ANNEX 3: CASE STUDY --COSTA RICA

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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ANNEX 3:
CASE STUDY

--
COSTA RICA


Costa Rica
has a long
-
standing background in public policies related to environmental issues, is a pioneer
in developing environmental tools, and also has been an active participant in climate change negotiations.
The

country

announced its intention in 2007 to become carbon neutral by 2021. The
Capacity Development
for Policy Makers

to Address Climate Change

project therefore provided the government and UNDP with an
ideal opportunity to lay
some of the

groundwork in su
pport of this goal.


The
initial National Inter
-
Ministerial Dialogue on Climate Change
, held on 6
-
7

May 2009 in San
Jose, engendered high
-
level participation and media coverage, and the workshop recommendations were
refined for
used in national

awareness
-
raising efforts. Nearly 100 participants
attended
from
Ministries,
the
Legislative branch, NGOs, academia and research institutes, embassies
,

and multilateral development
banks
. Climate change governance and coordinated long
-
term planning
to add
ress climate change
were
discussed during the Dialogue,
along with

the linkages between the UNFCCC

negotiation
s

and national
processes
. Among the main recommendations from the Dialogue
agreed
were

the need for
:



A s
hort
-
, medium
-
, and long
-
term vision for a
ddressing climate change
that could be linked to the
national development plan
and other planning mechanisms.



The linkage of climate change to three national priorities: the eradication of poverty, the
promotion of sustainable development, and food securi
ty.



Strengthened national capacities in both the public and private sectors to mainstream climate
change issues into Ministerial planning and management procedures.



A variety of water and biodiversity measures, based upon presentations made by national

experts
on these key sectors (see below).


The

government selected the

key sectors of
water and biodiversity
, from an adaptation perspective,

for the investment & financial flows (I&FF) assessment. National experts prepared issues papers that
described
t
he importance of the sectors and
anticipated
challenges

to implementing the I&FF
assessments:



Biodiversity:
Costa Rica represents only 0.03% of the global land area, but is home to more than
half a million species.
P
rotected areas
cover

more than a quarter of its territory

and g
overnment
program
me
s have helped Costa Rica reforest



t
rees now cover 51
%

of the country, a 10
%
increase
in

the last decade.
A hot spot of biodiversity, with eight major ecosystems,
Costa Rica

identifies around 1
60 new species each year and annually, there are 2 million visitors to
its

parks.
The main impacts of climate change will be loss of species; many of which are already
endangered.



Water
: Costa Rica
has abundant

water resources, but
more
efficient water man
agement is needed
to satisfy demands from electricity generation, agriculture, human consumption, industry, and
services.
The country generates 78
%

of its energy with hydroelectric power
. The main impact of
climate change will be decreasing water availabil
ity, while demand is rising. Flooding is also a
seasonal issue.


The
national I&FF assessment

seeks to answer the question:
“From a developmental perspective, what need
s

to
be done

to
adapt to or mitigate
climate change in
the

selected key sectors, and what
policy framework, investment environment
and
financial
architecture

will be required to achieve
that purpose
?”

A

national institution
undertook the assessment,
report
ing

to an
Inter
-
M
inisterial Committee on
C
limate
C
hange.
Technical backstopping was provided to
the national team by ITDT, a regional centre of excellence located in Argentina, two regional experts with
backgrounds in climate change economics and forestry
, and UNDP
.


I&FF assessment results

(using a discount rate of 0.1%)



Water
:
F
ive sub
-
sectors were assessed
:
hydropower, human consumption, irrigation and
drainage, sanitation, and integrated water management. The main adaptation options considered
were: behavioural changes in water
consumption, regulations to curb irrational use of water,
incentives to avoid pollution and encourage recycling of water, and educational campaigns
among schools and municipalities to prevent water pollution. The cost of implementing these
measures was est
imated at US$ 2
.1

b
illion
1

from 2010
-
30, with most investments needed in the
hydropower sub
-
sector.



Biodiversity
: The analysis focused on: conservation of terrestrial ecosystems, goods and services
from terrestrial ecosystems, coastal marine ecosystems, in
land aquatic ecosystems, knowledge
generation and forest fires. The main adaptation options considered were: acquiring land for
conservation, increasing the payment for environmental services, and research on phenomena
that
cause

species extinction. The co
st of implementing these measures was estimated at US$
3.7

b
illion
1

from 2010
-
30, with most investments needed for the conservation of terrestrial






CASE STUDY: COSTA RICA

(cont.)


I&FF assessment results




Water
:
F
ive sub
-
sectors were assessed
:
hydropower, human consumption,
irrigation and
drainage, sanitation, and integrated water management. The main adaptation options considered
were: behavioural changes in water consumption, regulations to curb irrational use of water,
incentives to avoid pollution and encourage recycling
of water, and educational campaigns
among schools and municipalities to prevent water pollution. The cost of implementing these
measures was estimated at US$ 2
.1

b
illion
1

from 2010
-
30, with most investments needed in the
hydropower sub
-
sector.



Biodiversity
: The analysis focused on: conservation of terrestrial ecosystems, goods and services
from terrestrial ecosystems, coastal marine ecosystems, inland aquatic ecosystems, knowledge
generation and forest fires. The main adaptation options considered were: acq
uiring land for
conservation, increasing the payment for environmental services, and research on phenomena
that
cause

species extinction. The cost of implementing these measures was estimated at US$
3.7

b
illion
1

from 2010
-
30, with most investments needed for the conservation of terrestrial
ecosystems.


The results of the I&FF assessment were presented at the concluding
National Inter
-
Ministerial
Dialogue on Climate Change
, held on
21
-
22 April 2010
in San Jose
.
Twenty media outlets covered
the
Dialogue
, including news agencies, newspapers, radio and TV.

It was noted that although
the
amounts identified for climate change adaptation needs in the water and biodiversity sectors
may
appear
high when considered agains
t the funding levels currently being discussed in the UNFCCC talks, the
y

were

low in comparison to the actual investment
currently being undertaken
in each sector
. The Dialogue
also included panel discussions on topics including inter
-
ministerial
coordination, climate financing, and
the role of international organizations.


Next steps



Costa Rica also participated in the UNFCCC’s National Economic, Environment and
Development Study (NEEDS) for Climate Change Project
, where it
estimated
that

US$
7.8
b
illion
would be required for climate change mitigation efforts in the LULUCF and energy
sectors
.
The government now
plans to undertake I&FF assessment
s

for the agriculture and
tourism

sectors (for adaptation) in order to have a full picture of the costs o
f addressing climate
change
.




Costa Rica’s

National Climate Change Strategy is the central policy instrument and was integrated
into the National Development Plan for 2006
-
10.

UNDP is supporting the government to assess
the approach of a national multi
-
don
or trust fund to be used as the underlying financial
architecture for future climate change activities.



More sectors to be assessed:
One of the most positives outcomes of the project has been the
request of the Minister of Environment of Costa Rica to UNDP

to carry out I&FF assessments
in 3 additional sectors: Agriculture, Tourism and Transport.


For more d
etailed reports of these activities, go to
:
http://www.undpcc.org/content/costa_rica
-
en.
aspx