Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes in Biology

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30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes in Biology

Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes

Meaning

a, an

Not, without:
asymptomatic, aphasia, anemia,

ab

Away from:
abductor, absent, aberrant, abstain,

acu

Sharp:
acute, acupuncture, accurate, acumen

ad

Toward:
adductor, addiction, adhesion, additive,

ag, act

Do, move, cause:
agent, reaction, reagent,

-
al

Relating to, at:
nocturnal, diurnal, arboreal,

alb

White:
albino, albacore, albedo, albumin, linea

ambul

To walk:
ambulatory, amble, ambulance,

amph

Double, both:
amphibian, amphoteric, amphibious

amyl

Starch:
amylase, amylase, amylopectin, amyloplast

an

Upward, apart:
anaphase, anode, analysis,

andr, anth

Male, man:
androgen, anthropology, anther,

ann, enni

Circle, year:
perennial, annelid, annular rings,

ante

Before, front:
antenna, anterior, antedate,

anti

Against, opposite:
antiseptic, antibiotic, antigen,

arbor

Tree:
arboreal, arboretum, arborvitae, arborist

-
arium

Place:
aquarium, terrarium, planetarium, vivari
um

arth

Joint:
arthritis, arthropod, arthroscope,

aud

Sound:
auditory meatus, audible, audiologist,

auto

Self:
autotrophic, autoimmune, autocatalytic,

av, avi

Bird:
Aves, aviary, aviation, avian flu, aviculture

bio

Life:
biology, biochemistry, biometrics, biome,

blast

Germ, embryo:
blastula, blastocoels, blastocyst,

bol

Clod:
bolus, anabolism, catabolism, metabolism

brachi

Arm:
biceps brachii, brachial artery, brachial

calor

Heat:
calorie, caloric, calorimeter,
kilocalorie

cap, cep

Head:
tricpes, cephalopod ,decapitate, capital, cap,

cardi

Heart:
pericardium, tachycardia, cardiac arrest,

carp

Wrist:
carpal bones, carpus, metacarpal, carpal

cep, cept

Take:
receptor, intercept, forceps, except, accept

cepha
l

Head, brain:
electroencephalogram, cephalopoda,

chlor

Green:
chlorophyll, chloroplast, chlorine, chlorella,

chond

Cartilage, granular:
mitochondria, chondroplast,

chord

A chord, string:
chordate, hemichordate,

chrom

Color:
chromosome, chromatic, monochrome,

cide, cis

To kill, to cut:
pesticide, herbicide, fungicide,

cili

A small hair:
ciliary muscle, cilia, ciliophora,

circ

Ring, around:
circulatory system, circa, circulation,

co,com

Together:
community, commensalism, conjugal,

coel

Hollow:
coelenterate, coelenterons, blastocoels,

cogn

Know, think:
prognosis, diagnosis, recognize,

corp

Body:
corpus callosum, corpse, corpulent

crani

Skull:
craniotomy, cranium, cranial nerve,
epcranium, cr
anial artery

crypt

Hidden:
cryptic, encrypted, cryptic coloration,

cyan

Dark blue:
anthocyanin, hemocyanin, cyan,

cyst

Bladder, sac:
cyst, sporocyst, blastocyst,

cyt

Cell:
cytology, erythrocyte, chondrocyte, cytokinin,

de

Without:
denature, decomposition, dehydrate,

dem

People:
demography, epidemic, pandemic,

dendr

Tree, bush:
dendrites, dendritic, dendrology,

dent, dont

Tooth:
dentin, dentist, dentifrice, orthodontist,

derm

Skin:
dermatology, epidermis, hypodermic,

dis,
dys

Away:
dystrophy, disease, dysfunction, distemper,

dors

Back:
latissimus dorsi. Dorsal fin, dorsallip,

dura

Hard, lasting:
dura matter, durable, duration,

e, ex, ef

Out, without, from:
exocytosis, efferent,

echino

Spiny:

echinoderm, echinoid

ec
o

House:
environment;
ecology, ecosystem,

ecto

Outside, external:
ectoderm, ectopic

ectomy

Cut out:
appendectomy, tonsillectomy

endo, en

Within:
endoskelelton, endocrine, endometrium

epi

Upon:
epidermis, epithelial, epiglottis

eryth

Reddish:
erythrocyte, erythropoiesis

eu

Good, true:
eukaryote, eubacteria

ex, exo

Outside of:
exoskeleton, exocrine

fer

To carry, bear:
conifer, transfer, infer

flex, flect

Bend:
flexor, reflex

foramen

Hole, perforation:
foramen magnum, foraminifera

form

Form, shape:
fusiform, coniform

gam

Marriage, sex cell:

gametes, monogamy

gastr

Stomach:
gastritis, gastropod

gen

Origin:
genetics, gene, antigen

germ

Sprout:
germination, germ layer

gest

Carry, bear:
gestation, digest

gloss, glot

Tongue:
glossary,
epiglottis

glu, glo

Lump, bond:
glomerulus, agglutinate

glyc

Sugar:
hypoglycemia, glycolysis

gnath

Jaw:
agnatha, orthognathous

gram

Writing, picture:
electrocardiogram, mammogram

gyn

Woman:
gynecologist, monogynous

hal

Breathe:
inhalation, exhale

hem

Blood:
hematology, hemorrhage

hemi

Half:
hemisphere, hemichordata

hepat

Liver:
hepatitis, hepatic artery

herb

Plants:
herbivore, herbaceous

hetero

Other, different:
heterotroph, heterogeneous

histo

Tissue:
histology, histochemical

hom

Same, alike:
homologous, homeostasis

hyper

Over, above:
hypertensive, hyperventilate

ichth

Fish:
chondrichthyes, ichthyology

-
ile

Quality, state:
juvenile, contractile

im, in

Not:
independent variable, immiscible

immun

Safe:
immunization, immunology

inter

Between:
intercostals, internal

intra

Within, into:
intracellular, intravenous

-
ion

Process:
respiration, reproduction

-
ist

One who studies:
biologist, ecologist

-
itis

Inflammation:
tendonitis, hepatitis

junct

Join:
conjunctive tissue,
nondisjunction

juven

Young:
juvenile, rejuvenate

kilo

Thousand:
kilocalorie, kilojoule

kine

Motion:
kinesiology, cytokinesis

lact

Milk:
lactase, lactobacillus

lip

Fat:
lipoprotein, lipase

loc

Place, position:
dislocate, allocate

lys

Loose, break:
lysosome, plasmolysis

macro

Large:
macromolecule, macrophage

mal

Bad, badly:
malignant, malformation

mamm

Breast:
mammary gland, mammal

man

Hand:
manipulate, manual

medi

Middle, between:
mediastinum, medial

medic

Physician:
medicine, medic

mes

Middle, between:
mesoderm, mesoglea

meta

Change, between:
metamorphosis, metabolism

meter

Measure:
thermometer, millimeter

micro

Small:
microvilli, microscopre

migra

Wander:
migratory, immigrant

mis

Bad, wrong:
misidentify, miscarriage

moll

Soft:
mollusk, emollient

mono

Single:
monocot, monotremes

morph

Form:
morphogen, metamorphosis

mort

Mortal, death:
postmortem, mortality

mut

Change:
mutagen, mutant

myo

Muscle:
myocardium, myofibril

nas, nos

Nose:
nasal, nasopharynx

nat

Born, birth:
innate, natal

neo

New, recent:
neoplasm, neonate

nephr

Kidney:
nephritis, epinephrine

neur

Nerve:
neuritis, neurologist

nom

Name, order:
taxonomy, autonomic

nuc

Center:
nucleus, nucleotide

ocu

Eye:
ocular lens, binocular

-
oid

Resemble, like:
amoeboid, haploid

olfact

To smell:
olfactory, olfaction

ology

Study of:
biology, physiology

oo

Egg:
oocyte, oogenesis

oper

Work:
Operon, operation

ortho

Straight, correct:
orthoptera, orthodontist

-
osis

Process, condition:
metamorphosis, neurosis

oss, osteo

Bone:
osteoblast, osteocyte

oto

Ear:
otology, otoscope

ov

Egg:
ovum, oviduct

para

Alongside:
parasympathetic, paramedic

pariet

Wall:
parietal

pater, pat

Father:
paternal, allopatry

path

Disease:
pathology, allelopathy

ped, pod

Foot:
arthropod, podiatry

phag

Eat:
phagocytosis, macrophage

phob

Fear:
arachnophobia, hydrophobic

photo

Light:
photoperiodism, photosynthesis

phyll

Leaf:
mesophyll, chlorophyll

phys

Body, nature:
physiology, biophysic

phyt

Plant:
phytoplankton, sporophyte

pneum

Lung:
pneumatic, pneumonia

pole, polar

End of axis:
polarize, vegetal pole

poly

Many:
polysaccharide, polyploid

pop

People, inhabitants:
population, populous

port

Carry:
portable, export

post

After:
postpartum, posterior

pre

Before:
prefix,
prefrontal

prim

First:
primary, primitive

pseudo

Not true, false:
pseudopodia, pseudocoel

psych

Mind:
psychology, psychosis

pter

Wing:
orthoptera, archaeopteryx

pulmo

Lung:
pulmonary,

re

Back, again:
retract, repopulate

rhiz

Root:
rhizosome,
mycorrhizae

sacchar

Sugar:
monosaccharie,

saur

Lizard:
dinosaur, stegosaurus

sci

Know:
science, conscious

scop

See, monitor:
arthroscope, microscope

script

To write:
transcription, description

sect

Cut:
section, dissect

sed, sess

Seated, fixed:
sedentary, sessile

semi

Half:
semitendinosus, semipermeable

sens

Feel:
sensory, sensor

serv

Save:
conservationist, preserve

sperm

Seed:
angiosperm, edosperm

sphere

Ball, sphere:
biosphere, atmosphere

spir

Breathe:
spiracles, inspire

stom

Mouth, pore:
stomata, stomach

sub

Under, below:
subclavian, subartic

super

Above, over:
superio

syn

Together, with:
synapse, photosynthesis

tact, tag

Touch:

contagious, tactile

taxis

Movement response:
phototactic, chemotaxis

tele, telo

Far, end:
telophase, telomere

ten, tin

Hold:
tendon, extension

therm

Heat:
homeotherm, thermometer

tom

Cut:
microtome, atom

tox

Poison:
toxemia, toxic

trans

Across:
neurotransmitter, transfusion

trop

Turning, change:

tropomysosin, geotropism

trich

Hair:
trichome, trichocyst

troph

Nutrition, food:
autotroph, hypertrophy

ultra

Beyond:
ultrasound, ultrafiltrate

ur

Urine:
urea, urinary

vas

Vessel:
cardiovascular, vascularity

ven

Vein:
venule, vena cava

vid, vis

See:
visible, evidence

viv, vita

Alive, life:
vitamine, vital

vor

Eat:
herbivorous, voracious

zoo, zoa

Animal:
zoo, protozoan