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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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for the instructor


Energy part 3 covers alternative ways to generate
electricity using nuclear & wind


the slide show starts with the next slide

Energy

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Nuclear Energy I


Existing form of electricity production, producing
>8% of electricity for the U.S.



Advantages:


Existing form of energy production


Does not produce CO
2
, and therefore does not
increase our impact on Global Warming


Electrical Energy Alternatives

Nuclear Energy I


Disadvantages:


Extremely expensive (in many aspects)


Produces extremely toxic wastes that need to be
secured for (very) long periods of time


Requires very sophisticated and complex operations


Accidents at these types of facilities can result in
widespread contamination by radioactive materials


Nuclear Energy III

Kashiwazaki, Japan

World’s largest nuclear plant

Some other industrial countries depend heavily on
nuclear power for their electrical generation.


Japan generates 34.5% of

their electricity from

nuclear power.

Nuclear Energy III

Paluel, France

France generates 78.8%

of their electricity

from nuclear power.

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Wind Generation I


Existing form of electricity production, producing
<1% of electricity for the U.S.


Advantages:


Existing form of energy production


Does not produce CO
2


Though tall, wind turbines do not cover a large area


Turbines come in a range of sizes and can be used for
a number of applications both on & off the grid

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Wind Generation I


Disadvantages:


Has intermittent energy production (based on the
consistency of the wind)


The public may consider wind turbines to be
unsightly


Can be a hazard to bird (& migrating bird) and bat
populations

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Wind Generation II

Relative costs for wind
generation are a fifth of
what they were in the
1980’s; and based on
relatively conservative
estimates are only 5%
more then electricity
from coal
-
fire power
plants.

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Wind Generation IV


Wind Strength

Locations of consistent
wind generation in the
U.S.

Note the locations in
upstate New York; the
Adirondacks, southern
tier, and great lakes.

To distribute this
power to market would
especially require an
integrated power grid.

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Wind Generation V


Power Grid

NPR Story on Power Grid & Alt. Energy

To distribute
electrical energy
effectively from
wind source areas
to high
-
use regions
(urban areas)
requires a more
integrated nation
-
wide power grid
system

This is also a factor for other alternative energy sources
like: nuclear power plants and large scale solar farms.

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Power Grid Considerations I

This is the size of a 765kV
line, note farmhouse for
scale

The reason for these large
lines is they are so much
more efficient, comparison of
15 138kV lines to 1 765kV
line

Electrical Energy Alternatives

Power Grid Considerations II

The perception is that high
voltage power lines are
unhealthy.
However
several
studies conducted in the 1990’s
on the effects of electromagnetic
fields (associated with power
lines) concluded “
that there was

no evidence that showed exposure to EMF from power lines
presented a human health hazard
.” Two of these studies were
conducted with under the supervision of the National Academy
of Science and by the National Cancer Institute.