Gates
-


It’s a little hard to appreciate how far we’ve
come from the good old days where just to get
the sales report formatted in a nice way, you
might wait nine months! …

we’ve really gone way beyond anything that
ever happened on the mainframe. …

you really will be able to do simple, multiserver
applications. Just sit down, write a few lines of
business logic, and boom
-

connect all that up.”

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

16

Sam Greenblatt
-

CA’s Senior VP of
Advanced Technology


Integrating application, system and
network management is helpful only if it
yields useful business information.

Nobody cares whether or not a system is
down if it doesn’t impact their business.”


©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

17

Is Capacity Planning a
Checkoff

Item?


Rather

than

burden

the

planner

with

commodity

shopping,

users

took

on

that

responsibility
.


Do we even need CP any more?


it might be easier to just buy new gear
when you need it, period, and not do any
Capacity Planning at all!


Consider, too, the
cost

of doing a CP study

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

18

More Important Questions


Is the
network

yielding adequate
performance?


What should we get/do if it isn’t?


How are
scaleable

distributed appl’s
built?


How many more users can be added
while preserving response time?


We seek a
new perspective

that is more
closely tied with
application
-
specific
measurement
.

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

19

Key to CP Success


Delivery of IT services, where ...


Scaleability

and
compatibility

are key.


Deploying new applications on a specific
architecture may be wonderful today, but


… may become disastrous tomorrow if that
architecture becomes a dinosaur and
new/faster/cheaper gear is available.


©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

20

YOU MUST ...


become
application savvy


understand the
network
.


focus attention identifying the parts of an
application that won’t scale
up

well


offer
alternative

solutions.


keep
compatibility across platforms

at the
forefront of your thinking.


be able to
anticipate bottlenecks

and
propose alternative components

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

21

Tools to Help Find How Much Capacity is
Needed


Cottage industry originated for the
mainframe


Costs: $20K = $120K (*MXG)


Not meant for distributed applications


No

end
-
to
-
end response time
measurement


Queuing models ignored the network


No standout predictor of workload
growth

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

22

Needed Measurement Tools


Populate a
PDB

with data from distributed
applications


Display status of
every

resource in the
distributed environment + drill
-
down


Need summarized
data across systems

for
trending


Need simulation
models

along with queuing

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

23

Just
-
in
-
Time

Capacity


Use the tools …


monitors


collections of performance data


models



… to find

when

to add more resources


Adding at the right time implies:


no interruption in service quality


no paying for services before they are
needed

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

24

Costing for Distributed Systems


A great advantage is being able to buy
needed capacity in small increments.


Scaleability

is key for capacity planning


You buy enough capacity to do your
processing now ...


if additional capacity is required in the
future,


then it is acquired at a reduced unit
-
cost


because of the constant improvement in
price/performance ratios.

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

25

Is Costing That Simple?


Incur

both

acquisition

and

installation

costs
.


Over

time,

you

incur

operational

costs

(licensing

fees,

support

personnel,

and

maintenance)
.

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

26

What Happens When Additional
Capacity Is Needed?


Yes, you acquire a bigger server, but


Most companies would
rollover

the server


Causes a
cascading

effect, … costs that
have to be incurred when installing each
old machine in a new place, e.g. installing
new software, testing, support personnel
costs, etc.

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

27

Leilani Allen

”By the year 2000, it will cost more to keep
old technology than to upgrade.


Bottom Line
: change the focus of financial
mgmt strategies from acquisition.

The realities of the life
-
cycle of equipment
dictate that ongoing operational costs
demand more attention (consider rollover)

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

28

Service Levels


Service level measures should be
reported by business unit and
application
-



availability,


response times and


workload volumes


Obstacles:


client instrumentation


different communication paths/protocols

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

29

ARM


Transaction instrumentation becomes the
applications’ responsibility


ARM SDK addresses appl’s written in


C/C++,



-

Visual Basic,


MicroFocus COBOL,

-

Delphi



Approach systems management from the
end
-
to
-
end

appl. workload perspective,
rather than as a collection of physical
components.

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

30

Summary & Thoughts


The critical questions we must face
--


Is CP helping IT deliver the best
service possible to its customers?


Are you building
scaleable
architectures

that have
market
-
driven compatibility
?

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

31

More Key Questions to Ask
Yourself !


Perhaps a “
checkoff
” item CP philosophy
may prove to be a real cost saver


Include the
true

costs associated with
adding incremental capacity.


Without
application
-
level instrumentation
across platforms
, service
-
level
management across the enterprise may
not be possible

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

32

More of What We Need


Reporting software must manage the volume of
customer data across platforms,


It must address the
network
, the
client

and the
server
.


We need
graphical

modeling tools to make it
easier to define the network


Modeling tools must be able to model any
combination of hardware & software


Need predictions of IT service and usage from
a
global

perspective as well as a detailed
focused

perspective

©B. Domanski,1997. All Rights Reserved

33

That’s It For Now!

Thanks for listening

Any questions???



Dr Bernie Domanski


Phone: 732
-
303
-
1500


Fax: 1503


Email:


drbernie@superlink.net