Knowledge Management Strategy & Program


6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management
Strategy & Program
Bandung, 10-11 April 2012
Moh. Haitan Rachman
T :
1.Day – 1 Fundamental, Concept, Systems
a) Knowledge Management Fundamentals
b) Knowledge Management Tools
c) Knowledge Mapping
d) Knowledge Management System
2.Day – 2 Penyusunan KM Programs
a) KM Strategy
b) KM Roadmap
c) K-Map
d) KM Programs
KM Fundamentals
“We believe that the future belongs to
companies that can take the best of the
East and the West and start building a
universal model to create new knowledge
within their organizations.”
(I. Nonaka and H. Takeuchi)
We are now in Knowledge Era
Without Knowledge Strategy
vWe will lose our investments in
people, research, development,
vWe will lose our opportunities in
markets and businesses
vWe will lose our vision and
I bring my
died or
move to
Knowledge Agenda
v Making knowledge and knowledge
processes more explicit.
v The development of strategic frameworks
to guide the exploitation of knowledge –
in products, services and processes.
v The introduction of more systematic
methods to the management of
Importance of KM
vKnowledge and Information transfer have
become increasingly important to
organizations everywhere
vKnowledge is now recognized as a valuable
intangible asset
vThe building of knowledge generation
capabilities within the firm creates an
organization with the flexibility to meet new
vInformation and knowledge have become key
drivers for competitive advantage – how can
organizations harness these drivers for
operational efficiencies and innovation?
Benefits of KM
vThe expected outcome of KM initiatives
is to enhance individual, team, and
organizational capability and thereby
increase social capacity
vTogether, these outcomes will spur
overall productivity, improve the quality
of products and services, and contribute
to profitability and growth
Benefits of KM - Individual
vIncrease knowledge and skills of individuals
– arising out of learning and innovation in
the knowledge process
vPositive attitudes, strong moral and ethical
values – foundations of individual capability
vIndividual capabilities collectively contribute
to organizational capability and societal
Benefits of KM - Team
vIncreased knowledge and skills of
individual members enhance the entire
team’s capability
vWhen members of a team are
constantly learning and sharing
knowledge with each other, the team
capability is enhanced
Benefits of KM - Organization
vOrganizational capability focuses on these
aspects to achieve sustainable growth and
competitive advantage:
- Improving internal processes and systems
- Developing core competencies
- Designing innovative strategies
vOrganizational capability to create,
reorganize, disseminate widely, and embody
knowledge in new products and services is
critical when faced with
- Shifting markets
- Rapid product obsolescence
- Hyper-competition
- Financial upheavals
Benefits of KM - Society
vSocietal capacity = Collective knowledge
of individuals + Organizations (that can
be harnessed for inclusive growth)
vNetworking and collaboration can
stimulate the creative potential of
individuals and organizations to seize
the enormous opportunities in society for
growth and development
vEnhanced public and private sector
collaboration raises KM awareness and
heightens the positive effects of
knowledge and technology across all
sectors of society
KM Implementation /
Knowledge Management Projects Information Management Projects
Goals emphasize value-added for
Goals emphasize delivered and
accessibility of information
Support operational improvement
and innovation
Support existing operations
Adds value to content by filtering,
synthesizing, interpreting, pruning
Delivers available content with little
value added
Usually requires ongoing user
contributions and feedback
Emphasis on one-way transfer of
Balanced focus on technology and
culture issues in creating impacts
Heavy technology focus
Variance in inputs to system
precludes automating capture
Assumes information capture can be
Knowledge management Implementation
Identifying Sources
and Networks of
Structuring and Mapping
Knowledge Needed to
Enhance Performance
Capturing and reusing
structured knowledge
Capturing and sharing
lessons learned from
Synthesizing and
Sharing Knowledge
from External Sources
Measuring and Managing
the Economic Value of
Embed Knowledge in
Products and Processes
Knowledge management Implementation
v Identifying Sources and Networks of Expertise.
Some projects are designed merely to make
expertise more visible and accessible to
employees. The underlying strategy here is to
facilitate connections between those people who
possess and those who need knowledge.
v Structuring and Mapping Knowledge Needed to
Enhance Performance. Another type of project
impacts efforts like new product development or
process redesign by making explicit the specific
knowledge needed at particular stages of the
Knowledge management Implementation
v Capturing and reusing structured knowledge.
Knowledge is often embedded in component parts of
organizational outputs, such as product designs,
project proposals and reports, documented
implementation procedures, and software code that
can be reused to reduce the time and resources
needed to produce a new output.
v Capturing and sharing lessons learned from practice.
It captures softer, more experiential knowledge that
must be interpreted and adapted by the user in a new
context. These efforts often involve sharing learning
through a data base, and they may also take on a
more interpersonal approach, using face-to-face
sharing of stories and experiences.
Knowledge management Implementation
v Measuring and Managing the Economic Value of
Knowledge. The firms possess structured intellectual
assets, such as patents, copyrights, software licenses,
and customer data bases. Recognizing that these
assets create both revenues and costs for the firm,
another type of project seeks to manage these assets
more judiciously.
v Embed Knowledge in Products and Processes. It
seeks to enhance or create new knowledge-intensive
products, services, and processes. By recognizing the
potential market value of knowledge that the firm is
generating, the value of existing offerings can be
enhanced or new revenue sources created.
Knowledge management Implementation
v Synthesizing and Sharing Knowledge from External
Sources. Traditionally, these systems have been little
more than information delivery “clipping services”
that routed articles and reports to executives. But
the electronic information avalanche, combined with
increasing complexity, specialization, and the speed
of market changes has raised the knowledge
component of these systems. They will require
editors, reporters, and analysts to synthesize and
provide context to the tremendous volume of market
information available.
KM Definition & SECI
KM Definition
KM is an integrated approach for
indentifying, creating classifying,
storing, sharing, and applying
knowledge to enhance
organizational productivity,
quality, profitability, and growth.
What’s Really New About KM?
Knowledge Management is the
discipline of enabling individuals,
teams, and entire organizations to
and systematically
create, share, and apply knowledge
to better achieve their objectives.
Data, Information, Knowledge
What is data?
v Refers to a collection of facts
v A unit of data comprises two elements. One is the name of the
attribute referred to; the other is the value of that attribute for a
given entity.
v Examples are:
§ attribute – monthly salary;
value - $3,000;
§ attribute – personal name;
value – Debra;
§ attribute – name of a car;
value – Cadillac;
§ attribute – cost of a car;
value – $35,000;
What is information?
v A set of information is a collection of facts together with
definitions of relationships between them.
v A relationship can be expressed as:if condition then fact.
v The cheapness attribute of a car will be defined as cheap if the
cost is below $12,000, medium-priced if the cost is from $12,001
to $25,000 and expensive if the cost is $25,001 and above.
if cost < 12,001 then cheapness = cheap else
if cost > 12,000 and cost < 25,001 then
cheapness = medium-priced
cheapness = expensive
What is knowledge?
“a fluid mix of framed experience, values,
contextual information, and expert insight that
provides a framework for evaluating and
incorporating new experiences and information.
It originates and is applied in the minds of
knower. In organizations, it often becomes
embedded not only in documents or
repositories but also in organizational routines,
processes, practices, and norms”
Davenport and Prusak
Information and Knowledge
We communicate information to one
another in explicit forms (inform).
We can chose to turn that information
into knowledge (learning process) in
our heads (tacit knowledge).
When we make our internal tacit
knowledge explicit
in some form, in
becomes information to others
The SECI Model – Modes of Knowledge
Knowledge Transfers
v Socialization.
§ Individuals have a wealth of tacit knowledge that they share
with other organizational members. This knowledge
exchange may be a one-to-one, one-to-many, or a many-to-
many interaction. Traditionally, same place/same time face-
to-face meetings have been the medium for exchange.
v Externalization.
§ Explicit knowledge is knowledge that is stored on paper,
audio or videotape, computer disks, etc. Organizations have
traditionally documented standard operating procedures,
created periodic reports, ‘white papers’, etc.
Knowledge Transfers (cont.)
v Combination.
§ Explicit to explicit interactions, or knowledge transfer
v Internalization
§ This form of knowledge creation depends on an individual’s
ability to make sense out of explicit information. Successful
internalization is a function of the sense-maker’s individual
attributes, including personal expertise, experiences, and
6 Steps in the KM Process
Brief Introduction to the Knowledge Process
The KM Process
The KM Process, embedded in the work
practices, transforms the organization
…from “episodic” learning and innovation;
…to “continues” learning and innovation.
KM Framework
KM Framework
KM Framework
vStarting point of the KM framework is the
Vision and Mission of the organization
vKM meets the business objectives of the
vThere are four levels in the framework:
- Enablers
- Knowledge Process
- Capabilities
- Outcomes
vEnablers help to propel and speed up the KM
initiative in the organization
vFive enablers can be identified:
§ Leadership
§ Organization
§ People
§ Technology
vDrives the KM initiative in the organization
vEnsures alignment of KM strategies and
projects with the mission and vision of the
vProvides support and resources for the
implementation of KM projects
v Determines its core competencies (strategically
important capabilities that provide a competitive
advantage) and aligns it to their mission and strategic
Implements and manages its key work processes to
ensure that customer requirements are met and
business results are sustained.
Evaluates and improve its work processes to achieve
better performance, to reduce variations, to improve
products and services, and to be updated with the
latest in the business trends, development, and
Enablers - PEOPLE
vPeople are users as well as generators of
vThey create and possess intellectual capital
vTrust is a prerequisite for knowledge sharing
vAccelerates the knowledge process through
effective tools and techniques
vTools such as groupware and collaborative
workspaces enable participation across time
and distance
vProvides a platform for retention of
organizational knowledge
Knowledge Process
Knowledge Process
vRefers to knowledge development and
conversion processes
vSix steps in the knowledge process:
§ Identify
§ Create
§ Classify
§ Store
§ Share
§ Apply
Knowledge Process Step - Identify
vInitial crucial step of the knowledge
vCritical knowledge needed to build the
core competencies of the organization is
vThe knowledge gaps in the organization
are identified in the step
Knowledge Process Step - Create
vAddresses knowledge gaps through
knowledge conversion and generation
of new knowledge
vSome ways to create new knowledge
§ Individual level
§ Team level
§ Organizational level
Knowledge Process Step - Classify
vKnowledge identified should be
classified in clusters
vMind-mapping can be used for
classifying knowledge
vClassified knowledge can be easily
stored and shared
Knowledge Process Step - Store
vCollection and preservation of
organizational knowledge
vVarious forms of storage
vOrganized for easy retrieval
Knowledge Process Step - Share
vRegular and sustained exchange of
vFosters continuous learning to achieve
business goals
vMutual trust and benefit help foster a
culture of sharing
vTechnology can be used to enhance
Knowledge Process Step - Apply
vThe use and reuse of knowledge in the
vTranslates knowledge into action
vKnowledge only adds values when it is
used to improve products and services
Knowledge Management
Implementation Steps
Step One: Project Identification
vto identify the area, process or
application which you wish to address
vKM is growing fastest at the grassroots
level rather than at the corporate-wide
or enterprise level
vIf it is successful, you can always
expand it; yet if it fails, it will have
minimal impact and you can move on
to identifying and trying other areas of
Step Two: Leader and Expert Identification
vknowledge manager should work to
identify the thought leaders in her or
his organization
vEnlisting these thought leaders at an
early stage will reap a couple of
§ First, they can help guide the project in a
direction that will be most beneficial to the
staff who are actually using the system.
§ Second, they can become your user
advocates and gateways.
Step Three: Solution Identification
vWhat technology tools do we use
currently to accomplish our
organizational mission?
vHow can these tools be leveraged
quickly and easily to improve
knowledge sharing among workers
(preferably in a centralized fashion)?
Step Four: Knowledge Capture
vknowledge up into two basic categories,
Tacit and Explicit. Explicit knowledge is that
knowledge that can be codified into written
rules, facts and instructions. Tacit
knowledge is that knowledge that is more
internal and experiential
vFor the beginning Knowledge Manager,
sticking to the explicit and leaving the tacit
for later is your best bet. As your project
grows and flourishes, tacit information will
arise spontaneously
Step Five: Information Entry
vIn the beginning of a KM project, the
project leaders are going to have to take
the initiative and act as the gatekeepers of
the system
vyour thought leaders identified earlier in the
project can be used to maximum
advantage. They can either be recruited as
data administrators themselves, or they can
help enlist other staff members to fill the
Step Six: Deployment
vIncentives of one form or another can
be very helpful in spurring staffers to
change their habits
vIf a user tries the system a couple of
times and gets nothing useful, then
chances are they are not going to go
Step Seven: Feedback
vIf you have identified and enlisted your
thought leaders from early on in the
process, they can become your
communication channel.
vThey can be the ones who garner the
collective feedback of your staff and
pass it on to you, while acting as your
advocate to your user community.