Application software - Engineer Shafiullah Soomro

clashjudiciousΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

54 εμφανίσεις

IT Fundamentals

1

Computer Basics

Information technology (IT)

is any computer
-
based tool that:



People use to work with information


IT Fundamentals

2

Computer Basics

What

is

a

computer?



A data processing machine



speed & accuracy



no

intelligence



functions

without

direct

human





intervention

(use

of

stored

program)



do

not

get

tired



is

consistent

and

never

forgets



high

storage

capability


Note
:

Computers

can

and

do

make

mistakes
.



IT Fundamentals

3

Computer Basics

Hardware






Example: Keyboard, monitor








Software





Example: Microsoft Excel


IT Fundamentals

4

Software

Two main types of software:


1.
Application software

-

software used to solve specific problems or
perform specific tasks

2.
System software






Operating system software

-

supports the application software and
manages how the hardware devices work together

Utility software

-

provides additional functionality to the operating
system


IT Fundamentals

5

Application Software

IT Fundamentals

6

System Software

IT Fundamentals

7

Computer Categories

Personal digital assistant (PDA)

-

a
small hand
-
held computer that
performs simple tasks….


IT Fundamentals

8

Computer Categories

Notebook computer

-

a fully functional
computer designed to be carried around
and run on battery power


Tablet computer

-

a pen
-
based computer
that provides the screen capabilities of a
PDA with the functional capabilities of a
notebook or a desktop computer….

IT Fundamentals

9

Computer Categories

Desktop computer
-

the most popular choice for personal computing need



Minicomputer

-

designed to meet the computing needs of several people
simultaneously in a small to medium
-
size business environment



Mainframe computer

-

designed to meet the computing needs of hundreds of
people in a large business environment….


IT Fundamentals

10

Computer Categories

Supercomputers

-

the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type
of computer….

IT Fundamentals

11

Memory

Binary digit

(
bit
)

-

the smallest unit of information that a computer can
process


ASCII

(
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
)

-

the
coding system that most personal computers use to represent, process,
and store information


Byte

-

a group of eight bits

Computer

Memory

Cell




HIGH


1



LOW


0

IT Fundamentals

12

Computer Basics

Kilobytes (KB) & Megabytes (MB), Gigabytes (GB)
, Terabytes (TB)


IT Fundamentals

13

The Components of a Computer

1.

THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)



Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer

Contains the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit


A. Control Unit


Directs and co
-
ordinates most of the operations in the computer.


Interprets each instruction and then initiates the action.



Machine Cycle


Each instruction is completed before the next one begins


MIPS (MILLION INSTRUCTIONS PER SECOND)

IS ANOTHER
MEASUREMENT OF CPU SPEED.

IT Fundamentals

14

The Components of a Computer

CONTROL
UNIT

MEMORY

ALU

STEP 2:

The control unit
decodes the maths
problem and sends it to
the ALU

CPU

STEP 1:

The control unit
fetches the maths problem
from memory

STEP 3:

The ALU
executes the maths
problem

STEP 4:

The results of
the maths problem are
stored in memory

IT Fundamentals

15

Types of processors (CPU’s)

The System clock



Processors

IT Fundamentals

16

BUS (data path)

The circuitry used to transmit data and instructions from one place to another within
the CPU.

AT = 8 bits

386SX = 16 bits

386DX,486 = 32 bits

Pentium = 64 bits


Data Path

Word Size

IT Fundamentals

17

Speed of a Computer


C. Registers

B.

The Arithmetic and Logic Unit

Performs arithmetic (+,
-
,*,/) and logical (if hours > 40) operations.

High speed temporary storage locations for data and instructions

The ALU

IT Fundamentals

18

2 MEMORY



(Alias : Main memory, Internal memory, Primary memory)

consist of one or more chips on the motherboard


RAM (Random Access memory)

When users discuss memory in a computer they are usually referring to RAM


The Components of a Computer

IT Fundamentals

19

Cache

The Components of a Computer

ROM (Read only memory)



send/receive characters on a communication line


Contains BIOS and start
-
up programs. The BIOS are instructions to perform
many elementary functions such as



move cursor

IT Fundamentals

20



Ports are external devices often attach to the computer by a port



Serial ports


Parallel ports

Ports

Firewire Ports

USB Ports

IT Fundamentals

21

The Components of a Computer