Floors

clanmurderΠολεοδομικά Έργα

15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

128 εμφανίσεις

Floors construction

After the foundations have been completed and the external walls
constructed the construction of the floors commences.

Function of a ground floor

1.
To carry loads imposed on them.

2.
To prevent dampness rising from the
ground into the building.

3.
To provide a degree of thermal insulation.

4.
To prevent growth of vegetable matter in
the building.

5.
To provide a suitable wearing surface.


Basically there are two types of ground floors:
-


solid floors and suspended floors.

Solid ground floor

One in which the whole floor area is in contact with the

subsoil. Comprised of three main components:
-

1.
Hardcore

The purpose of this is


(a) To ensure consistent material over the whole floor
area.


(b) To reduce capillary action of moisture from the
ground because of voids within the hardcore layer.


(c) To make up levels after removing topsoil and reduced
level excavation.


(d) to provide a clean dry and firm working surface. The
top of the hardcore should be blinded with a fine dust or
sand to fill the voids, prevent grout loss from concrete
and protect D.P.M. if placed in this position.

Solid ground floor

Damp proof membrane (DPM)

An impervious layer to prevent

moisture travelling through the floor

to the inside of the building eg.

polythene sheeting.


Concrete bed

This provides the solid level surface

to which screeds and finishes can

be applied.

Floor detail at junction with a
cavity wall

Skirting

Sand and Cement screed

1200 gauge polythene DPM

50 mm min Insulation

100mm Concrete sub floor

Hardcore

DPC 150mm minimum
above Ground level

Sand and Cement screed

Ground level

Timber floors


Suspended timber floor joists are
supported by the walls which
transfer the load from the floor,
through the wall to the foundations.



The traditional method of providing
a flooring surface on top of these
joist’s was sawn timber boards
which had square edges. These
boards were butted together and
nailed down unto the top of the
joist.



The quality of the flooring boards
was improved by the addition of
tongue and grooved joints.

Floor joist

Square edge
flooring 150mm
wide and 20mm
thick.

Supporting
wall

Supporting
wall

Timber ground floors


If timber ground floors are used
ventilation must be provided beneath
the floor construction. The reason for
this ventilation is to prevent the
moisture content of the timber rising
above an unacceptable level (ie.
20%) which would create the
conditions for possible fungal attack.



Sheet materials such as plywood and
chipboard are now the most popular
coverings to floor joists. The most
common size of sheets are
1220mm x 2440mm.



Floor joists are usually placed at
400mm centres.

Positions for
ventilation

Joist spaced at
400mm centres.

Plywood
sheeting

Suspended T beam
concrete floor

Pre
-
stressed concrete

floor beams

Concrete blocks laid
between T beams

Pre
-
stressed
concrete floor
beams cast in
the shape of
an inverted T

Pre
-
stressed T beam concrete floors were one of
the first methods of creating suspended concrete
floors. The beams were set in position in such a
way that a 450mm concrete block fitted neatly
between the beams. The load of the floor was
transferred to the foundations by the beams.

100mm sand
and cement
screed on
top of beam
floor

Suspended concrete floors


HomeSPAN is the trade name for a
suspended concrete flooring
system which has recently been
developed for the domestic market.


This flooring system comprises of
flat precast concrete planks
generally 600mm wide and 150mm
deep. It can carry domestic
loadings up to 5m clear span.


These concrete floors have
excellent sound insulation and fire
resistance.


After settlement, cracking is
dramatically reduced as most
cracks results from the shrinkage of
timber joist.


Suspended concrete
flooring slabs.

Walls constructed to
support floor slabs.