Twitter - aPLaNet European project

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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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TEACHER
´S

GUIDE

Part 2

SOCIAL NETWORKS GUIDE











































2

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

CONTENTS


PART II


1
.1.

A FEW WORDS ABOUT THE aPLaNet PROJECT

................................
..............................

3

1
.2.

INCREASING DIGITAL LITERACY WITH ICT TOOLS AND SNs
................................
...

4

1
.3.

INTERNET TOOLS AND HOW TO USE THEM IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

..............

5

1
.4.

SOCIAL NETWORKS GUIDE

................................
................................
................................
.....

7

Twitter

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

7

Tweetdeck

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

12

Face
book

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

18

Ning

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

29



















3

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


1
.1.

A

FEW

WORDS

ABOUT

THE

A
PL
A
N
ET
PROJECT


The aPLaNet project is a European Union funded project for language educators all over the Europe,
especially those who are new or do

not use Internet social networks (SN) but wish to learn more and
buil their own Personal Learning Network (PLN)
1

for professional development purposes.


The project has prepared clear guidelines that will help you understand the benefits of the world of
SN
for language educators, about PLNs and explain, with clear practical examples, how can these tools
can be used and the benefits educators will find. They will help raise their digital literacy and
professional development. The project will show the uses

and benefits for educators for their teaching
practice, and how ICT resources can be integrated in to the teaching/learning experience.


The project partnership includes the British Council in Spain, CELT Greece, EuroEd Romania, ISTEK
Schools Turkey, Lang
uage School PELIKAN Czech republic, Sofia University Bulgaria, and the
University of the West of Scotland UK.


This document acts as a practical guide for educational institutions, teachers and educators interested
in joining the European and global netwo
rk of teachers and educators that are pursuing the benefits
of shared knowledge.


This Teacher Guide will provide you with clear guidance through a set of identified ICT tools and
resources and show you how they can be exploited within education.










1


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_Learning_Networks




















4

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


1
.2.

I
NCREASING

DIGITAL

LITERACY

WITH

ICT

TOOLS

AND

SN
S


Technology provides opportunities to participate in new kinds of learning, social, community and work
activities. We all need to be digitally literate to make the most of these opportunities and star
t using
new technologies which make obtaining information, innovative ideas and teaching materials easier.


In the 21
st

century, technology is everywhere around us. ICT in the educational field plays a key role
in developing the people’s ability to innova
te, advance and prosper. Enhancing the skills to use ICT
can improve the quality of education by improving the engagement with educational content and
fostering access to learning opportunities both for students and teachers. Learner´s motivation is also
s
hown to be positively impacted by the use of ICT for both teaching and learning. Having skills to
operate ICT in teaching has been shown to increase teacher´s enthusiasm and positive attitude
towards their work. The core idea of the aPLaNet project stresse
s that the advent and availability of
new media tools and social networking resources, provide a means for networked professional
learning to “grow” for European educators. The fusion of web based applications and social networks
with learning and teaching

of languages is a natural choice that leads to mastering essential skills of
the 21 century.


By learning how to use a number of online resources for learning and teaching, teachers and students
involved in the process will be enriched. To help in this p
rocess the aPLaNet project includes a
methodical outline of:



How a personal learning community on SN sites can be used by educators.



A range of online resources that can be used in language teaching, and shared via Internet,
including examples of use.



Pra
ctical guides raising teacher´s job prospects also by the ground of professional
development and broader opportunities
.




















5

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


1
.3.

I
NTERNET

TOOLS

AND

HOW

TO

USE

THEM

IN

LANGUAGE

TEACHING


The tools described below are examples of the type of resources that ar
e constantly being shared by
language educators on the social networks. Often networked educators will network together to
explain in detail how they used the tools and the outcomes.


Included below are some of the most widely used tools that allow teacher
s and students to interact,
create, share and communicate. All these tools are very easy to use as a newcomer but many have
multiple additional features and tools included that will require more time and practice to master, but
the final outcome is enrichi
ng both in terms of professional growth and job satisfaction.


The identified tools were divided into separate categories to provide a clear idea how the selected
applications fit within the large perspective. Each category is described and then individua
l tools are
featured. The description includes all the aspects that are needed when integrating the ICT tool into
your classroom.




































6

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

Each
tools
descri
ption

includes
:




Description

An overview of the tool, its benefits and functions and how
it answers the
need stated in the rationale. An explanation of the basis or fundamental
reasons for using the suggested resource, what needs does the resource
address, specifically as well as generically.




How to do it


This section is
seperated

into tw
o parts.

Resources required
, describes the
steps needed and if any special
equipment
is required

to run the application. Most
of the
suggested tools
work best after

creating an account

(registering) and

logging in

to your
account
.

The

time
requirement is
also included
. The required resources
can be either
obligatory

or

optional
.


Set up s
hows the extent to which styling features

(look and functions)

of
the application
can

be changed by
a registered user

to allow for individual
preferences.




Methodology


O
utlines how the tool can be implemented in to a language classroom
situation. It
includes

a number of educational situations whe
re

th
e

tool
can be exploited and a basic outline how
a

successful implementation can
be
achieved
. Sometimes additional implem
entation information or
background can be found here.


Example of
implementation


A

ready
-
made lesson plan using the chosen application which can be
directly used by teachers as an initial source of inspiration. It states all
necessary details, steps and
tips. To
reduce the length:

(T stands for teacher, Ss or S

for students or student).




















7

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

1
.4.

S
OCIAL

NETWORKS

GUIDE


S
OCI AL NETWORKI NG SIT
ES SUPPORT COLLABORA
TI ON BETWEEN PROFESS
IONALS AND
CONNECT LANGUAGE TEA
CHERS AROUND THE WOR
LD ENCOURAGING THE E
XCHANGE
OF
IDEAS
,

ADVICE
,

SUGGESTIONS
,

EXPERI ENCES
,

AND OPINIONS
,

ALL OF WHI CH
LEAD TO A
BETTER AND SWIFTER P
RO
FESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN
T
.





T
WITTER


WWW
.
TWITTER
.
COM


DESCRIPTION


Online

networking sites support collaboration between professionals and connect langua
ge teachers
around the world encouraging the exchange of ideas, advice, suggestions, experiences, and opinions,
all of which lead to a better and swifter prefessional development. In addition, they provide an
excellent online environment for collaboration
between learners and teachers allowing the latter group
to monitor the former group’s progress and overall learning. At the moment, there is not only a very
high number of foreign language teachers and ELT authors who are on
Twitter
, but also a large
numbe
r of foreign language institutes, publishers, as well as renowned organisations in the ELT field
posting links to educational websites, free downloadable resources, weblogs, events, webinars, and
so
.


HOW

TO

USE

IT


R
ESOURCES


O
nly
a desktop computer or a
laptop with Internet connection is required to use
Twitter
. To use
Tweedeck you need the same the dos´wnloadable application called Adobe Air.




















8

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

If you have an iPhone, Blackberry or Android, you can download special apps which allow you to log
into your acc
ount and use
Twitter

through your mobile phone.


S
ET UP


To create a
Twitter

profile, the steps below must be followed:

1.

Visit
http://twitter.com

and click on
‘Sign up’

to enter your personal information, i.e. full
name, and a valid email address. You also

need to enter a password of your choice so that
you can log in safely in the future. Your email address is necessary so as to receive
notifications sent by
Twitter
. Once you have filled in all the registration form with the
necessary information, click on

“Create my account”.

2.

Twitter

will then

send you a confirmation email. You need to login to your email account, open
the confirmation message, and click on the link which will take you straight to the first page of
your profile.

3.

On the top right
-
hand side
of your screen you will see the “Get started on
Twitter
” section.
There, you will be presented with three options which are the following:

a)

“Browse popular accounts by interest”



you will be presented with a range of
different topics among which you find t
he one(s) you think is/are apporpriate and you
click on it/them. Then, you will be redirected to a list of
T
witter

users who all share
the same interests.



Note
:

You can look for any topic you wish by typing it down only after you
have inserted a # symbol.

b)

“Look for your friends”



Under this section, you will be given all the different online
services you might be using so that you attempt to find your contacts and friends
from let’s say your Yahoo email contanct list. Those contacts/friends need to have an

existing
Twitter

account, however, for you to find them.



Note:

Uploading and sharing your contacts’ emails with
Twitter

is not
advisable without their prior consent.

c)

“Find users by name”



Also, if you are already aware of the
Twitter

usernames of the
pe
ople you would like to follow, then you can just

type in their username

and then
click on the FOLLOW button next to the
ir profile picture
.



















9

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


4.

Next, you need to set up your account and your profile. There is a very efficient way of
navigating from your homep
age


also known as ‘timeline’


to your profile settings, direct
messages and suggestions on who to follow. At the top of your screen you can see the
navigation bar where you are presented with all the options mentioned above.

5.

To set up you account, clic
k on the Profile option at the top of your screen. Then click on “Edit
your profile”.

From this page you can edit all aspects of your profile ranging from your
password to the design of your homepage by clicking on the appr
o
priate category at the top
of th
e webpage.

6.

Once you have set up your profile and your account settings, you can either continue finding
and following
Twitter

users of your interest or you can compose your first tweet. The
maximum numbers of characters per tweet is 140.



Note:

If you are l
ooking to connect with other foreign language teacher colleagues, it is
suggested you fill out your “Bio” stating you are a teacher or connected to foreign
language teaching.
Twitter

users generally avoid following back users who do not reveal
information
about themselves as they are wary of advertiser or spammer followers.






















10

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


N
AVI GATION


Once you have completed editing your account and you have started following the users of your
interest and preference, you must start using your account by posting a c
omment in response to
someone else’s update or a useful link to a weblog or website you wish to share.


T
WEETING


To send a tweet you simply type down the message you wish to tweet (maximum number of
characters is 140) in the box at the top

of your timelin
e/homepage.
Then, you click on the “Tweet”
button and your message will appear on the timeline below the empty box.


R
ETWEETING


The rationale behind retweeting is the dissemination of information. Not all users of the same interest
have the same followers
. Consequently, useful information might not be accessible and visible to all
users. Therefore, to ensure that a good piece of information


may that be a simple tweet or a link


reaches as many users as possible, a retweet is vital.


The way to retweet i
s to hover your mouse over the tweet you wish to retweet and there will appear
certain options available


one of them being “retweet”. If you simply click on that option then you
will have managed to retweet the message of your choice.


A
nother way to ret
weet is to copy the message and then paste it in the box where you compose your
own tweets. However, do ensure you type down the username of the person who originally tweeted
the information/link you have decided to retweet. The way to do that is by typing

down the symbol @
and then the username of that person i.e.

























11

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



M
ENTIONS


When you want to mention other users it is because you want them to get a special notification of
your tweet so that you ensure they do not miss the tweet or because they have
contributed to
something (see Retweeting above). What you do is simply type down their username in the box you
compose tweets right after you have inserted the symbol @ i.e.


D
IRECT
M
ESSAGING
(DM’
S
)


A

direct Message is a private message sent to a particul
ar user of your preference/choice and its
content is not visible to any other user since it does not appear in the timeline; therefore, your
followers will not be able to see it on their screen.


Direct Messages (DM’s) can only be sent to people who follow

you. If a user is not one of your
followers, private messaging by DM is not possible.


To send a direct message you click on the “Messages” option on the navigation bar at the top of your
screen. Then, you click on the “New Message” option and you simply

type down the username of the
person to whom the DM is addressed, type down the message/ or paste the link and, finally, you click
on “Send”.


T
WITTER
L
ISTS


Lists are the equivalent of a
Facebook

group. They can be very easily created on twitter.com and
users can add any of their followers in those lists. They help reduce the number of tweets which are
not of primary concern to you. For example, you wish to follow family members as well as colleagues
and you wish to be able to see their updates separately
. Then, you can create two different lists so
that your timeline is not cluttered with tweets which are unrelated to one another regarding content.



















12

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


T
WEETDECK


WWW
.
TWEETDECK
.
COM



DESCRIPTION


Tweetdeck is the most popular platform for following tweets

outside a browser and here are some of
the things you can do on Tweetdeck that you cannot do on your browser
:



You can view more information simultaneously
,

for example
:



y
our
T
witter

timeline



y
our DM’s



t
weets by your list of favourite users



t
weets which c
ontain a specific hashtag (#) e.g. #ELTchat, which allows you to see
tweets even of users you are not following



y
ou can manage and follow more than one account at the same time, e.g. your
personal account and your school account.



Its capacities of catego
rising lists of followers, speed of replying to tweets, sending and
storing direct messages are extremely useful, especially when it comes to situations when the
know
-
how and speed of the users’ skills are of utmost importance. What’s more, it allows
users

to connect with contacts not only on
Twitter

but also
Facebook
, LinkedIn, Google Buzz
etc. at the same time on the same platform. Therefore, it has naturally become an integral
part of using a number of social networking sites.




























13

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

HOW

TO

USE

IT


R
ES
OURCES

To use Tweedeck you need the same the dos´wnloadable application called Adobe Air.


S
ET UP

To set up your Tweetdeck,
the steps below must be followed:

1.

Go to
www.tweetdeck.com
.

2.

At the top of your screen you will be presented with certain choices depe
nding on the device
you wish to install it in. For example, if you want to install Tweetdeck in your computer, you
will click on the option “Desktop” as shown below.

3.

You will be taken to the next page of the website where you need to click on the “Download

Now” option. Once you click, tweedeck will be automatically downloaded. When it finiishes
downloading, you need to click on the following options

a.

Run

b.

Continue

and the installation will be complete.

4.

Tweedeck will open automatically and you will be presente
d with the following window (pic
below).


This is a very user
-
friendly guide which helps you make the most of Tweedeck. For example, by
clicking on the apporpriate box you will be shown how to sort your information into different columns
according to cat
egories of your preference, how to add multiple
Twitter

or a
Facebook

accounts on
the platform, etc.



















14

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

IMPLEMENTATION


Twitter

can be used both as a tool exclusively by teachers for ther professional development and as a
tool with a group of foreign languag
e learners.


A
)

T
WITTER AS A PROFESSI
ONAL DEVELOPMENT TOO
L FOR FOREI GN LANGUA
GES
´

TEACHERS




Teachers can sign up and follow users with common interests and pursuits in the field,
exchange opinions and experiences to solve problems and/or expand their know
ledge on a
given topic by participating in live discussions, such as ELTchat. They can also follow links
redirecting the reader to a wide range of materials ranging from academic papers to the latest
web
-
tool specifically designed for classroom use.



They c
an also follow teacher associations, conferences and educational institutions which
specialise in English language teaching and visit useful links related to education and
teaching posted on a daily basis.



By connecting with institutions and individuals,
they can become more connected and take
advantage of the numerous opportunities to enhance their career.



By following and participating in hashtagged conversations, they can keep up with their
professional development through the contact, resources shared
, blog posts created and
classroom teaching ideas freely shared by chat participants during these conversations.


I
MPLEMENTATI ON EXAMPL
E


The following are links to
Twitter

users and organisations that foreign language teachers are advised
to follow on
Tw
itter
. In addition, there are some examples of well
-
known groups which organise and
implement online, live discussions on interesting topics revolving around ELT.



http://twitter.com/#!/ELTchat

you can fol
low organized chats every Wednesday



http://twitter.com/#!/aPLaNetproject

you can follow our project account for news and links



http://twitter.
com/#!/BloggersELT

you can find out about the latest blog posts of many
bloggers



http://twitter.com/#!/TeachingEnglish

you can find out about posts and links on the BBC


British Council website



















15

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



http://twitter.com/#!/iateflonline

you can follow activities and discussions before and during
the annual IATEFL conference


Some well known ELT authors are also very active on
Twitter
, for example, Jere
my Harmer @Harmerj,
Scott Thronbury @thornbur
yscott, Jim Scrivener @jimscriv, and others.



Note:

A comprehensive list of active
Twitter

users in the field of foreign language teaching is
included in the report Identifyi
ng Social Networks for Teachers.


B)

T
WITTER AS A LANGUAGE

TEACHING TOOL


Foreign language learners can use
Twitter

to:



Exchange ideas and opinions on assigned projects or videos.



Post useful links redirecting the reader to weblogs, articles, dictionaries, and other
supplementary materials com
monly used in the English language classroom.



Engage in peer
-
teaching and/or helping weaker members of the class by giving feedback to
their fellow classmates on homework, such as compositions, letter writing, and so on. this also
promotes learner autonomy
.



Connect and collaborate with other language learners from different countries praactising the
language as well as expanding their cultural awareness.



R
eflect on their own learning and take appr
o
priate action to improving their learning
strategies with
apporpriate guidance, of course.



Do vocabulary/writing activities assigned online by thir
d

tutor
.



I
MPLEMENTATI ON EXAMPL
E




The

teacher posts updates

about new vocabulary or idioms and asks the learners to use
online dictionaries to find semantic meaning/c
onnotation/synonyms/antonyms, etc.



The teacher asks learners to engage in writing a story based on a tweet he has already
posted. They need to continue and complete the story (twittories)
.



The teacher gives the learners long paragraphs or sentences and ask
s invites the learners to
reduce the number of words to 140 characters using any means whatsoever to do so. This
way they can practise using elements, such as substitution, ellipsis, participles, reduced
relative claused, adverbial clauses, etc.



















16

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



Learners t
weet questions they might have about specific language may that be grammar,
something they have heard and are not aware of the meaning; their fellow classmates or
other learners help them answer the questions
.



Learners
can exhange ideas and experiences on
learning strategies with peers.



The learners brainstorm ideas on a topic or any issue for deliberation and further discussion.



The teacher asks student to conduct an informal survey by addressing all followers, analysing
findings, and, finally, preparing
a presentation on a given topic.



Students commen
t

on videos/pictures exchanging ideas and opinions.



They share resources and links that might prove to be useful for personal reflection on
language learningand/or acquisition of new language.



Students play f
avourite music videos from You Tube explaining what they like about each clip
.




The teacher asks colleagues to asnwer questions posed by the class and, if possible, projects
their responses as they are given in real time to stimulate a class discussion or
project
.





C)

M
ORE USES OF TWITTER
I N THE CLASSROOM


Teachers can use
Twitter

to:



M
onitor the learners’ progress on assigned projects and homework.



Provide learners with immediate feedback and constant support.



Post useful links that would be relevant to

what the learners need at the time thus guiding
them ad scaffolding.



Making suggestions and/or sharing their own learning experiences with learners and strategies
they followed to solve particualr problems iin the context of learning
.



Set quick activitie
s on vocabulary/grammar/writing.



Invite learners to do brief research on a given topic so that they prepare it for the next lesson.



Post announcements and reminders
.




The teacher can ask individuals or groups to follow specific public figures or celebritie
s and to
study their tweets and make comments about anythinng special about their content or style of
expression
.





















17

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

I
MPLEMENTATI ON E
XAMPLES




Students search with an assigned key word to see how much it comes up and how it is used
by real users (as opposed

to coursebook examples).



If the students are adults, they can be asked to find key figures in their field and follow them.



Students can follow news agency
T
witter

accounts for the latest news.



Give learners a set of words and set a bief task, i.e. create

sense relations, find
meaning/connotation/ synonyms/antonyms, write a short sentence using the items given.



Give learners a link, i.e an article, so that they prepare a short presentation for their next
lesson and/or find additional related articles on th
e topic along with language they extracted
from both articles.



Ask learners to search for a number of experts in their professional field or area of interest.



Ask learners to recommend one of their chosen five and write a #Followfriday
recommendation expl
aining why others should follow this person.



Ask Ss to write a short but clear bio which explains who they are


in 140 characters.




















18

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

F
ACEBOOK


WWW
.
FACEBOOK
.
COM




DESCRIPTION


Facebook
, one of the most popular social networking sites,
was founded in 2004

by Mark Zuckerberg,
originally as a platform for Harvard University students. Like any other social network, it

is about
getting in touch with others.


At

the moment,
a large number of
foreign language
teacher, different
educational institutions or publis
hers can be found on
Facebook

sharing

links to educational websites,
free downloadable resources, weblogs, events, and so forth.


Using
Facebook

as a tool beyond the formal classroom teaching environment follows the principles of
connectivism. Increased ex
posure to L2, swift and immediate feedback to projects and homework
assigned to learners, groupwork, surveys and questionnaires followed by presentations are some of
the ways in which this particular social networking site can be used.


Learners can become

more responsible for their own learning and linguistic improvement. They
become more aware of the fact that the English language is actually used at a global level, ergo the
varieties of English are not considered to be of lesser but of equal importance.

At the same time, they
can see a very real and immediate use of language and skills acquired in the classroom and this
should add to their motivation to use the target language and to keep up with their language
development
.




























19

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

HOW

TO

USE

IT


R
ESOURC
ES

To start using
Facebook
, you will o
n
ly need
a desktop computer or a laptop with Internet connection.


S
ET UP

To create a
Facebook

profile, you need to follow these steps:

1.

Visit
www.facebook.com

and under
‘Sign up’

enter your personal information, i.e. f
irst
name, last name, and a valid email address. You also need to enter a password of your choice
so that you can log in safely in the future. Your email address is necessary as to receive
notifications sent by
Facebook

Inc.

2.

Facebook

will send you a confir
mation email. You need to login to your email account, open
the confirmation message and click on the
‘Get Started’

button which will take you straight to
the first page of your profile.

3.

You will be offered the opportunity to find the
Facebook

profile page
s of all your contacts in
your email contact list so that you can start making friends on
Facebook
. If you do not wish to
befriend any of your contacts, you can skip this step. By clicking on ‘Skip this step’ in the right
bottom corner of your page.

4.

Next,
you have the choice of filling in your profile information, i.e. the name of the secondary
school you attended, university, current employer. This will help you find your friends more
easily on
Facebook
. Once more, filling in the gaps is optional. You can
either ‘Save and
Continue’ to the next step, or skip completely.

5.

Next, you are
can
upload

a profile picture from your computer or taking a new photo using
your webcam.

Your
Facebook

profile page will appear on the screen once you have completed
the previou
s steps. You can edit your information, look for friends, colleagues, and/or
classmate
s who are currently on
Facebook



























20

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

6.

Once you have finished creating and have edited your profile, you can navigate through
different sections of your page. These diff
erent sections can be found on the left side of your
page as depicted below.



You can click on
‘News Feed’

to receive the latest posts/links your friends have posted or
shared with you or if you have received or wish to send a message, which are private
bet
ween you and the sender/recipient and do not get posted in the news feed page, or
even find friends, create a page, get informed about events to which you have been
invited, etc.



What is more, you can click on the sections below and find applications avail
able on
Facebook
, browse photos of your friends, read questions/polls, search for groups and
pages, etc.



Some of the previously mentioned sections, i.e. News feed, profile page, Finding friends,
and Account settings page can be also found in the top right
corner of your page.


If you click on
‘profile’
, then you will be taken to your own private page and you will be presented
with a number of choices, such as adding a photo if you have not done so already, sharing your
experiences, interests & hobbies, addi
ng a badge to your site, and so on.



N
AVI GATION


H
OW TO CREATE A GROUP

AND A PERSONALISED P
AGE


A
Facebook

page resembles a weblog in that it can be edited solely by the person who has created it.
Facebook

pages usually revolve around a particular topic,
person, organisation, institute, and so on.
On the other hand,
Facebook

groups resemble mostly discussion forums in that they are used mainly
as platforms to exchange ideas, links, posts, etc. and can be used by all
F
acebook

users who have
been invited by
the administrator(s) and have accepted to join the group.
























21

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



C
REATING A
F
ACEBOOK PAGE


In order to create a
Facebook

page the following steps must be taken:

1.

Click on the Account button and then Help Centre.

2.

You will be directed to
Facebook
’s Help cent
re where you need to click on the “Browse Help
Topics” option on the left side of your monitor. Then, click on the “Pages”.

3.

You will be presented with a number of options/questions varying from what a
F
acebook

page
is to tips on how to troubleshoot in cas
e you have problems with your page.


C
REATING A
F
ACEBOOK GROUP


In order to create a
Facebook

group the following steps must be taken:

1.

On the left side of your monitor you can see an option “Create group”. Click on that and you
will be presented with a box

where you need to type in your group’s name, send invitations to
the people you wish to allow access to, and choose whether you wish it to be open, closed, or
secret (privacy setting).

2.

Once you have created your group, you will be directed to the group's
page. You can click
"Edit Group" at the top right of the page to add a group description, set a group email
address, add a group picture and manage members.


H
OW TO J OI N A GROUP


To join a group, first you need to check whether you wish it is suitable for
you and your interests.
Once you take that decision click "Ask to Join Group" at the upper right side of the group's page. You
can also be added to a group by a friend who is already a member.

Groups require admin approval for
any prospective member to joi
n; therefore you might have to wait for an administrator to confirm
your request. Administrators can also block specific people from joining a group.



Certain groups on
Facebook

are secret and will not appear in search results. You cannot request to
join
these. Only being added by an existing member will give you access to these groups.




















22

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



A
CCOUNT SETTINGS


By clicking on the “Account Settings” button on the top left corner of your screen you will be directed
to the following page. On this particular page
you can edit/add all the relevant information regarding
your account on
F
acebook
. Namely, you can moderate which notifications you receive and see on
your News Feed page, change your password, edit privacy settings, create a
Facebook

advert, and so
on.


S
H
ARI NG I NFORMATION
,

LINKS AND UPLOADI NG
PHOTOS


At the top of the page you are presented with the following options:



Posts



Links



Photos



Videos



Questions


Use them to share the apporpriate file/comment as shown below: Group members get notified about
all ne
w posts in a group unless they choose to restrict their notification settings. If group privacy is set
to Closed or Secret, only group members will be able to see things that get posted in the group.


IMPLEMENTATION


Facebook

can be used both as a tool ex
clusively by teachers for ther professional development and as
a tool with a group of foreign language learners.


A) FACEBOOK AS A PRO
FESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN
T TOOL




Teachers can sign up and create/join a group for teachers with common interests and pursuits
in the field, exchange opinions and experiences to solve problems and/or expand their



















23

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

knowledge on a given topic by participating in discussions posted and updated on the group’s
page. They can also follow links redirecting the reader to a wide range of ma
terials ranging
from academic papers to the latest web tools specifically designed for classroom use.



They can ‘friend’ or follow (‘like’) reputable educational organisations and institutions which
specialise in English language teaching and visit useful
links related to education and Foreign
Language Teaching shared/posted
.




They can connect (‘friend’) with other foreign language educators from their own or other
countries, thus enriching their knowledge and awareness of teaching methods and best
practi
ces used in a variety of teaching and learning contexts.



They can keep up with their professional development in a free and autonomous way, one of
the major objectives of this project.



They can maintain or increase their motivation to keep up with the la
test developments in the
fields of language teaching, linguistics, applied linguistics, research and new technologies.



I
MPLEMENTATI ON EXAMPL
E


The following are some popular and well populated groups of ELT teachers who participate in
discussions revolv
ing around English languae teaching and learning.

In addition, there are some examples of well
-
known organisations and institutes in the
English
language teaching field:



www.facebook.com/internationalhouselondon



www.facebook.com/britishcouncil



www.faceboo
k.com/groups/eltchat



www.facebook.com/LearnEnglish.BritishCouncil


B) FACEB
OOK AS A LANGUAGE TE
ACHING TOOL


Teachers can create a group on
facebook

for their learners so that the latter can:



E
xchange ideas and opinions on assigned projects or videos.



E
ngag
e in pair/groupwork.



U
pload useful links redirecting the reader to weblogs, articles, dictionaries, and other
supplementary materials commonly used in the English language classroom.



















24

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



E
ngage in peer
-
teaching and/or helping weaker members of the class by giv
ing feedback to
their fellow classmates on homework, such as compositions, letter writing, and so on. this also
promotes learner autonomy.



C
onnect and collaborate with other language learners from different countries praactising the
language as well as ex
panding their cultural awareness.



R
eflect on their own learning and take apporpriate action to improving their learning
strategies with apporpriate guidance, of course.



Note
:

Facebook

groups can be
open
,
closed

or
secret
. Closed or secret groups are
ideal

for students, as admission to the groups can be monitored by the teacher who
acts as administrator (or a school administrator if one is available) and unwanted
members or visitors to the group page cannot post or see the posts of the students or
access t
heir discussion forums.


Teachers can create a group on
facebook

for their learners so that they can:



M
onitor the learners’ progress on assigned projects and homework.



P
rovide learners with immediate feedback and constant support.



P
ost useful links that w
ould be relevant to what the learners need at the time thus guiding
them in a particular direction.



Note
:

Younger learners should not be allowed access to
Facebook
. Indeed, in some
countries and institutions, the use of
Facebook

is banned. In all cases, i
n the case of
minors, parental consent should be obtained and parents should be advised to
monitor
Facebook

activity for teens.


I
MPLEMENTATI ON EXAMPL
E


Facebook

encourages, by dint of the nature of the medium,
mostly writing

and communicating
through wri
ting
, something which ought to give written homework a new boost, as writing is usually a
poor relative in language classrooms and homework can be dry and not highly motivating for learners.




















25

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

A
)

W
RITING
A
SSIGNMENTS


T
hese can be posted on the group wall,

pasted in a group forum or written in a document


which
Facebook

now allows
:



Any genre/topic

may that be a letter, a report, a story, etc.



A continuing story to which learners are asked to contribute an episode.



Part of a collaborative assignment


repo
rt, essay or letter (see above).



A book review or other review, e,g, an online game the learners have played, a language
practice website they have been asked to visit.


B
)

C
OMPLETING A SURVEY



On
Facebook
, it is possible to complete surveys by using the
poll application in the status box,
analysing findings, and, finally, preparing a presentation on a given

topic, e.g.:



Favourite food, drink, TV series, film, actor, etc.



Opinion polls on small or larger issues on which the class has been working.



Habits

and routines.



Various quizzes.



Report writing on the results of a survey carried out by the learners.



Learners create their own polls, collect results and write reports.


C
)

C
OMMENTING


T
his is a major function of
Facebook

and it can usefully exploited
by the classroom teacher to
encourage written expression and interaction amongst learners. Learners can comments on material
the teacher links to the page/group or that the learner link to it. Here are some id
eas:



Brainstorming


a good way to complement
or prepare for any type of lesson, e.g. ideas for a
story which was set as homework, or ideas for a topic which wi
ll be covered in a future class.



Topical videos to generate exchange ideas and opinions. This could also be part of the
brainstorming in prep
aration for a class discussion or written assignment on a set topic.



Photos and cartoons.



Music videos.



Blog posts.



Articles published on the web.



















26

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



A book or short story the learners have using in class or as extensive reading at home.Any
applications or t
ools which the teacher has decided it is safe to share with the learners.


D
)

P
RACTISING A GRAMMAR

POINT

GIVING PERSONALISED
EXAMPLES




The teacher can ask a question or leave an incomplete sentence for learners to continue, e.g.



What would you do or say i
f you saw a mouse in your room?



I have never tried …….



The teacher can answer questions on language on the wall or in a special “Grammar Clinic”
discussion forum
.



The teacher can ask students, singly or in pairs/teams, to create content using another
appl
ication, e.g. video or photopeach or devolver, to create and illustrate a dialogue practising
specific grammar points or areas. Results are shared on
Facebook
.



The wall or a discussion thread can be used to share links for further clarification or practice

of grammar points the students are not clear about.



Grammar Challenges
-

The teacher or the students can post incomplete/gapped sentences
and offer the students a number of choices from which they need to choose the correct one
(multiple choice items). T
hese items can range from discrete grammatical items to idiomatic
language, phrasal verbs, and so on, e.g.

I would ______ the exam if I had studied a bit harder.

a
. have passed

b
. pass

c
. had passed

d
. passed


E
)

C
HALLENGING STUDENTS


The
Facebook

page
or group can be used to record progress in a challenge set by the teacher, e.g.



A reading challenge


Ss can be given a list of readings and a target to complete
-

they report
progress on their page
.




Listening Challenge (as above
).



Pronunciation challenge



Ss can report progress on a we
bsite such as
englishcentral.com

where their efforts at improving their pronunciation are rated and they appear on
leaderboard
.



















27

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.


F)

G
AMING


G
AMES
P
LAYING


Many of the games which millions of users play daily on
Facebook
, o
ffer ample opportunity for reading
and interacting in the la
nguage in a more relaxed way, e
.g. to build a farm or to beat an opponent in
a word game. There are many
F
acebook

applications which allow one to do this; however the teacher
needs to try them out

very carefully to make sure no unwanted adverts or inappropriate content is
posted along with the game frames, especially in the case of teens or young adults.


G
)

I
DENTIFYING ERRORS IN

OWN OR OTHERS


WRITING


The teacher uploads some of the students’
homework
-

could be either written or a recorded
conversation
-

and invites the rest of the students to post their comments giving their fellow
classmates feedback based on certain criteria, e.g. fluency, accuracy, range, task fulfillment,
coherence, conte
nt, etc.

(
Note:

T
his is best done in a closed or even secret group
and with the
learners’ consent).



The teacher can post samples of student writing and stage a short contest


the winner would
be the first one to spot an error
.



The teacher posts a link wit
h some authentic content on the web which contains language
errors. Students

are invited to identify errors.



Comments on aspects of writing other than linguistic errors are encouraged, e.g. the teacher
links a piece of writing and invites students to comme
nt on coherence, cohesion, relevance of
content, etc.


H)

L
EARNER
T
RAINING
D
ISCUSSIONS


A
CTIVATING THE
M
ETACOGNITIVE
F
UNCTION


Making suggestions and/or sharing their own learning experiences and strategies they followed to
solve particular problems in
the context of learning/dealing with isolated
examples of language.



The teacher can ask learners to write reflections on how they approached a specific task
which was introduce in class or online.



The teacher creates a group on
Facebook

bringing together
more advanced/stronger students
with weaker ones. The former group can take on the role of a “mentor” while the latter group


















28

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

will greatly benefit from interacting with a person other than the sometimes daunting figure of
the teacher’s.



I)

M
ORE COMPLEX
&

CHALLENGING PROJ ECTS



Once a class

is a lttle more familiar with
Facebook
, they can be asked to create a special interest
group page and generate conversations from their classmates.
As for examples:



A
topical page on fashio
n, sports, music.



A profile pa
ge for one of the characters from a book of fiction they have read or are in the
process of exploring.



An environmental page.



A causes page on a cause which they have become aware of in their local area.



A page with interesting facts about the language or

local community.



A culture page.



A funny idioms or strange expressions collection page.



An ‘all
-
you
-
need
-
to
-
know
-
about
-
an
-
exam” page


to prepare them for a public examination
they are about to take (Fact File or Tips or both).



A literary or interesti
ng quotes collection page.



A page to feature a number of videos or animations following a class project.


J)

F
ACEBOOK
C
ONNECTIONS


Just as it is possible to invite a willing fellow educator to connect with your class on Skype, it is also
possible to invi
te a colleague or even a non
-
teacher native speaker for an organized chat or interview
which can be done synchronously or asynchronously


some possible topics might include
:



Life in the UK, US, Australia or other country.



Cultural idiosynchrasies related

to aspects of life in the target language community


students
can be encouraged to ask even very simple questions about the time of meals and clothes for
specific occasions, to more complex interview topics.



Interviews can be streamed live


there are t
hird party applications such as Livestream, which
connect and can be used with
Facebook

so that your learners can be listening and looking at
the interviewee and can be typing questions in the comments section.




















29

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

NING


WWW
.
NING
.
COM



DESCRIPTION


Ning

(w
hich means peace in Chinese) is described here as it is particularly popular among educators
and provides a stable, feature
-
rich communication platform. Hundreds of thousands of educators
around the world used it and created online teacher and learner comm
unities although numbers have
decreased dramatically since it was turned into a paid social networking tool, its popularity i
s still so
great that the word
Ning

has come to be used generically for any type of similar social networking
application.


HOW

TO

USE

IT


R
ESOURCES



desktop computer or laptop



reliable and stable Internet connection, preferably though not necessarily broadband



microphones or web cam (optional: only if one wishes to use audio and/or video chat
applications)



rudimentary knowled
ge of Social Network features (to become a member of a
Ning
), a certain
skill in organising digital content (to create your own
Ning
)


S
ET UP

To become a member of an already existing
Ning
, you have to visit their Main page. Once there, it is
very easy to

join. There are two separate Sign Up buttons located on the Main pag
e, as shown in the
image below.
























30

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

1.

Fill in a few personal details and click on Sign Up.





2.

Having completed this simple form, a welcome e
-
mail is sent to the registered ad
dress,
inc
luding
various links to the
Ning
. These links provide immediate access to various features
of the
Ning
, as well as the ability to invite your contacts to the
Ning

and/or tell your
Twitter

followers about it.

3.

All that is needed, after clicking on any of th
ese links, is to sign in here:



Note
:

As with other social networks, it is well worth considering whether it is advisable
to share the emails of friends and contacts with an application before you are
confident that it is a trusted application.

4.

Once you

are on the
Ning

Main page, you will see that the contents of a
Ning

are typically
organised in tabs, which are visible on the top part of every
Ning

web page for easy cross
reference:



Note
:

If

you wish to create your own
Ning
, subscription fees start at
14.95 a year
(only for educational
ning
s), but the features offered are limited. A fully functional
Ning

subscription fee starts at
149.95 a year.

























31

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.

I
MPLEMENTATION


There are many possibilities in language educators exploring
Nings

both for use with t
heir classes and
for professional development. Here are a few ideas on how
Nings

can be used by language teachers,
together with specific examples where applicable.


Nings

are particularly useful in a
class context
in several aspects.


A)

C
LASS COMMUNICAT
ION




Nings

provide an excellent
class communication platform that can be accessed at any given
time from any given location provided there is Internet access, of course. This makes it ideal
for online or blended learning contexts. It can also act as a ver
y useful backchannel
throughout the course, where comments and opinions are exchanged and feedback on course
content is delivered and discussed.


B)

P
LATFORM FOR PRACTI SI
NG LANGUAGE SKI LLS


Nings

p
rovide a
fully functional
platform for integrating languag
e skills
, especially

through the use of:



T
he
Blog feature
, for reading and writing practice. As mentioned above, it is very user
-
friendly and allows students to publish their written work and receive comments on it by their
teacher and classmates. It is p
erhaps more suited to extensive reading and writing practice,
with more focus on fluency and the communication of ideas rather than on accuracy.
Please
see examples in the
Implementation

section below.



T
he
Forum
, which is another area where reading and wri
ting skills can be practiced. Here the
teacher or any of the students can start discussion threads on topical issues and opinions can
be exchanged. This is extremely useful in raising awareness of text features such as tone,
register and level of formality
, as well as in providing an opportunity to practice
communication skills, such as expressing ideas clearly and voicing agreement or disagreement
politely. The length of the written text can be considerably less than that of a blog post, but
the focus is a
gain more on fluency, clarity and appropriacy rather than on accuracy.
Please
see examples in the
Implementation

section below.



















32

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



The
Chat

feature, which also provide an excellent opportunity for reading and writing practice
at the sentence level. Since ch
at speech presents a mixture of oral and written text features,
it is ideal for practising discourse skills such as negotiation of meaning and turn taking. Its
added value is that it is a synchronous tool, therefore students can communicate in real time,
w
hich reinforces discourse skills practice in an authentic context.



T
he
Messages and Comments
feature, available on almost every
Ning

page. Students can
practice their reading and writing skills at the sentence and paragraph level by exchanging
messages or

leaving comments on each other's pages. This also involves communicating in an
authentic context and greatly assists in developing fluency in writing.



T
he
Video and Photo

upload feature. Content can be uploaded by either the teacher or the
students and
specific assignments can be set in the Blog or the Forum, after students have
watched the video or looked at the photo(s) (listening and writing).



Ning

applications

that allow voice or video chat between members, opinion polls, digital
content sharing and

many more.
Please see examples in the
Implementation

section below.



I
MPLEMENTATI ON EXAMPL
E




Teachers can use the
Blog

feature for reading and writing practice, with tasks such as story
competitions, student diaries, reflecting for instance on their le
arning, special writing
challenges set by the teacher (i.e. research and report writing, exploring a topic within a set
number of words, etc.).



Some examples of successful use of the
Forum
, again for reading and writing practice might
be:



French Book Club

This is a link on a discussion thread about the heroine's choices in
a French novel.



Latin Studies

Here the forum is used by the teacher t
o assign homework, asking the
students to comment on certain reading texts already introduced in class.



There are special
Ning applications

that allow voice or video chat between members,
opinion polls, digital content sharing and many more. Some examples

can be found here:



Instructions for a roleplay can be given by the teacher in a blog post and then
students can act their roles in pairs or groups through a voice or video chat
application, like
Tokbox's OpenTok

(reading, listening and speaking).



















33

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.



The teacher can provide input on current topic of interest in a Blog post and organise
an online debate usin
g the Events feature. The debate can take place on OpenTok
and then one of the many poll applications, like
Pollda
ddy
, can be used for the
students to vote on the topic. Results can be immediately diplayed on the
Ning
's Main
Page and further discussion can be taken up in the Forum (all skills).


C)

P
ROMOTION OF LEARNER
AUTONOMY




This can be achieved by allowing membe
rs a certain level of freedom regarding the content
and look of their personal pages so that it reflects their personality and choice of interests,
creating special interest groups within the
Ning

and encouraging collaboration among
students and classes. T
he latter is of the utmost importance, since stud
ents
working
autonomously on a project or giving feedback on each

other's work or simply helping each
other complete an assignment without active teacher inference is one a very effective way to
foster learn
er independence. The
Ning

is designed primarily as a communication and
collaboration tool, therefore lends itself to project work while at the same time allows the
teacher to discreetly monitor progress and pinpoint shortcomings.



D)

T
EACHER
´
S PROFESSIO
NAL DEVELOPMENT


Nings

are also very useful from a
professional development

aspect. They can help language
teachers to:



C
onnect with educators all over the world sharing ideas, opinion
s and generally comparing
notes.



P
ursue a special area of interest by p
articipating in a group with like
-
minded professi
onals.



S
chedule online events like webinars, conferences or chat s
essions, through the Events tab



S
hare digital material either for teaching or pr
ofessional development purposes.



C
reate a personal learning n
etwork of friends and colleagues through easily integrating
Ning

to
Twitter
,
Facebook

and other online platforms.



C
ollaborate on

projects with other educators
both from within their local community as well
fr
om the international community.



C
onnect their cl
asses with those of other educators teaching a foreign language or even with
teachers teaching native speaking learners.




















34

The project Autonomous “Person
al Learning Networks” for Language Teachers has been funded with support from the European
Commission. This document reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use wh
ich may be
made of the information conta
ined therein.




















































This

Teachers Guide

is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution
-
NonCommer
cial
-
Share Alike 2.0 License. To view
a copy of this licence, visit

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by
-
nc
-
sa/2.0/uk/