Sport and Society The FIFA World Cups 2006 and 2010

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28 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 13 μέρες)

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Teaching Module German 1st Year

Sport and Society



The FIFA World Cups 2006 and 2010

1 „Fußball“ in Germany: Basic Facts


6.5 mio organized members of the F.A.: 8% of the population


= largest single sports association of the world


German Football Association: Deutscher Fußballbund


DFB



Organized in 27,000 clubs


High
Performance

Sport: 3 professional leagues (men)


Erste Bundesliga / Zweite Bundesliga / Dritte Bundesliga


Mass participation sport


Leagues down to local level


7 organized youth group levels (G
-
Youth: 4
-
6 ... A
-
Youth 16
-
18)


Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

2

1 „Fußball“ in Germany: History (1)


Imported from Britain in Germany 1873 (10 years after
the founding of the British F.A.)


Rejected by movement of „Gymnastics“


„The English disease“
-

Historical and political reasons


Sport and aristocracy


Sport and values


1875 first Football rules in German


1875 first German club (Braunschweig); ’74 Dresden
English F.C.


1900 Founding of the „DFB“


First German champion 1900: VfB Leipzig


Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

3

1 „Fußball“ in Germany: History (2)


Alternative associations: Workers F.A.


Bourgeoise F.A.
/ Catholic F.A.


separate championships


National Socialism: Greater Germany league


Banning of workers association and others


Streamlining, anti
-
semitism, prosecution of members of
banned political groups


Football and masses


DFB Nazi obedient


After WW II: separate West and East F.A.


International recognition: DFB 1950, DFV (East) 1952


1954 first World Cup win: „miracle of Bern“


1963: founding of the united „Bundesliga“ (West GER)


Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

4

1 „Fußball“ in Germany: History (3)


1970s: rise of Bayern Munich as most successful
German football club


Host of World Cups 1974 and 2006 and European
championship 1988


1974: first and only encounter of the national
teams of East and West Germany


Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

5

2 „Fußball“ in Germany: The National Team


First match 1908: SUI


GER 5
-
3


Little success in early years


First WC appearance 1934 in Italy: Third rank


1954: surprise winner of the WC in Switzerland


Mythologized in German historical memory: „miracle“


Re
-
birth of a nation within the international community?
Continuity of German superiority phantasies?


World Champion 1974 (Munich), 1990 (Rome)


WC final 1966 (London), 1982 (Madrid), 1986
(Mexico), 2002 (Tokyo)


European Champion 1996 (London)



Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

6

3 World Cup Germany 1974


Two mega
-
events ’72 and ’74: success of West
German sport diplomacy


détente in Cold War era


’72 Olympics: kidnapping and killing of Jewish team
members by terrorists


’74 sterile high
-
security
games


„games of friendship and fair
-
play“ (but no slogan)


Cold War and encounter of the 2 German teams


Germany champion, but Netherlands show
modernity

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

7

3 World Cup Germany 1974
-

Legacy


40 Mio DM revenues


only 10% to FIFA


New Olympia
-
Stadion Munich for 1972 / 74:
iconic architecture


First WC fully covered in colour TV


First participation of an African team (Zaire)


turn to global participation in the WC begins

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

8

1974 World Cup Host Cities

2006 World Cup Host Cities

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

9

3 World Cup Germany 2006


2000 bid


one vote ahead of South Africa


Unified Germany in a block
-
free world


Slogan: „Die Welt zu Gast bei Freunden“ / „A time
to make friends“

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

10

3 World Cup Germany 2006



Nation branding and image campaigns


e.g.
Walk of Ideas



Cultural fringe programme and public viewing


Street Soccer World Cup


German flags


new nationalism?



Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

11

3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy


Modernisation of infrastructure and stadiums


Macro
-
economic effects controversial


Tourism: high ex
-
ante estimates, not realistic


Retail effects marginal


Employment effects, but rather short term
(50,000 vs. 2000)


Economic counter
-
effects: „Crowding
-
out Effect“,
„Carnival Effect“, „Time Switching“, „Auction“ and
problematic spending priorities (Männig)



Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

12

3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy


Significant ‚intangible effects‘


External image


Self
-
perception


Culturisation of the event


Group participation



Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

13

Euro 1996

3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

14

World Cup 2006

3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

15

3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

16

3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

17

3 World Cups in Germany: 2006 Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

18

3 Previous World Cups: Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

19

"Je trouve artificiel de faire venir des joueurs de l'étranger et de les baptiser
Equipe de France. […]
On pourrait les appeler autre chose. Je n’ai jamais cru que
[ces]

onze messieurs représentaient la France !
" Jean
-
Marie Le Pen en 1996

«

Black


Blanc


Bleu

»
-

«

L’Équipe multicolore

».
Celebrations

on the Champs
Éliysées

3 Previous World Cups: Legacy

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

20

3 World Cups in Germany: 2006 Legacy

Wolfgang Männig:


Short
-
run economic benefits are not the main aspect/ argument of
(large) sport events (exception: feelgood)


Potentially positive long
-
run effects: novelty effect and nation
´
s
international perception


Experience from landmark buildings: centrally located, saving
infrastructure, at the Waterfront , architectually innovative and
„unpractical“


Stadia for Germany 2006 fail, but for SA 2010 meet these principles


Good chances for South Africa: less crowding
-
out; no couch potato
-
effect; no carneval effect; more potential for improvement in
international perception


Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

21

4 „Fußball“ and social change






e.g. Football and social participation (classes, genders)


e.g. Football and social organisation (roles, leadership, team)


e.g. Football and economics (professionalisation)


e.g. Football and education (sport academies)


e.g. Football and integration

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

22

„Regel: Wer mitbekommt, was sich im Fußball wann und wie verschiebt, ist über
andere Gesellschaftsbereiche
osmotisch

informiert.“



Klaus Theweleit,
Tor zur Welt. Fußball als Realitätsmodell

4 „Fußball“ and social change

Champions 1954


Toni Turek

Jupp Posipal

Werner Kohlmeyer

Horst Eckel

Werner Liebrich

Karl Mai

Helmut Rahn

Max Morlock

Ottmar Walter

Fritz Walter

Hans Schäfer

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

23

Champions 1974


Sepp Maier

Berti Vogts

Franz Beckenbauer

Karl
-
Heinz Schwarzenbeck

Paul

Breitner

Rainer Bonhof

Uli Hoeneß

Klaus Overath

Jürgen Grabowski

Gerd Müller

Bernd
Hölzenbein

Champions 1990


Bodo Illgner

Klaus Augenthaler

Guido Buchwald

Jürgen Kohler

Andy Brehme

Thomas Berthold

Thomas Häßler

Pierre Littbarski

Lothar Matthäus

Rudi Völler

Jürgen Klinsmann

4 „Fußball“ and Social Change
-

Migration

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

24

DariusWosz
-

Polish parents,
born in Slask

Mustafa Dogan


Turkish parents:
first Turkish des
-
cendant to play
for Germany 1999

Patrick Owomoyela


German
-
Nigerian
parents, born in Hamburg

Sami Khedira


German
-
Tunisian
parents, born in Stuttgart

Gerald Asamoah


Ghanaian
parents,
immigration
1990, citizenship
2001

David Odonkor


GER
-
Gha
-
naian parents, b. in Bünde

Miroslav Klose


b. in Opole, Polish
German minority

Lukas
Podolski


b. in
Gliwice,
GER
-
POL
dual citizen

Mesut Özil


b.
Gelsenkirchen,
3rd generation
of Turkish
immigrants

Serdar Tasci
-

b.
Esslingen, 3rd
generation of Turkish
immigrants


Cacau


b. in
Brazil, from
2001 in
Germany, 2009
citizenship

4 „Fußball“ and Social Change
-

„Frauenfußball“ in Germany


Attempts in 1920 and 1955 failed: prohibited by DFB


1970: unbanning


first local leagues


1974: First German Champion


1982: First national match, GER
-
SUI 5
-
1


1989: European Champion


first live TV broadcast;
Euro titles 1991, 95, 97, 2001, 05, 09


1990: Women‘s Bundesliga


World Champion 2003, 2007; Host 2011


Still amateur status and small budgets


Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

25

5 „Soccer“ in South Africa


Indigenous roots of athletic practices + colonial
influence


1862 first match: British soldiers vs. civilians in CT


Popular among British decendants


Rugby +
Football


Rise of black football:


Missionary school (from 1870s)


Working class clubs


industrialization and urbanization


Rugby and „Soccer“ disintegrate: 1919 first Afrikaner
rugby club, Stellenbosch; football becomes black domain


First centres: Durban


7 clubs in 1910


47 in
1935
; later: Rand


migrant workers

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

26

5 „Soccer“ in South Africa


Natal Football Association 1882, Football
Association of SA 1892


South African Indian Football Association 1903
(Black and Coloured Associations 1933 and 36)


Diqualification from CAF tournaments 1957


FIFA suspension 1961 and expulsion 1976 (Soweto)


1991 SAFA


1992 first international match: SA
-
Cam 1
-
0


1996 AFCON champion


WC participants 1998 and 2002

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

27

Main references


Alegi, Peter: Laduma. Soccer, Politics and Society in South Africa,
Durban 2004


Eisenberg, Christiane (ed.): Fußball, soccer, calcio, Munich 1997


Heinrich, Arthur: Der Deutsche Fußballbund. Eine politische
Geschichte, Cologne 2000


Korr, Chuck / Close, Marvin: More Than Just A Game. Soccer vs
Apartheid, London 2008


Pillay, Udesh / Tomlinson, Richard / Bass, Orli: Development and
Dreams. The Urban Legacy of the 2010 Football World Cup, Cape
Town 2009


Theweleit, Klaus: Tor zur Welt. Fußball als Realitätsmodell,
Cologne 2004

Dr Ralf Hermann

German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture

28