Animation and Game Development

clashjudiciousΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

245 εμφανίσεις

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242
-
515 AGD: 1. History

1


Objective

o
to give
an overview of video game history

Animation and Game Development

242
-
515
, Semester
1
,
2012
-
2013

1. Games History

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

2

1. Historical Years in Gaming: 1958


2008

2. 2000's Trends

3. Influential Early Games

4. Some Game Studios

Overview

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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Physicist William Higinbotham invented the first
"video game" at the Brookhaven National
Laboratory in Upton, New York.



His game, a table tennis
-
like game, was played on
an oscilloscope.


1958

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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Steve Russell, a student at MIT, created
Spacewar
,
the first interactive computer game.



It ran on a Digital PDP
-
1 mainframe computer, and
the graphics used ASCII text.

1961

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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1967
-
1968, Ralph Baer created a light gun controller
for shooting games and the Brown Box, the first
home video game console. Sold to Magnavox in
1972.

Ralph Baer (1967
-
1968)

Brown Box and gun

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-
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Magnavox Odyssey

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515 AGD: 1. History

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Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney
(future founders of Atari) created an
arcade version of
Spacewar
, called
Computer Space
.

o
the first video arcade game

o
difficult to play


1970
-
1971

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-
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Created by Ralph Baer at Magnavox Odyssey


A ping pong game with a moving ball controlled
by user paddles; used a TV as the display

Pong 1972

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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Atari's version of
Pong

was released; It became a
hot Christmas present


Also became a popular arcade game



Atari was sued by Baer and Magnavox,

and it had to pay a one
-
time license

fee of $700,000



1975

Atari Pong

console

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Manufacturers of older, obsolete consoles and
Pong

clones sold their systems at a loss to clear
stock, creating a glut in the market.



Only Atari and Magnavox remained in the home
console market by the end of 1977.

Video game crash of
1977

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-
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Almost the first cartridge
-
based home system


Open architecture allowed
easy development


First to introduce licensing
of a system to game devs

Atari 2600 (1977)

12

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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The trackball was the

controller forAtari's
Football
.



Space Invaders

was the first

arcade game that tracked and

displayed high scores.

1978

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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Asteroids

was the first game to allow a high scorer
to enter their name as three characters to be stored
in the machine.


Arcades 1979
-
1981

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-
515 AGD: 1. History

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Lunar Lander
,
Atari (1979
)


Battlezone

was the first 3D game, set in a virtual
battlefield

o
it was later enhanced by the U.S. government for military training


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-
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Pac
-
Man

released by Namco in 1980
-
1981

o
generated $100 million in sales during its lifetime


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Popular as a gaming platform:

o
Commodore VIC
-
20(1981), Commodore 64 (1982), Apple II,
IBM PC, and IBM clones


Start of game developer studios e.g. EA, Lucas Arts


R
ise of the home
computer (1980's)

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Donkey Kong



(1981)


Frogger, Centipede


(1981)


Pole Position, Joust


(1982)


Mario Bros, Spy Hunter

(1983)


Popular Arcade Games

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Factors for the collapse include:

o
Lack of innovation

o
Over supply

o
Poor strategic choices by Atari (e.g. its E.T game)

o
Rise of the home computer

o
Press/public perception of games

as a fad (a short
-
lived fashion)



Video
Games Crash
of 1983

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Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in USA (1985)


Sega Master System (1986)


Console Rebirth

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Developed by a Russian programmer, Alex Pajitnov,
for the PC.

Tetris 1985

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Nintendo released the Game Boy.



NEC released the TurboGrafx
-
16

o
first 16
-
bit console in the U.S

o
first system to run games stored on CDs

1989

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Myst



(1993)

o
no obvious enemies, no physical violence, no threat of "dying"


Doom



(1993)

o
very important first
-
person shooter


Rise of the PC (1990's)

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-
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Arcades focued on bringing in more "ride
-
and
-
video" games like skiing, snowboarding, and Jet
Skiing, as they were more popular than shooting
and fighting games.


Used specialised hardware (not on PCs)


Arcade Hardware (1990's)

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Sega Genesis console

(16
-
bit)


Nintendo Super NES


(1991)

o
introduced the world to
Sonic the Hedgehog

Sega and Nintendo

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US Senate investigation into violence in video
games.


The
Entertainment Software Rating Board

was
created.


Rating on a game's box indicate the suggested
age of players and the violent content.


1993
-
1994

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Sony released the PlayStation 1 in 1994

o
PlayStation 2 released in 2000, maintaining
backwards compatibility

o
also the PS3, PSP, Vita



It is the most popular game

console with over

20 million sold.

Playstation (1994)

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-
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The
Tamagotchi

virtual pet became a sensation in
Japan.


It was released in the U.S. in May, selling all of its
30,000
-
unit supply in 3 days.

1996

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Created by Japanese video game enthusiast

Satoshi Tajiri


Pok
é
mon Red

and
Green

released for Nintendo
Game Boy in 1996


Movies, TV series, and multiple sequels followed

Pokémon

29

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Introduction of 3D
engines


Millions
of polygons


Shaders and
physics




Late 1990’s

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Nintendo's GameCube delivered an easier
development environment for game creators.


Nintendo released the GameBoy Advance, a
portable gaming system.

GameCube (2001)

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The Nintendo DS, a portable system with two
screens, one of which could be used as a touch
screen.


2004

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Sony released the PSP, a portable system with a
large, high
-
resolution display.



Microsoft unveiled the XBox 360, a console system in
November.


2005

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Nintendo released the Wii, a gaming system that let
gamers play by moving the controller

o
e.g. swinging it like a tennis racket, holding and tilting it like
a steering wheel


2006

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Grand Theft Auto 4

broke sales records in its first
week after gamers bought more than 6 million
copies.

2008

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New types of controllers


Online gaming


Mobile games


Motion control changes game play


Rise of casual PC games

2. 2000's Trends

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NES and PC gaming had driving wheels and
aircraft joysticks in the 1990's, New controllers in
2000's included:

o
a soft plastic mat foot control for
Dance Dance Revolution

o
Samba De Amigo
's maraca controllers

o
Donkey Kong

bongo controller


2.1
. Alternate controllers

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Guitar Hero

--

a guitar
-
shaped controllers for the
PlayStation 2.



Sony: the EyeToy peripheral, a camera that could
detect player movement, for the PlayStation 2.


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Massively multiplayer online role
-
playing games
(MMORPGs)

o
significant titles for the PC market included
RuneScape
,
World of Warcraft
,
EverQuest
, and
Ultima Online

2.2
Online
gaming

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Older arcade
-
style games have become popular
again on mobile phones, since they are simpler to
play and implement.



Mobile phone gaming revenues:

o
> 1 billion dollars in 2003

o
> 5 billion dollars in 2007, a quarter of all videogaming
revenue





2.3
Mobile games

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More advanced phones have added to the
appeal of mobile phone gaming:

o
Nokia N
-
Series in 2005

o

iPhone in 2007

o
Android on multiple platforms since 2005



New features such as twin cameras, easy
multimedia recording, accelerometer, GPS,
compass, suggest new game types.


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The Wii Remote has been very successful.


But motion controls tend to be slow, inaccurate.



Various add
-
on attachments adapt the Wii Remote
to specific games, such as the
Wii Zapper

for
shooting games and the
Wii Wheel

for driving
games.

2.4
Motion control

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43


The Balance Board




Microsoft Kinect Sensor





The PlayStation Move

(+ Eye Toy)

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Games with limited complexity for short play.


Many are puzzle games

o
Popcap's
Bejeweled

and PlayFirst's
Diner Dash

2.5
Rise of casual PC games

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The biggest hit is
The Sims
, which has become the
best selling computer game of all time.


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In 2008, social network games began gaining
mainstream popularity following the release of
Happy Farm

in China.



The most popular social network game is
FarmVille
,
which has over 70 million active users worldwide.

3. Influential Early Games


Dragon Warrior


Alone in the Dark


SimCity


Wizardry


Doom


Pong


Wolfenstein 3D


Dune II


Super Mario 64


Half
-
Life


Grand Theft Auto III


Prince of Persia


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First graphically
-
rich
Dungeons & Dragons
-
type
game for home computers.


The release coincided with the height of D&D's
popularity in the USA.


Wizardry (1981)

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First role
-
playing video game (RPG) in the
Dragon
Quest

series.


More emphasis on storytelling and emotional
involvement, and exposed the Western game
genre to Japanese manga.

Dragon
Warrior (1986)

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Originally a 2D platform game, but the series
switched to 3D in 1999.


Included intelligent puzzles, deadly traps, sprawling
non
-
scrolling levels, fluid animation.

Prince of
Persia (1989)

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City
-
building simulation.


Introduced goal
-
centered, timed play.

SimCity (1989)

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Innovations included:

o
textures, a first
-
person gun
-
grasping hand, switchable
weapons, ammunition counts


Popularized shareware game distribution

Wolfenstein
3D (1992)

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53


Made real
-
time strategy (RTS) games popular.


New ideas:

o
mouse controls, world map, framed interface, fog
-
of
-
war
feature

Dune
II (1992)

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Started the survival horror game genre, setting the
standard for later games such as
Resident Evil

and
Silent Hill

Alone in the
Dark (1992)

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One of the best 3D platform games.


New ideas:

o
analog control of characters , dynamic camera

Super Mario
64 (1996)

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New ideas:

o
immersive story, episodic chapters, scripted game events,
behaviour AI


The
Half
-
Life

game engine can be licensed for free,
encouraging other games.

Half
-
Life
(1998)

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Game world freedom:

o
users can play the non
-
linear story
--

or not

o
many side
-
missions, mini
-
games

Grand Theft Auto III
(2001)

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Activision


Electronic Arts


LucasArts


Blizzard


Id Software

4. Some Game Studios

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Founded by former Atari programmers


Introduced the “royalties” system still employed
by consol makers today


Activision

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o
Created in 1982, now the largest game company

o
New ideas:


company treats its staff like artists


created in
-
house tools to aid cross
-
platform development


handles its own distribution

Electronic Arts (EA)

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Formed in 1982 as an offshoot of LucasFilm Ltd.


Released
Maniac Mansion

in 1987


Many adventure and
Star Wars

games

LucasArts

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o
Started in 1991.

o
Released one of the important early Real
-
Time
Strategy games,
Warcraft
, in 1994

o
Their
World of Warcraft

is the fastest selling PC
game in history

Blizzard

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o
Formed in 1991

o
Successfully utilizes shareware to make money
from games.

o
Created the important first
-
person shooter,
DOOM

id Software