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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Week
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2

Types of Computer


Classification w.r.to Purposes



General vs Special Purpose Computers


Classification w.r.to Function or Logic used



Digital, Analog & Hybrid Computers


Classification w.r.to Size



Super, Mainframe, Mini & Micro
-
Computers


AbduSalam

2

Classification of Computers with respect to
purposes


With respect to purposes, computers are divided into two types


General Purpose Computers


All those computers which are used for general purposes. E.g.


A personal computer used for playing games, word processing, Accounting
Information System, Management Information System etc


These computers can store a huge amount of data.


PCs are the example of General Purpose Computers.


Special Purpose Computers


It is also known as dedicated computers, because these are designed to
perform a particular jobs.


Perform a single & specific task . E.g.


Computer for Games, Computer for controlling traffic lights , ATM etc


These systems have predefined set of instructions permanently stored
into them, that are designed to perform only one task


They are fast in processing.

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3

Types of computer

Type of computer

Digital computer

Analog computer

Hybrid Computer

Micro Computer

Main frame


Computer

Super Computer

Mini

Computer

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4

Classification of Computers According to Logic
Used


Computers are classified into three types with respect to
Function or Internal hardware structure or Logic used



Digital Computer


Analog Computer


Hybrid Computer

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Digital Computers


Digital Computers works on discrete data.


Discrete data refers to discrete values such as 0, 1.


Digital computers works on 0,1(Binary Numbers)


These computers based on the presence or absence of an
electrical charge or binary 0 & 1.


The native language of this class is therefore called binary
language (Machine Language)


These Systems are more accurate and precise than others


Examples:
-

calculators, digital watches etc…


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Analog Computer


Analog Computers works on continues data.


Continues data refers to those values that can not be discrete.


Temperature, air pressure, speed, current, weight etc


Analog computer calculates the result by measuring the continuous
change in these quantities


Analog computers do not require any storage capability because they
measure and compare quantities in a single operation


These Systems are more speedy than digital


Examples: Speed meter, air pressure measurement devices, rain gauge
etc.


Speedometer of a car measure speed in terms of km/h or m/h, the
change in temperature is measured by a thermometer in degree’s.

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Hybrid Computer


Combine the best feature of both digital and analog systems


Works on both analog and digital data


Speedy like analog


Accuracy like digital


They are used mainly in specialized applications where both analog and
digital information needs processing


Weather forecasting, Air Defense, Radar Controlling systems, digital
petrol pumps etc.


In petrol pumps, fuel flow converts into quantity and then quantity is
converted into values.


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8

Classification Of Computers With Respect To
Size


With respect to size, speed, and cost, we can classify
computers in the following types:



MICRO COMPTUERS


MINI COMPUTERS


MAINFRAME COMPUTERS


SUPER COMPUTERS

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MICRO COMPUTERS


These computers are small in size.



A micro computer use to have Primary memory range from a few
Kilobytes to Gigabytes.


They are usually designed for personal use therefore they are also
called as Personal Computers (i.e. PC).


These computers can easily be accommodated on the top of a desk due
to their small size and hence are also called as DESKTOP computers.


There is another kind of Micro Computer which can easily be placed on
the lap and such computer is called as Laptops. These Laptops can be
easily carried in a small briefcase.


Micro Computers are highly flexible. These are also called CHIP
Computers because its entire circuitry is fabricated on a single chip.

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MICRO COMPUTERS (Cont’d)


Examples:
-
IBM, APPLE, COMPAC, RADIO SHACK, COMMODORE,
ATARI,


IBM compatibles:
-

286,386,486,Pentium
-
I,Pentium
-
II,Pantium
-
III,Pentium
-
IV etc…










Handheld PCs (such as PDAs) lack the power of a

desktop or
notebook PC, but offer features for users

who need limited functions
and small size.

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MICRO COMPUTERS (Cont’d)


A
Multi
-
Core Processor

is a processing system composed of two or more
independent cores. The cores are typically integrated onto a single integrated
circuit die(known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP).


Core


Basic processing area of a computer processor


Die


A
die

in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting
material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.


A medium
-
scale integrated circuit die

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MICRO COMPUTERS (Cont’d)


A
Dual
-
Core and Core 2 Duo Processor

contains two cores, and a
Quad
-
Core
Processor

contains four cores.


A Multi
-
core processor implements multiprocessing in a single physical
package.


Cores in a multi
-
core device coupled together tightly.


Cores may or may not share caches.


Dual Core and Core 2 Duo’s are both dual core processor.



Core2 duo only takes advantage because


The Core 2 Duo has the same L2 cache but it has more cache size than a Dual
core. However,


There are architectural changes to the silicon that give the Core 2 Duo more
sophisticated processing.


The single
-

and dual
-
core models are single
-
die, whereas the quad
-
core models
comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi
-
chip module.

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MINI COMPUTERS


These computers are smaller in size but larger as
compared to Micro Computers.


Less expensive


Primary memory is usually in GIGA Bytes


Designed for the computerization of scientific
research data.


Mini computer usually fills a small shelf because it
includes many types of peripheral equipment
attached to it.


Disks are used for secondary storage


Support up to hundred’s of users at a time.


Examples:
-

PRIME
-
9755,VAX
-
8650,IBM SYSTEM
-
36 etc…


Application :
-

Departmental systems, Network
Servers

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MAINFRAME COMPUTERS


These computers are very powerful.


Large in size, large in memory and powerful.


Mainframe computers are also capable of connecting terminals with it.


These computers are used in networked environment and mainly as
network servers.


Mainframe computers are very expansive. They are usually designed
for the computerization of huge business organizations, universities,
banks, scientific laboratories, national and international markets.


Multiple Input/Output devices are normally attached with a
Mainframe computer.


The secondary storage use to be in the form disks in a Mainframe
computer.


Mainframes are measured in integer operations per second or MIPS.


Example of integer operation is moving data around in memory or I/O
devices.

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MAINFRAME COMPUTERS (Cont’d
)


These computers also allow different users to work on it at the same
time like Mini computers but the number of users can be much more
than that of the Mini computers (upto 4000 users can work at a time
on a single Mainframe computer).


Examples:
-

IBM
-
4381, IBM
-
360, ICL
-
2900,NEC
-
610 etc…

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SUPER COMPUTERS


Supercomputer

is a computer that is at the frontline of current
processing, capacity, particularly speed of calculation.



Supercomputers are the most powerful computers.


They are used for problems requiring complex calculations.


It is not possible to consider one computer system as the most
powerful, because the power of a computer is not linear.


Super Computers are very difficult to design, it requires lot of
research and development and at the same time they are very much
expansive to manufacture.


Presently approximately 30
-
50 Super Computers are sold per annum.

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SUPER COMPUTERS
(Cont’d
)


The speed of a super computer is enormous as it was calculated at a
rate of 64 billions instruction per second, like Cray T90.


But now,


The speed of a supercomputer is measured in "
FLOPS
"


Such as "TFLOPS" (10 power 12 FLOPS)(1,000,000,000,000 ), or
"PFLOPS" (10 power15 FLOPS,) (1,000,000,000,000,000 operation per
second).


Example of floating point operation is the calculation of mathematical
equations in real numbers. In terms of computational ability,
Supercomputers are more powerful.


In February 2009, IBM designed supercomputer with 20 pflops.


This will be equivalent to 2 million laptops (whereas Roadrunner is


comparable to a mere 100,000 laptops).

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SUPER COMPUTERS
(Cont’d)


Application in web services and search engines, online banking
(Transaction processing), weather forecasting, Climate Prediction (50
years in 30 days by 4.8 Tflops) , Cryptography, Nuclear weapons (test
by simulations), Earthquake and structural modeling and petroleum
exploration.

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SUPER COMPUTERS
(Cont’d
)


2000,

IBM ASCI White

7.226

TFLOPS
DoE
-
Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, California, USA


2002,

NEC Earth Simulator

35.86

TFLOPS

Earth Simulator Center,
Yokohama, Japan


2004,

IBM Blue Gene/L

70.72

TFLOPS

DoE/IBM Rochester, Minnesota, USA


2005,

IBM Blue Gene/L

136.8

TFLOPS

DoE/U.S. National Nuclear Security
Administration, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA


2007,

IBM Blue Gene/L

478.2

TFLOPS

DoE/U.S. National Nuclear Security
Administration, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA


2008,

IBM Roadrunner

1.026

PFLOPS

DoE
-
Los Alamos National Laboratory, New
Mexico, USA


2009,
Cray Jaguar

1.759

PFLOPS

DoE
-
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA