Background Paper for the 3 African Drought Adaptation Forum

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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A PRIMER ON
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

IN THE DRYLANDS OF AFRICA





Background Paper for the 3
rd

African Drought
Adaptation Forum




of




The African Drought Risk and Development Network






17


1
9

September
, 2008, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia










2



Table of Contents


List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….
..
4

2. The African Drought Risk and Developmen
t Network (ADDN)……………………………….. 5

3.
Conceptualization

of c
limate

change and related c
oncepts
………………………………………5

4
. Impacts of climate c
hange on Sub
-
Saharan Africa…………………………………………….....
8

4
.1 Implications of climate

change for the drylands of Africa

……………………………….….…...9

4.
2 Impacts of climate change on African develo
pment ………………………….………………....9

4
.3 Implications of climate change for development policies in

the dry lands of Africa in terms of rainfall v
ariability…………
...……………………………
……..
12

5. Adaptation options for the African

drylands ……………………………………………………13

5.1 Current experiences and lessons on ad
aptation ………………………………………………...14

5.2 Prerequisites for successful climate change adaptation………………………………………..
.. 17

6. Recomme
ndations…………………………………………………………………………….....
18

7. Conclusion………………
……………………………………………………………………... 18

8. References………
………………………………………………………………………………19


Annex:


Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and its Linkage to

Adaptation and Drought Risk Reduction in Africa
…………………………………………….
21
-
23


List of Boxes


Box 1: Adaptation o
ptions identified under

the

Assessments of Impacts…………………………..15


Box
2
: North Africa: Rehabilitating and improving rangelands;

Community
-
based rangeland m
anagement in Sudan ………………………………………………1
5


Box
3
: West Africa: Afforestation through vegetative propagation;

Growing
acacia a
lbida

in Burkina Faso……………………………………………………..……
….
1
6





















3


List of Acronyms


ADAF



African Drought Adaptation Forum

ADDF

:


African Drought and Development For
um

ADDN:


African Drought Risk and Development Network

AIACC

:


Assessments of Impacts and Adaptation
s

to Climate Change

AU
:



African Union

CBNRM



Community Based Natural Resource Management

DFID
:



Department for International Development

HFA:



Hyogo F
ramework for Action

IISD:



International Institute for Sustainable Development

IPCC:



Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ISDR:



International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

IUCN:



International Union for the Conservation of Nature

NAPAs:


Natio
nal Adaptation Plans of Action

UN:



United Nations

UNDAF
:


United Nations Development Assistance Framework

UNDP
-
DDC:

United Nations Development Programme’s Drylands Development

Centre


UNDP:


United Nations Development Programme

UNECA


United Nations Ec
onomic Commission for Africa

UNFCCC:


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change





























4


1. Introduction


Home to over two billion people living in some 100 countries, drylands cover almost 40 per
cent of the world’s land ar
ea. While not as arid as deserts, drylands are characterized by their
limited water supply, low and highly variable rainfall, and recurrent drought

(IUC
N
, 2003)
.
It
is estimated that

43% of land area in Africa falls within the drylands. It is estimated tha
t 45
% of the population or approximately
325 million

people in Africa live in these areas

(UNSO,
2002
).

Many African countries suffer from desertification and frequent
reoccurrence of drought. Many are

also

among the least developed group
s

as classified b
y
the United Nations

(UN)

with a low to medium Human Development Index.



In spite of the variable and extreme environmental conditions of drylands, the
se ecosystems
have

supported

human populations for thousands of years. Today, some of the world’s
larges
t

urban centres are located in these regions and an estimated one billion people depend
on rural drylands for their livelihoods. Rural drylands consist primarily of rangelands, which
support domestic livestock production;
rain fed

and irrigated agricultura
l lands, which
produce major food crops; and woodlands, which are an important source of biomass for
wood fuel

and construction.


Inhabitants of drylands have learned to cope with unreliable rainfall and
the threat

of
recurrent drought through practices i
ncluding surplus accumulation, shifting cultivation, and
pastoral mobility
. However, amid widespread poverty and increased human pressure on the
fragile resource base, these coping strategies are becoming insufficient in reducing people’s
vulnerability. Un
sustainable farming, grazing and
wood fuel

gathering have led to dryland
degradation and
desertification
. Fuelled by poorly conceived policies
,

ineffective governance
,
and poor land management,
desertification

processes

already affects
some
70 per cent of
the
world’s
drylands. According to the 1997 UNDP Human Development report, poverty is
worse in drier zones than it is in wetter zones. For example, for 10 countries of the Sahel
Region in Africa, the Human Poverty Index was 25%
in

the humid areas and 61% f
or arid
zones.


Climate change will likely exacerbate this trend, as increasing temperatures will bring drier
conditions and shorter, more intense rainfall events
, and
greater
seasonal and inter
-
annual
rainfall variability will likely
lead

to larger swings

in food production
.
In addition to these
direct effects,
increase storm

intensity is expected to
accelerate runoff and
soil erosion
.

Reducing the vulnerability of dryland communities to climate change will require measures
that diversify livelihood option
s, reduce pressure on natural resources, and restore and
protect dryland ecosystems through sustainable management practices. Examples of such
measures are already in use in communities around the world, and can offer guidance to the
adaptation processes o
f dryland countries

(IUCN, 2003)
.

Some

examples are pr
ovided in
this

paper

including experiences from Burkina Faso

and Sudan
.



Th
is P
rimer

se
eks to highlight the challenges facing
the
drylands in Sub
-
Saharan
Africa with
the projected impacts of
climate c
hange
;

including on ecosystems, water availability, and
agriculture
, and
discusses the
various practical adaptation measures

including policies
which
will build
the
resilience of communities to climate change.

These d
iscussion
s will

also

look at
the variou
s related concepts of climate change
,

including

climate variability, risks, adaptation

etc
;

and
also
highlight
case studies of viable adaptation measures adopted by
dryland
communities
.



5



2. The African Drought Risk and Development Network (ADDN)


The
Afr
ican Drought Risk and Development Network (ADDN)

is sponsored by United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP
)’
s

Dryland Development Centre and United
Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) and recognizes the need for
exchange of exper
ience on managing the risk of drought in various sub regions of Africa. .


The 2
nd

African Drought Risk
Adaptation Forum (ADAF2)
of the ADDN focused on the
Greater Horn of Africa due to the food
-
crisis triggered by drought in 2006. The 3
rd

African
Drought
Adaptation

Forum

to be held from the
17
th

to
19
th


September
, 2008 will focus on
the significance of climate change to the development of drylands in Africa, and the
practicability of adaptation to the drylands of Sub
-
Saharan Africa.
The Forum also seeks t
o
build

partnership
s

with
existing African

N
etworks
working on

drought risk reduction
-
related
areas including on

food
security,

climate change,
and water

resource management
, among

others.


The anticipated o
utputs of the Third Forum include a
better under
sta
nd
ing and appreciation
of climate change implications on drought ri
sk and its management in Africa,
an enhanced
awareness of the necessary drought adaptation interventions
,

and of existing/emerging
initiatives in the region to support adaptation to drou
ght

risks and disasters.

Through
potential
linkages with other drought
-
related Networks, the Forum
will
seek to
incorporate

diverse expert views on drought risk reduction
by sharing and exchanging knowledge

ideas

and best practices
.



3.
Conceptualization

of climate c
hange

and related c
oncepts


Terminologies used to define climate change and related concepts often vary from one
practitioner to the other and interpretations also vary over time. The term climate change is
often used to include the occurrence

of medium term changes in weather patterns, increased
climate variability and more frequent
climatic
extremes (i.e. droughts and floods). However,
distinctions should be made between the different terms.



3.1 Climate Change


The
Intergovernmental Pane
l on Climate Change (IPCC), an authoritative voice on climate
change issues, refers to climate change as
any change in climate over time, whether due to natural
variability or as a result of human activity

(IPCC,2007)
.
The United Nations Framework
Conventi
on on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Article 1
,

however
,

makes a distinction
between
climate change attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition, and
climate variability
attributable to natural causes.



3.2
Climate variability


Climate v
ariability
refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard
deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales

6

beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to nat
ural internal processes
within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or
anthropogenic

external forcing

(external variability)

(IPCC,2007)
.

In climate change terminology, tackling
climate change by limiting greenhouse gas emissions is known as mitigation.



3.3 Risk


In order to effectively deal with the potential impacts of climate change and enable
comm
unities to adapt, it is important to understand the various concepts that are part of the
discussions. Risk is defined in different ways; ISDR defines risk as comprising biophysical as
well as social vulnerability components

(UN
-
ISDR, 2006)
,

but the IPCC d
efinition does not
explicitly
include
social
vulnerability. Other climate change
definitions
do consider
vulnerability a part of risk. No doubt, the in
tegration of the two approaches
is desirable if we
are to address the numerous threats that human systems

face as a result of
both
climate
variability and change.


Global trends indicate that at present it is growing vulnerability that is driving the increase in
disaster risk. As the effects of climate change become increasingly felt, it will be essential to
assess vulnerability as an integral part of the causality of risk and to recognize that addressing
vulnerability will
lead to an effective, holistic risk management strategy

for practitioners from
both disciplines

(UN
-
ISDR, 2006).



3.4 Hazard

or disaster
?


When assessing climate change risks, hazards or the adverse impacts resulting from climate
change should be considered.

Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity,
frequency and probability.

It is important to realize that natural hazards
do not necessarily
lead to disasters. Drought does not have to result in
, for example,

widespread famine. A
natural hazard only becomes a disaster when it hits vulnerable people who are unable to
cope with its effects. While the natural hazards resulting f
rom climate change and increased
climatic variability act as a trigger for a disaster to occur, the underlying causes are found in
people’s vulnerability.



3.5 Vulnerability



Vulnerability plays a crucial role in assessing and managing the risks related

to cl
imate
change. Social, economic
,

and political factors together
result in

limited

entitlements
’,

leading to
an
inability to cope and therefore vulnerability

to the effects of a trigger such as
drought
. To integrate natural or environmental variables
in the concept of vulnerability
requires a careful distinction between natural factors as causes of vulnerability and natural
factors that act as trigger events for vulnerability. Vulnerability has an
internal

side
-
exposure
to risk (location)
-
and an
extern
al

side
which

consists of the inability to cope without

a

damaging loss and the limited potential for recovery

(Watts et al., 1993).


In relation to this, the two other dimensions of vulnerability that need to be considered are
sensitivity

and
resilience
.

Sensitivity relates to the intensity by which the shocks are experienced,
whereas resilience refers to the capacity to bounce back to a

normal


state after a disaster.


7


When addressing vulnerability it is important to distinguish between
individual

and
co
llective

vulnerability. Individual vuln
erability can be determined by ‘
access to resources and the
diversity of income sources, as well as by social status of individuals or

households within a
community.’

Collective vulnerability of a nation, region or
co
mmunity can be determined by

institutional and market structures, such as the prevalence of informal and formal social
security and insurance, and by infrastructure and income
’ (Adger, 1999).


The IPCC focuses on the collective interpretation of v
ulnerabi
lity and defines it as ‘
the
degree, to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate
change, including climate variability and extremes.


In addition,
ISDR defines vulnerability as
the conditions determined by physica
l, social, economic and environmental factors or
processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards

(UN
-
ISDR, 2006)
.

Vulnerability is therefore a function of character, magnitude and rate of climate
variation to which a sy
stem is exposed, its sensitivity, and it’s adaptive capacity.



3.6
Resilience/Resilient


Resilience refers to t
he capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to
hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain
an acceptable level
of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is
capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better
future protection and to improve risk reducti
on measures (ISDR
, 2006
).



3.
7

Adaptation

or coping?


Put simplistically, w
hereas mitigation refers to tackling the

anthropogenic

causes of climate
changes, adaptation focuses on tackling the effect
s more specifically
. IPPC defines adaptive
capacity as th
e ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability
and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope
with the consequences. The IPCC
(2001) refers to adaptation as ‘
adjustment in natur
al or
human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which
moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.



Although both concepts are often used interchangeably
,

a distinction can be made between
adaptation

and
co
ping.

Whether a certain response can be labeled as coping or adapting depend
on the intensity, timing, effectiveness and sustainability of the response and most of all on
the reason why the household adopts this particular response (motivation)

(Geest et a
l.,
2004)
.

Coping can be defined as ‘
a short term response to an immediate and
inhabitable

decline in access to food
’ (Davies, 1993)
.

Coping strategies generally follow a time sequence
and often include
three

different behavioral elements in a situation of

high climate risk:
insurance

function type activities

(prepare for bad times), coping (actually deal with the
disaster when it occurs) and recovery (trying to rebuild after a disaster). When coping
strategies are permanently incorporated into the normal a
ctivity patterns, they can be
regarded as adaptation: permanent changes in

environmentally conditioned

livelihoods.
Adaptation should be seen as a follow
-
up to mitigation with long lasting effects that are
sustainable.



8


4
. Impacts of Climate Change on Su
b
-
Saharan Africa


The fourth

African

assessment report on climate change released by IPCC in November
2007

highlights major issues related to potential impacts as a result of climate change
.

It
indicates

that

Africa
is

one of the most vulnerable continents

to climate change a
nd climate
variability. This is
a result of the interaction of ‘multiple stresses’ including
land
degradation
and desertification, declining run
-
off from water catchments, high dependence on
subsistence agriculture, HIV/AIDS prevalence
, inadequate government mechanisms
and
rapid population growth

occurring at various levels, and low adaptive capacity due to
factors
such as e
xtreme poverty, frequent natural disasters i.e. droughts and floods, and rainfall
-
dependent agriculture

(Boko et a
l., 2007)
.


Agriculture is by far the most important economic activity in sub
-
Saharan Africa. It is still
the main source of income and livelihood in this region. A large section
of

the population
are involved in

subsistence agriculture

for there daily s
urvival
. In sub
-
Saharan Africa the arid
and semi arid regions are among the harshest and
most
vulnerable produ
ction environments
in the world. The risk of
climate change will only exacerbate the situation

(Verhagen et al.,
1999)
.
Climate
-
sensitive sector
s in Africa will

be the most affected by potential impacts of
climate change. Agricultural production and food security (including access to food) in many
African countries and regions
will be severely

impacted

with the increasing risk of climate
change
.


Simply put, a
gricultural production is sensitive to climate because it depends, for its
production process, on heat for energy and on water, both climate
-
related variables. Too
much heat and too much water

or too little

will hamper growing conditions. The
re is an
optimal range of climate within which production is maximized.

In a controlled
environment the effects of climate change will not
have a negative impact on

production,
but when dealing with livestock, irrigated agriculture and
rain fed

agricultur
e, climate change,
leading to variable rains will have a
detrimental impact

on farmer’s production
capacity

(Dinar et al., 1998)
.

This relationship between production and temperature is illustrated in
F
igure 1
below.


Figure 1.
Climate
-
agriculture producti
on relationship





F
or instance, a number of countries in Africa already face semi
-
arid conditions that make
agriculture challenging, and cli
mate change will be likely to reduce the length of growing
season as well as force large regions of marginal agriculture out of production.
Some

9

agricultural systems are vulnerable to projected impacts of climate change
,

including maize

and sorghum
-
based s
ystems that are reliant on rainfall. There is
therefore a
need to
introduce alternative crop varieties in the drylands that are drought
-
resistant.
Projected
reductions in yield in some countries could be as much as 50% by 2020 (IPCC
,

2007).



According
to a 1996 Food and Agriculture Organization study, Africa's food supply would
need to quadruple by 2050 to meet people's basic caloric needs, even under the lowest and
most optimistic population
projections

(
IPCC, 2007
)
. The current world food
crisis dire
ctly
threatens

food security in Africa, and particularly the drylands which is most vulnerable to
recurrent drought events.


Figure 2

shows the change in agriculture output potential due to climate change from 2000
-
2080 using 2000 as a baseline

(Cline, 200
7)
. This image predicts a huge drop in agriculture
production potential across the board with Africa being the hardest hit.


Figure

2
.

Change in Agriculture Output Potential Due to Climate Change,

2000
-
2080







Climate change will also aggravate the water stress currently faced by some countries, while
other
countries that currently do not experience water stress will become at risk of

water
stress.
The rainy season is crucial for agricultural production: it is during this period that
conditions determine whether there are going to be food shortages or not. Climate change is
confronting dryland Africa with lower and more variable preci
pitation, higher temperatures
and higher

evaporation.
This may result in even higher risk for crop production, with the
ultimate consequence being a decrease in food availability

(Verhager, et al, 1999).
25% of
Africa’s population (about 200 million peopl
e) currently experience high water stress. The
population at risk of increased water stress in Africa is projected to be between 75
-
250
million and 350
-
600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively. Increase in
drought occurrence will therefore
exacerbate water shortages in the continent and as a result
impacting the livelihoods of the most vulnerable communities.


Figure 3

shows
average
rainfall in the Sahel
steadily declined

f
rom the period of 196
0
-

1990
with
significant
variation throughout
.
This has put increased pressure on
farmer
s

to produce
with increasingly less water.

This is a common
trend;

in fact all West African dryland rainfall

10

data from the period of 1960
-
1990 show a rather dramatic decline in average rainfall
conditions

(Put et a
l., 2001)
.


Figure 3.

Annual and smoothed
standardized

Sahelian precipitation index for the period
1901 to 1992

(Halpert et al., 1993)
.


Changes in a variety of ecosystems are already being detected, particularly in southern
African ecosystems, at a fast
er rate than anticipated. Climate change, interacting with human
drivers such as deforestation and forest fires, are a threat to Africa’s forest ecosystems.
The
species sensitivity of African mammals in 141 national parks in sub
-
Saharan Africa was
assessed

using two climate change scenarios
, and

applying a simple IUCN Red List
assessment of potential range loss

(Thuiller, 2006)
. Assuming no migration of species, 10
-
15% of the

species were projected to fall within the IUCN Critically Endangered or Extinct
ca
tegories by 2050, increasing to 25
-
40% of species by 2080
. C
hanges in grasslands and
marine ecosystems are also noticeable. It is estimated that, by the 2080s, the proportion of
arid and semi
-
arid lands in Africa is likely to increase by 5
-
8%

(IPCC, 200
7)
.


The dryland is a habitat for many of the wildlife (both animal and plant) species in Africa
and is a source of revenue for many countries. The projected s
cenario casts a gloom picture
of

the future of tourism. The loss of wildlife species will impact on
ecotourism activities, the
availability of building materials, food, medicines, and exacerbate natural resource
degradation and with a resultant impact on livelihoods.


One
-
third of the people in Africa
live

in drought
-
prone areas
,

and
are

vulnerable to th
e
impacts of droughts (World Water Forum, 2000). In Africa, for example, several million
people regularly suffer impacts from droughts and floods. These impacts are often further
exacerbated by health problems, particularly
diarrhea
, cholera and malaria.

During the mid
-
1980s the economic losses from droughts
totaled

several hundred million U.S. dollars
(Tarhule and Lamb, 2003).
Climate

change
is projected to

exacerbate drought occurrences
and
as a result

increasing the vulnerability of the dryland populati
ons.


4
.1 Implications of climate change for the drylands of Africa


The most vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change inhabit the dryland areas.
For instance, the pastoralists inhabiting drylands have been able to survive the harsh
environm
ents of the drylands by practicing various sustainable livelihood approaches
including seasonal movements, keeping livestock among others. However, with the threats
of changes in climate, they may be forced to co
nsider other livelihood options, including

11

m
igration,
in order to cope with the extreme changes. During the 2
nd

African Drought

Adaptation

Forum, the need for policy and good practices on livestock and pastoralism

was
discussed
. The
3
rd

Drought
Adaptation
Forum will provide an opportunity for the
pa
rticipants to discuss
further

the importance of pastoralism as an adaptation option in the
face of climate change.


A new factor to consider is the risk of climate change being a security issue in the African
drylands. With changes in rainfall patterns a
nd increased magnitude and severity of drought
occurrences, pastoral communities will be forced to migrate into dryland agricultural areas
,
potentially

resulting in conflicts.
Existing pressure points between farmers and pastoralists
could erupt
into

confl
ict as the diminution of available water threatens livelihoods of both
groups. For
instance

climate change
, interacting with other complex
factors could

be one of
the causes of the Darfur crises in Sudan.
According
to

renowned economist, Jeffrey Sachs,
th
e deadly carnage in Darfur, for example, which is almost always discussed in political and
military terms, has roots in an ecological crisis directly arising from climate shocks.



Furthermore, trans
-
boundary conflicts are likely to occur with the threat o
f climate change.
Trans
-
boundary movements in search of pasture and water are very common in East and
West Africa during periods of prolonged droughts.
The dryland communities
however
will
be
increasingly
forced to move

regularly into

neighboring countries
,

resulting in conflicts
over access to natural resources.

The traditional con
flict resolution mechanisms are often
no
longer effective due to cultural and societal breakdowns. This is an important factor to
consi
der when dealing with natural resource use
conflicts.



4
.2 Impacts of climate change on African development


Climate change may affect development directly through changes in precipitation,
evaporation and hydrology, sea
-
level rise, and changes in the occurrence of extreme weather
events (floods,
droughts, storms) that impact on primary
food
production,
ecosystem
function
,
including environmental service flows,
public health and poverty.

Climate change
will also affect development indirectly through slowing or bringing greater volatility to
nation
al GDP and economic growth, in countries highly dependent on agriculture.


It is anticipated that a given change in climate will result in more adverse socio
-
economic
impacts in Africa than in other parts of the world. This relates to several factors rela
ted to
the vulnerability of society and the sensitivity of the environment. Important factors here are
high dependency on
biomass including
fuel wood
, high dependency
on agriculture

and forest
sectors, restricted population mobility, poor health facilities
, high population growth rates
,

and low material standards. Also
,

poor governance and the inability of governments to deal
effectively with the negative impacts of climate change (i.e. absence of adequate policies and
implementing institutions)

hamper
the
identification and implementation of appropriate
policy interventions which reduce vulnerability and enhance adaptation.


Countries in Africa tend to have a much higher share of their economy dependent on
climate
-
sensitive sectors such as agriculture than
is the case on other continents. Developing
countries in general have a low institutional and financial capacity to adapt to changes. Thus,
it seems obvious that improved adaptation capability will be of higher priority than GHG
emission reductions among A
frican countries

(The World Bank, 1998)
.



12


4
.3 Implications of climate change for development policies in the drylands of Africa
in terms of rainfall variability.


Various African governments
realize the challenge
posed by
climate change
to

the
achievemen
t of
their countries’ development plans
.
For example, t
he Rwanda’s United
Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for the year 2008
-
2012
reports

that
recurrent droughts and volatile climatic conditions in recent years indicate that climate
change
could further increase the pressure on agriculture resulting in increased poverty.

In
Uganda’s UNDAF for the year
2006
-
2010
, the UNDP country programme outputs include
developing and implementing adaptation and mitigation measures to climate change.



Ada
ptation
to climate change has been the

most pressing climate change policy
challenge
facing

many

African countries.
There are two main types of adaptation
:
reactive
, which are
measures taken in response to climate change, and
preventive

measures taken in a
dvance of
climate change to minimize or offset adverse impacts. Suggested adaptation strategies for
Africa concentrate on the reduction of vulnerability to current climatic events, as well as the
inclusion of adaptation policies in planning for long
-
term s
ustainable development.
Adaptation measures are relevant for a variety of natural resources and socio
-
economic
sectors in Africa such as natural ecosystems, agriculture, managed forests, water resources,
coastal zones, energy, and infrastructure.


Preventi
ve adaptation options are considered on the basis of two basic criteria, namely
flexibility and the potential for net benefits. Adaptation options should be implemented now
if they yield net benefits independent of climate change ("no
-
regrets"). High prior
ity should
be given to the preventive adaptation options that would not be effective if implemented as
reactive policies.


Reduction of vulnerability to climate change is probably a more realistic adaptation policy
for Africa than efforts to reduce GHG em
issions. This vulnerability relates to several key
sectors. For example, the dependency on
wood fuel

constitutes a serious energy
management issue in Africa, often leading to local deforestation. Thus, increasing the range
of substitution possibilities for

household energy consumption also r
epresents an adaptation
measure; both
adaptation and mitigation measures

incorporated in dealing with deforestation
issues.

In agriculture, relatively small climatic changes may have profound effects on the
farming capac
ity.


Climate Change Adaptation is a process of competing goals and processes and uses
information at various levels and in many ways to reduce vulnerability to climate risks.
Adapting to climate change will depend on adjustments and changes at every level

-

from
community
-
based to national and international. Capacity to adapt will vary significantly from
country to country, community to community and in particular to the level of development.
In general, the preferred adaptation strategies are actions with

multiple economic and
environmental benefits, including for current and future conditions and needs to be based
on sound scientific assessment. The range of measures that can be used to adapt to climate
change is diverse, and includes changes in behavior,

structural changes, policy based
responses, technological responses or managerial responses

(FAO, 2008)
.




13

Various measures are available to build community resilience to climate change and enable
them to adapt. Agricultural research promoting drought
-
re
sistant seeds or climate
-
adapted
species, or developing new sources of income for farmers can reduce vulnerability to climate
change.

The majority of national communication reports (e.g. Sudan, South Africa,
and
Ghana
) mention the development of more and
b
etter heat
-

and drought
-
resistant crops as
future adaptation options for agriculture and food security.


Improved education for farming
communities will increase mobility, income, and increase material standards and thus reduce
vulnerability to climate cha
nge. Likewise, improvements in public health will increase the
population’s resistance to climate change and the impacts of disease vectors spreading into
new areas

(
World Bank, 1998)
.


From the discussion, there is need to incorporate or mainstream adapta
tion measures and
strategies into development plans and policies of countries in Africa due to the factors
exacerbating vulnerability including
on
pastoralism. The drylands’ vulnerability to climate
change raises the need to incorporate adaptation into dry
lands development plans and
policies that focus on the livelihoods, and in particular pastoralism, as a major sustainable
livelihood strategy.


5. Adaptation options for the African drylands


Adaptation practices
which

build the resilience of dryland commu
nities to the impacts of
climate are available and UNFCCC recognizes and supports these adaptation measures for
the developing countries. According to the IPCC 2007 Report, a wide array of adaptation
options is available, but more extensive adaptation than

is currently occurring is required to
reduce vulnerability to climate change. There are barriers, limits and costs, which are not
fully understood.


Societies have a long record of managing the impacts of weather
-

and climate
-
related events.
Nevertheless,

additional adaptation measures will be required to reduce the adverse impacts
of projected climate change and variability, regardless of the scale of mitigation undertaken
over the next two to three decades. Moreover, vulnerability to climate change can b
e
exacerbated by other stresses including the current climate hazards, poverty and unequal
access to resources, food insecurity, trends in economic globalization, conflict
,

and incidence
of diseases such as HIV/AIDS.


Some planned adaptation to climate cha
nge is already occurring on a limited basis.
Adaptation can reduce vulnerability especially when it is embedded within broader sectoral
initiatives. There is
high

confidence

that there are viable adaptation options that can be
implemented in some sectors a
t low cost, and/or with high benefit
-
cost ratios

(Boko et al.,
2007)
.


According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),
community
-
based adaptation can greatly benefit from knowledge of local coping strategies.
The secretaria
t has developed a local coping strategies database to facilitate the transfer of
long
-
standing coping strategies and knowledge from communities which have adapted to
specific hazards or climatic conditions, to communiti
es which may just be starting to
expe
rience such conditions as a result of climate change.
(http://maindb.unfccc.int/public/adaptation/)


Better climate risk management processes are needed to narrow the ‘adaptation deficit’ with
respect to current climate variability,
which can then

provide
a stronger basis upon which to

14

build adaptive capacity.

Measures that could be taken now to enhance the capacity for near
-

and medium
-
term adaptation (through the next 20 to 30 years) include:




E
xpanding efforts to promote rainwater harvesting and improved

soil management
techniques that decrease soil erosion and increase soil water holding capacity



I
mproved weed management



A
doption of cultivars or crops that are more drought or heat tolerant



I
ntegration of multi
-
purpose agroforestry and legume green manure

species into
croplands



T
ailoring of fertilizer recommendations to high
-
risk environments



A
ddressing bottlenecks in seed delivery systems



I
ntroducing supplementary
irrigation of high value crops, and



I
mproving access to long
-
range weather and seasonal clim
ate forecasting information


The following issues will require attention if the
uptake and dissemination of these practices
is to be broad
-
based and sustained:




Build the overall capacity of input and output markets, so as to provide incentives for
farmer
s in high
-
risk environments to adopt new technologies



Strengthen linkages between research, extension and NGOs



Ensure that outreach efforts are sufficiently gender
-
specific to meet the needs of
women farmers



Ensure that land tenure and resource ownership

policies complementary to the
adoption of the adaptation measures, and support policies that provide local
organizations with governance over resources.



Reduce barriers to adoption through support for social
-
fund financing and local credit
systems, and th
rough support for community
-
based management that can initiate cost
sharing and labor saving measures,



Support policies that link (or package) production innovations with access to long
-
range weather and seasonal climate forecasts



5.1 Current experienc
es and lessons on adaptation


In spite of the
potentially
low adaptive capacity of Africa, people have developed local
adaptation strategies to face the great climate inter
-
annual variability and extreme events.
Those communities who have faced harsh envir
onmental con
ditions over prolonged periods
have consequently been trying, testing
,

and adopting different types of coping strategies.


An unusually persistent drought may increase people’s vulnerability in the short term, but it
may encourage adapta
tion in

the medium to long term.
This reinforces the observation that
local people have perceived, interacted with, and made use of their environment with its
meager

natural resources and changing climatic conditions in what could be seen as practical
coping mec
hanisms. This is particularly true for the drought prone area in the Africa Sahel
region, which is susceptible to frequent climatic hazards.


It is
often
more important that local communities have early warning systems than
access to
relief or development
agencies because at the onset of adverse environmental changes the

15

critical decisions a
r
e made at the household level.
Stocking (2003)

emphasized the role of
skills and social networks of small
-
holder farmers in the tropics who have compensated for
their
low human and financial capital, and helped them to maintain their sustainable and
productive practices

(
Osman et al.
, 2006)
. Strategies against drought were adopted by
nomadic pastoralists living

in the desert margins of Kenya.
Specific actions include t
he
utilization of wild fruits and vegetables in animal feed and long distance movements to areas
less affe
cted by drought.



Rural farmers have been practicing coping strategies and tactics, especially in places where
droughts recur, and have developed their
own ways of assessing the prospects for
favorable

household or v
illage seasonal food production.
Home gardens and sheep fattening have
contributed greatly to improving the adaptive capacity of small rural farmers in Kordofan
and D
ar
fur states of Western Su
dan (Osman et al, 200
6
). In many locations food crops have
replaced cash crops, and more resilient crop varieties have been introduced (DFID, 2000).
Tribal and individual movements and migration are identified as adaptation options, e.g. in
Western Africa
since they provide for employment and income diversification away from
their farms and reduce their vulnerability to drought
(
Osman et al, 2006
).


I
n Senegal and Burkina Faso, locals have improved their adaptive capacity by using
traditional pruning and f
ertilizing techniques to double tree densities in semi
-
arid areas.
These techniques help in holding soils together and reversing desertification. Similar
community
-
initiated projects in Madagascar and Zimbabwe have been acclaimed successes
(ECA, 2001).













Box 1
: Adaptation o
ptions identified under Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change
(AIACC) Project


(More informati
on on the AIACC Project available at
(
http://www.aiaccproject.org/about/about.html)
)




Adaptation measure to water

stresses during droughts and high rainfall variability include:
irrigation water transfer, water harvesting and storage: (in Gambia and South
Africa (Nkomo et al,
2005) and

in Sudan (Os
man et al, 200
5
)).

Measures specifically for agriculture include: planting of
drought resistant varieties of crops, labor migration, changes in farm location, reduction in herd and
farm size, improved water exploi
tation methods (e.g. Shallow wells), and food storage. Others
include crop and animal diversification, income diversification, selling of assets, early maturing cops,
high yield varieties, herd supplementation and sedentarization, and culling of animals (
p
racticed in
Nigeria and Mali (Du
b
e

et al, 2005) and in Sudan (Os
m
a
n et al, 200
5
)).




Adaptation measure for heat waves include: heat resistant cultivars; crop management (shorter
season or early maturing crops, shifting time or location, change type of cro
p, shading both crops
and animals, increase irrigation); and early warning and forecast systems (Adejuwon et al, 2005).

Box 2: West Africa: Afforestation through v
egetative propagation; Growing
acacia albida

in
Burkina Faso


The genus Acacia comprises many species which are important for fir
ewood, fodder, tannin, pulpwood,
shelterbelts, and soil improvement.


Species of Acacia are dispersed widely in tropical and subtropical
regions of Australia, South America, Asia, and Africa.


They are often regarded as being quick growing but
short lived,

i.e. most live from 12 to 15 years in suitable conditions but many will last much longer.


Virtually all Acacias are propagated from seed.


This is a reliable method which, with most commonly
grown species, presents few problems.


In the past, the majorit
y of forest trees have been propagated
through the traditional family forestry method, where trees are grown from seeds and propagated sexually.




In the last few years a number of species have been successfully propagated from cuttings and this trend
can

be expected to increase. Best results are achieved with cuttings of about 7.5
-
10 c in length of mature,
current season's growth with the foliage removed from the lower two
-
thirds of the stem.


In Burkina Faso,
for several decades Mossi farmers from Passor
é have been using a natural reproduction method for the
Acacia albida tree.


The farmers succeeded in getting the plot “colonized” by Acacia albida trees by cutting
the plants roots so that they will propagate.


These root
-
suckers grow and become adult tre
es within seven
years.


Then, the farmers cut the lateral roots of those trees and other root
-
suckers appear and the process
is continued.





16



Resources required

include labour, tools and Acacia seedlings for plantation. A few species of Australian
Acacias have proved to be weed pests in other pa
rts of the world.


In South Africa, for example, A.saligna,
A.cyclops, A.melanoxylon, A.mearnsii, and A.decurrens cause serious problems and no natural predators
exist to keep them under control. Therefore, this practice should be replicated with caution.
Source:
UNFCCC Database on Local


Coping Strategies
http://maindb.unfccc.int/public/adaptation




Other strategies include: diversification of herds and incomes e.g. the introduction of sheep
in place of goats in the Bara province in Western Sudan (Osma
n
et al
,
200
5
); reliance on
forest products as a buffer to climate
-
induced crop failure in climatically marginal
agricultural areas (D
ube et al. 2001
); decentralization of local governance of resources i.e. the
Community Based Natural Resource Management (
CBNRM) approach to promote use of
ecosystems goods and services as apposed to reliance on agriculture (in climatically marginal
areas for agriculture); and manipulation of land use leading to land use conversion (e.g. shift
form livestock farming to game f
arming in Southern Africa).


Box 3: North Africa: Rehabilitating and improving rangelands; Community
-
based rangeland
Management in Sudan


In Gireighikh, Bara Province of North Kordofan State Sudan, people’s livelihoods depend on
agropastoralism and transhu
mance.


Recurring droughts, cultivation on marginal lands, and firewood
gathering contributed to increased land degradation.


To sustain pastoralism, a UNDP project supported
community
-
based rangeland rehabilitation, which included the following: Stabiliza
tion of sand dunes
through planting of native trees (Acacia), shrubs and grasses (Zornia and Cenchrus); creation of wind
-
breaks
through planting native trees; training on natural resource management (e.g., range management, grazing
systems, pest management
, fodder production). Source: UNFCCC


The resources required

include trees/shrubs/grasses, and training capacities and there is no potential
maladaptation with the practice. Non
-
climate benefits of the practice include improved vegetation cover.


Source: U
NFCCC Database on Local Coping Strategies

http://maindb.unfccc.int/public/adaptation


However, the fact that the reported number of people killed and affected by climate related
disasters in Africa between 1993
-
2002 is 136,590,000
,

and 250,000 people alo
ne during the
Soudano
-
Sahelian drought of 1968
-
73 (together with 12 million cattle
which

died from
starvation)
,

means that somehow traditional adaptation measures were not sufficient to face
climate change

(Tarhule
and Lamb,

2003)


The 3
rd

African Drought
Adaptation Forum will provide opportunities to participants to
identify adaptation best practices that are able to build the resilience of communities in the
face of climatic shocks, including through the diversification of livelihoods,
and

scaling

up of

l
ocal coping strategies through technological innovations, among others.


The UNFCCC Secretariat has developed an online database of local coping strategies
(<http://maindb.unfccc.int/public/adaptation>),

promoting a South
-
South transfer of knowledge and
sh
aring of experience on adaptation action directly undertaken by those who are vulnerable,
without reliance on external intervention

(Osman, 2006)
.

This can be very valuable for
knowledge exchange among vulnerable communities in Sub
-
Saharan Africa and also
for
informing policy processes and
up scaling

community
-
based adaptation projects.


17



5.2 Prerequisites for successful climate change adaptation


The resilience of drylands communities to increased drought and rainfall variability can be
improved through a
wide range of ecosystem management and restoration activities,
enabling them to better cope with climate induced stresses. Certain
enabling measures

and
conditions

lead to
successful
resilience building projects. These include:




Understanding of local live
lihoods and vulnerabilities

Knowing the assets that comprise people’s livelihoods and the factors (including
climate related risks)
which

shape vulnerability to ensure the design of appropriate
and locally relevant project activities




Community driven impl
ementation

Emphasizing the active participation of community members in the initiation,
design,
and implementation

and monitoring of project activities to secure community
support and promote a strong sense of ownership.




Community organization

Establishin
g or building upon social institutions


e.g. Village Self
-
Help Groups,
women’s groups and village water sub
-
committees
-

to carry out activities in a
structured, participatory and efficient manner.




Strong participation of women

Recognizing their role as h
ousehold
and community resource managers and

promoting their active involvement in project activities to ensure the success and
sustainability of achievements.




Local training and capacity building

Enhancin
g the local human resource base, and
the effective
ness of project activities
by teaching community members a range of technical, financial
,

and managerial
skills.




Blending of traditional and modern approaches

Using local traditional knowledge to develop
appropriate projects
.




Reconciling short
-
term needs

with long
-
term goals

Investing in the long
-
term success of the project with activities that meet the
immediate development needs of the community and built local capacity to sustain
the ecosystem management and restoration efforts.




Supportive policy envi
ronment

Working within broader policy frameworks that support decentralized natural
resource management and community development processes

(IUC
N
, 2003)






18



6. Recommendations


As drought
hazard
occurrences are projected to intensify with climate change,

there is need
to incorporate drought risk reduction into national policies and development plans especially
in the dryland areas of Sub
-
Saharan Africa. There is also urgent need to identify, collect,
publish and disseminate good practices on adaptation wi
th links to drought risk reduction in
the drylands. This can be important for knowledge sharing among the most vulnerable
communities, and also for informing the livestock policy process.


Other useful climate change
-
related recommendations are highlighted

by a number of
climate experts.

Huq and Reid
(2005)
, for example highlight

the importance of linking
research to policy
-
making, with an emphasis on getting research messages to appropriate
target groups; linking research to existing local knowledge of cli
mate related hazards and
involving local communities in adaptation decision making. Washington et al.
,

(2004) discuss
the need for effective communication between the supply
-
side and demand
-
side
communities of climate information in
Africa

and the need to
work on means by which
climate information can be incorporated into the livelihood strategies of potential users.
Sewell and Smith (2004) emphasized the need for building credibility of rainfall forecasts and
improving their dissemination and use, especial
ly by people in the drought prone areas of
Africa Sahel

(
Osman et al.
, 2006
)
.



7. Conclusion


The
3
rd

African Drought Forum provides practitioners with the opportunity to critically
evaluate and discuss viable options for the drylands of Sub
-
Saharan Afri
ca in the face of
threats exacerbated by climate change. Dryland communities will have to cope with more
severe drought and flood occurrences and there is need for both technical and financial
support to African countries in the area of mainstreaming droug
ht and adaptation into
dryland policy and development plans of countries, and also
up scaling

adaptation good
practices by dryland communities by undertaking research initiatives and incorporating new
technologies that will improve
community

livelihoods
and therefore enabling them to adapt
better to expected climatic changes.


The emerging forms of vulnerability to climate change include land tenure issues that have
often resulted in conflicts due to the inability by dryland pastoralist communities to a
ccess
wet season grazing areas
due to

policy reforms
on

land tenure.
For example, t
he African
Union pastoral policy initiative is working towards formulating and implementing a cohesive
policy that

will

address issues facing pastoralists in Africa.


Movin
g forward it is critical we understand and react to the challenges facing the drylands in
Sub
-
Saharan Africa
.
The most vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change
inhabit the dryland areas and the implications are huge.
With the projected imp
acts of
climate change; including on ecosystems, water availability, and agriculture, practical
adaptation measures including policies which will build the resilience of communities to
climate change are more important than ever
. Without adaptation

effort
s to

the threats of
changes in climate, the people of the drylands may be forced to consider other livelihood
options, including migration, in order to cope with the extreme changes
.


19



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21

Annex

1
:


1. Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and its Linkage to Adaptation and Drought
Risk Reduction in Africa
(ISDR, 2007)


1.1 ISDR Framework and Practices on Drought Risk Reduction with linkages to HFA:


Main

elements for
drought risk
reduction
framework and
practices

Linkages with climate change and adaptation

1) Policies and
Governance for
drought risk reduction

Governments and institutions working in the area of disaster risk reduction (DRR) to
incorporate

adaptation into policy and development plans to reduce hazards risks.


The need to “drought proof” sectoral policies i.e. water, health, environment, agriculture
sector, etc. through mainstreaming drought risk reduction into sectoral policies


Community
participation in decision making and policy implementation
-

to build their
resilience to drought risks and strengthen disaster risk interventions through local
knowledge that can inform policy and adaptation strategies.


To strengthen National Adaptation

Plans of Action (NAPAs) & make effective delivery in
terms of adaptation, there is need for the various sectoral ministries i.e. the Ministry of
Water, to integrate adaptation measures relating to the threat of drought hazards into the
sectoral policies.
This will enable NAPAs to not only be blueprint for adaptation in
countries but also achieve results.



2. Drought risk
identification, impact
assessment and early
warning




Climate change is an additional variable to be considered in drought hazard ide
ntification,
monitoring, mitigation and preparedness.


Climate change is expected to change the nature of droughts (severe drought occurrences)
and therefore risk identification, impact assessment and early warning should be given
priority to reduce the ex
pected impact.


Early warning will enable institutions working with vulnerable communities to provide
assistance through both mitigation and preparedness measures to cope with the severe
drought occurrences.


The governments need to strengthen its ability

to identify drought risk and be able to
actively managed drought and prevent severe impacts on communities and their livelihoods.


Strengthening the Governments with regard to drought risk governance especially in early
warning measures to tackle drought

hazards will enable drought disasters to be prevented


3. Drought awareness
and knowledge
management




Communities, particularly those that are most vulnerable, are key to people
-
centred drought
risk reduction strategies and actions.


Local communities

promote the use of traditional knowledge and know
-
how, and
i
ndigenous knowledge systems should be incorporated with modern systems of drought
monitoring and mapping to strengthen communities’ ability to cope with and adapt to
drought hazards.



22

Knowledge m
aterials on adaptation to drought risks need to be produced and targeted at
vulnerable communities to build their resilience.


Education and training on linking climate change with the changing patterns of drought to
enable them adapt effectively to local

drought risks.



4. Effective drought
mitigation and
preparedness
measures


Mitigation and preparedness goal is to reduce drought vulnerability and foster drought
-
resilient societies.


Measures to move from policies to practices are important in orde
r to reduce the potential
negative effects of drought.


Good practices and case studies on drought mitigation through the analysis of successful
community and institutional projects and initiatives need to be documented and published
to enhance knowledge
sharing and management.


Major international institutions working on drought risk reduction including the Drylands
Development Centre, UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and ISDR can
produce knowledge materials on good practices on drought ris
k reduction and with linkages
to the threat of climate change and the importance of adaptation.


Before drought, mitigation actions can be implemented to build resilience into an enterprise
or system so it will be less affected when drought eventually occu
rs.


An important mitigation measure is the development of drought preparedness and
contingency plans that detail specific measures to be taken by individuals or responsible
agencies both before and during drought.


Effective drought mitigation and prepa
redness planning is based on established policies and
institutional capacity, sound drought risk identification and EW, and drought awareness and
knowledge management.



5. Networks and
mechanisms to
encourage the

implementation of the
drought risk redu
ction
projects and practices


All drought risk reduction elements need strong political commitment, community
participation, & consideration of local realities and indigenous knowledge.


The international and regional communities play an important role in

coordinating activities,
transferring knowledge, supporting project implementation, and facilitating effective and
affordable practices.


Many drought risk reduction initiatives focus on Africa, owing to its high levels of poverty,
insecurity, and life
-
th
reatening vulnerability to drought.


The UNDP's Drylands Development Center (DCC) and Bureau for Crisis Prevention and
Recovery and the ISDR African Office have agreed to work with the regional drought
monitoring centers in the development of a network fo
r Sub
-
Saharan Africa.


Several meetings have been held in recent years, including the inception of annual African
Drought Risk and Development Forums in Kenya, beginning in 2005. They are expected to
provide further stimulus to the creation of the African

Drought Risk and Development
Network.




23

Other sub
-
regional African drought
-
related networks have also been tested, such as the
Southern African Drought Technology Network, which enhance collaborative possibilities

(
www.safireweb.org/html/sadnet.htm).

















































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