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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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ANDROID


HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT:

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT:

On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies
including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Sony and Samsung, wireless carriers
such as Sprint Nextel and T
-
Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas
I
nstruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices.

Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin
(co
-
founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co
-
founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc. ), Nick

Sears (once VP at T
-
Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at
WebTV) to develop, in Rubin's words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its
owner's location and preferences".

In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series o
f devices

a line of smartphones and tablets
running the Android operating system, and built by a manufacturer partner.

Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Android devices,
demonstrating Android's latest software and hardw
are features.

The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital
cameras, when it was realised that the market for the devices was not large enough, and
diverted their efforts to producing a smartphone operating s
ystem to rival those of Symbian
and Windows Mobile (Apple's iPhone had not been released at the time).

Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was
planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.

On 13 Mar
ch 2013, it was announced by Larry Page in a blog post that Andy Rubin had
moved from the Android division to take on new projects at Google.

At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux
kernel.

Reports from th
e BBC and the Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and
applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that.

That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the
Linux kernel versio
n 2. 6.

In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google
had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.

Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued
to build through December 2006.

Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to
carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.

Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carrier
s on the promise of providing a
flexible, upgradable system.


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system)












Timeline Of Android OS:

Android 1.0, 23/09/2008:


Android Market application download and updates through the Market app


Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages


multiple
pages show as windows ("cards")


Camera support


however, this version lacked the option to change the camer
a's
resolution, white balance, quality, etc.


Folders allowing the grouping of a number of app icons into a single folder icon on
the Home screen


Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP


Gmail synchronization with the Gmail app


Goog
le Contacts synchronization with the People app


Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar app


Google Maps with Latitude and Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as
well as find local business and obtain driving directions using GPS


Go
ogle Sync, allowing management of over
-
the
-
air synchronization of Gmail, People,
and Calendar


Google Search, allowing users to search the Internet and phone apps, contacts,
calendar, etc.


Google Talk instant messaging


Instant messaging, text messaging,
and MMS


Media Player, enabling management, importing, and playback of media files


however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support


Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration
alerts


Voice Diale
r allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or
number


Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home
screen icons and widgets


YouTube video player


Other apps include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer
(Phone), Home screen
(Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings


Wi
-
Fi and Bluetooth support

Android 1.5 (Cupcake), 30/04/2009:


Support for third
-
party virtual keyboards with text prediction and user dictionary for
custom words


Support for Widgets


mi
niature application views that can be embedded in other
applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates


Video recording and playback in MPEG
-
4 and 3GP formats


Auto
-
pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles)


Co
py and paste features in web browser


User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts


Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one
-
touch access to a
contact card from call log event


Animated screen transitions


Auto
-
rotation option


New stock boot animation


Ability to upload videos to YouTube


Ability to upload photos to Picasa

Android 1.6 (Donut), 15/09/2009:


Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the
web


Ability for developers to include t
heir content in search results


Multi
-
lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a
string of text


Easier searching and ability to view app screenshots in Android Market


Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated,

with faster camera access


Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion


Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text
-
to
-
speech
engine


Support for WVGA screen resolutions


Speed improvements in searching and camera appli
cations


Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder development tool

Android 2.0 (Eclair), 26/10/2009:


Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for
synchronization of email and contacts


Microsoft Exchange email su
pport, with combined inbox to browse email from
multiple accounts in one page


Bluetooth 2.1 support


Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person


Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with delete oldest message
s in a
conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached


Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode,
white balance, color effect and macro focus


Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter

dictionary that learns from
word usage and includes contact names as suggestions


Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double
-
tap zoom and support for
HTML5


Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and ability
t
o invite new guests to events


Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI


Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio


Improved Google Maps 3.1.2


MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi
-
touch events


Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home
-
screen background
images to show movement

Android 2.2 (Froyo), 20/05/2010:


Speed, memory, and performance optimizations


Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compila
tion


Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application


Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, enabling push
notifications


Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto
-
discovery
,
GAL look
-
up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe


Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications


USB tethering and Wi
-
Fi hotspot functionality


Option to disable data access over mobile network


Updated Market applic
ation with batch and automatic update features


Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries


Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth


Support for Bluetooth
-
enabled car and desk docks


Support for numeric and alphanum
eric passwords


Support for file upload fields in the Browser application


Support for installing applications to the expandable memory


Adobe Flash support


Support for high
-
PPI displays (up to 320 ppi), such as 4" 720p screens


Gallery allows users to vi
ew picture stacks using a zoom gesture

Android 2.3 (Gingerbread), 06/12/2010:


Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed


Support for extra
-
large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher)


Native support for SIP VoIP internet t
elephony


Faster, more intuitive text input in virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better
suggested text and voice input mode


Enhanced copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press
-
hold,
copy, and paste


Support for Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag
embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement


New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass
boost


New Download Manager, giving users e
asy access to any file downloaded from the
browser, email, or another application


Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front
-
facing camera, if
available


Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding


Improved power manage
ment with a more active role in managing apps that are
keeping the device awake for too long


Enhanced support for native code development


Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices


Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers


Concurre
nt garbage collection for increased performance


Native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers)

Android 3.0 (Honeycomb), 22/02/2011:


Optimized tablet support with a new virtual and

holographic


user interface


Added System Bar, featu
ring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation
buttons, available at the bottom of the screen


Added Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other
types of content at the top of the screen


Simplified multi
tasking


tapping Recent Apps in the System Bar allows users to see
snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one app to another


Redesigned keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes


Simplified, more intuitive

copy/paste interface


Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto
-
fill and a new

incognito


mode allowing anonymous browsing


Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front
-
facing camera, time
-
lapse,
and other camera featu
res


Ability to view albums and other collections in full
-
screen mode in Gallery, with easy
access to thumbnails for other photos


New two
-
pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate
contacts


New two
-
pane Email UI to make view
ing and organizing messages more efficient,
allowing users to select one or more messages


Support for video chat using Google Talk


Hardware acceleration


Support for multi
-
core processors


HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication (SNI)


Filesyste
m in Userspace (FUSE; kernel module)

Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwhich), 19/10/2011:


Optimized tablet support with a new virtual and

holographic


user interface


Added System Bar, featuring quick acces
s to notifications, status, and soft navigation
buttons, available at the bottom of the screen


Added Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other
types of content at the top of the screen


Simplified multitasking


tappin
g Recent Apps in the System Bar allows users to see
snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one app to another


Redesigned keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes


Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste inte
rface


Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto
-
fill and a new

incognito


mode allowing anonymous browsing


Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front
-
facing camera, time
-
lapse,
and other camera features


Ability to
view albums and other collections in full
-
screen mode in Gallery, with easy
access to thumbnails for other photos


New two
-
pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate
contacts


New two
-
pane Email UI to make viewing and organizi
ng messages more efficient,
allowing users to select one or more messages


Support for video chat using Google Talk


Hardware acceleration


Support for multi
-
core processors


Ability to encrypt all user data


HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indicatio
n (SNI)


Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE; kernel module)

Android 4.1 (Jellybean), 09/07/2012:


Smoother user interface:


Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework,
including application rendering, touch events, screen compos
ition and display refresh


Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline


Enhanced accessibility


Bi
-
directional text and other language support


User
-
installable keyboard maps


Expandable notifications


Ability to turn off notifications on an app specific bas
is


Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re
-
arranged or re
-
sized to allow new items
to fit on home screens


Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam


Offline voice dictation


Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and
home screen used by phones.


Improved voice search


Improved camera app


Google Wallet (for the Nexus 7)


High
-
resolution Google+ contact photos


Google Now search applica
tion


Multichannel audio


USB audio (for external sound DACs)


Audio chaining (also known as gapless playback)


Stock Android browser is replaced with the Android mobile version of Google
Chrome in devices with Android 4.1 preinstalled


Ability for other l
aunchers to add widgets from the app drawer without requiring root
access

Android 4.3(Jellybean "An even Sweeter Jellybean") 24/07/2013:


Bluetooth Low Energy support.


Bluetooth Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) 1.3 support


OpenGL ES 3.0 support
, allowing for improved game graphics


Restricted access mode for new user profiles


Filesystem write performance improvement by running fstrim command while device
is idle


Dial pad auto
-
complete in the Phone app


Improvements to Photo Sphere


Reworked ca
mera UI, previously introduced on Google Play edition phones


Added fine
-
grained application permissions controls (hidden by default)


4K resolution support


Many security enhancements, performance enhancements, and bug fixes


System
-
level support for geof
encing and Wi
-
Fi scanning APIs


Background Wi
-
Fi location still runs even when Wi
-
Fi is turned off


Developer logging and analyzing enhancements


Added support for five more languages


Improved digital rights management (DRM) APIs


Hebrew and Arabic right
-
to
-
left (RTL) support


Clock in the status bar disappears if clock is selected as lockscreen widget

Android 5.0 (Key Lime Pie), Yet To Be Released:

Information about the new Android OS has yet to have an official release date yet and no
specifications about the update has been finalised and released yet at this current stage of
Android's operating system.

(This Part was directly taken from
http://en.w
ikipedia.org/wiki/Android_version_history#Android_1.0_.28API_level_1.29) Due
to the fact I wanted to be deadly accurate with all the features within the different updates to
the Android OS.

Android's Target Audience:

Android's target audience started off w
ith a small niche population of just computer geeks
and nerds, who loved to code and use open source programming like linux. Then Android
realized that they need to expand it so more and more phones began to pick up the OS make
it more user friendly and go
t it out to rival Apple's IOS and now has overtaken Apple and has
become the most successful Operating System for Mobile Phones and Tablets in the market
today.


THE FUTURE OF ANDROID:

The future success of Android operating system will be in the new Andr
oid 5.0 called Key
Lime Pie, because all Android operating systems ever since Android 1.5 have had names
based of different food. The new Android 5.0 will have new features such as Google Now,
Project Butter, OpenGL ES 3.0, Bluetooth Low Energy. The new op
erating system will be
released on the new Nexus 7 2, and the Nexus 10.2 tablet devices as their key devices like
they did with the release of Android 4.1 Jellybean with the original Nexus 7 and Nexus 10
tablet and smartphone devices. The Google Nexus 10.2

has not been released with all the
specs for the devices but rumors have it that the device will have a screen resolution of
2560*1600 and the new Snapdragon 800 chipset. More information on the new Android 5.0
operating system and new Google Nexus smart
devices will not be released until the IFA
Berlin 2013 (Germany's biggest Consumer Electronics Expo) which will be held in early
September. These new Android Devices will available in time for this years holiday season
for Christmas.

Source:http://crossmap
.christianpost.com/news/android
-
5
-
0
-
key
-
lime
-
pie
-
release
-
date
-
feature
s
-
specs
-
os
-
update
-
on
-
qualifying
-
phones
-
nexus
-
7
-
and
-
10
-
2
-
rumors
-
on
-
brand
-
new
-
improveme
nts
-
for
-
android
-
os
-
4483

ANDROID TECHNOLOGY IN OTHER DEVICES (BESIDES TABLETS AND
SMARTPHONES):

There a
re a lot of different devices that run the Android operating system besides tablets and
smartphones themselves. Some of the most notable ones that people may have heard about
are the Samsung Galaxy Camera and the Nikon Coolpix S800c, which both use Android

4.0
Ice cream sandwhich operating system and have most of your usual built in Android apps and
functions that you would see on a normal Android smartphone or tablet. Some of these
include Wifi, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram for all your quick social net
work uploads.
Google Play store and Bluetooth. Other devices include Google Glasses, Sony's Smartwatch,
Smart TV (Google TV), Smart and Netbooks, portable media players and Voips and
Landlines. The Biggest breakthrough for a device that uses Android operat
ing system is the
Ouya, which Android's on home video game console that became one the most ever
successful Kickstart campaigns in the small lifetime history of the Kickstarter website having
a community contribution of over $8.5 million U.S. dollars. This

system runs the latest
Android operating software and allows users to download games from the Google Play store
and play them on their television and has since seen other forms of Android home and
portable gaming consoles like the Project Shield by NVIDIA

and the Acer Transformer tablet
series.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system)#Beyond_smartphones_and_tablets

ReferencesReferences


Crossmap.christianpost.com. 2013. Android 5.0 Key Lime Pie Release Date, Features &
Specs; OS Upd
ate on Qualifying Phones, Nexus 7, and 10 2? Rumors On Brand New
Improvements For Android OS. [online] Available at:
http://crossmap.christianpost.com/news/android
-
5
-
0
-
key
-
lime
-
pie
-
release
-
date
-
features
-
specs
-
os
-
update
-
on
-
qualifying
-
phones
-
nexus
-
7
-
and
-
10
-
2
-
rumors
-
on
-
brand
-
new
-
improvements
-
for
-
android
-
os
-
4483 [Accessed: 29 Aug 2013].


En.wikipedia.org. 2013. Android (operating system)
-

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
[online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system) [Accessed:

26 Aug 2013].


En.wikipedia.org. 2009. Android version history
-

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online]
Available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_version_history#Android_1.0_.28API_level_1.29
[Accessed: 26 Aug 2013].


En.wikipedia.org. 2013.
Android (operating system)
-

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
[online] Available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system)#Beyond_smartphones_and_tablets
[Accessed: 29 Aug 2013].