Subject Requirementsx - Cavan VEC


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Subject Requirements

These next few pages are intended to help you to clarify the main subject requirements of
particular courses and careers.


While every at
tempt has been made to ensure that this

accurate, you are advised to consult the college prospectuses

the q

before making your fin
al decisions.

Always discuss
options with a parent or guardian.

has information on requireme
nts for courses.


has information on Leaving Cert subject content and
exam structure.

This document was last updated in full, in June 2010.


NUI Colleges:

College of Surgeons (RCSI), National College of Art &
Design (NCAD), Milltown Institute, Shannon College and St Angela’s College.

Explanation of grades:

HC = Higher paper, Grade C

OC = Ordinary paper, Grade C

C generally refers to minimum Grade C

generally refers to minimum Grade D


Irish is required for all faculties in the National University of Ireland (NUI). However, you can
be exempt from Irish under certain conditions eg. being

born outside Ireland or being educated
outside Ireland up to the age of 12.

If you think you may be exempt, you should contact the
NUI in Dublin.

You will have to do a Special Exam in Irish for second
level teaching or to work as a solicitor or

Irish satisfies the requirement of a Modern Language for TCD and the
‘language other than English’

requirement for UL and DCU.

Higher Level Irish is required for Primary Teaching (HC) and courses that involve the study of
Irish eg. Journalism &
Irish (DCU), Commerce & Irish (UCD), Law & Irish ((UCC). Some
courses will accept an OA2 instead

A pass in Ordinary Level Irish (or another language) is required for Education courses in UL,
Nursing in NUI Colleges, Cadetships in the Defence Forces. The
Gardaí will accept B in
Foundation Irish or OD in another language.

Careers where Irish is useful:
Acting, Administration, Personnel in Irish Voluntary bodies, eg.
Comhaltas Ceoltoirí Eireann, Archivist, Army, Civil Service, Broadcasting, Flight Attendan

Local Government, Politics, Printing, Publishing, Secretary.


All universities and most other colleges and employers require a pass in English.

The Institutes
of Technology will accept a pass in Irish instead of English.

igher Level English is required for some degree where English is particularly important eg.
courses in Journalism, Communications, Public Relations and Media Studies.

It is required for some courses that involve the study of English such as English Litera
ture in
TCD or English & Cultural Studies in DLIADT.

Higher Level English is also required for Medicine and Physiotherapy in RCSI.

HD or OC is required for Primary Teaching as well as some Business and Accounting courses

A pass in English is required
for Cadetships in the Defence Forces, Nursing and the Gardaí.

Careers where English is useful:
Acting, Advertising, Broadcasting, Civil Service, Librarian,
Marketing, Human Resources Manager, Public Relations, Solicitor, Barrister, Speech Therapist,
Teacher, Telephonist, Receptionist, Computer Programmer, Flight Attendant, Copywriter,
Printer, Proof Reader, Translator, Interpreter, Secretary.


Most jobs including Apprenticeships, Nursing and the Gardaí

expect applicants to have
numerical skil
ls and look for at least a pass in Maths.

The Institutes of Technology require a pass in Ordinary Level Maths for entry to most of their

The Universities require Ordinary Level C or better for many of their Science and Business


level Maths is required by relatively few courses. One such group of courses is Honours
Degree courses in Engineering. Other areas include Mathematical and Theoretical Physics
courses as well as Actuarial degrees.

Higher Level A is required for Ac
tuary trainee in an insurance company

Higher Level B is required for many courses in the Mathematical Science, Actuarial Science and
Theoretical Physics fields.

All Engineering Honours Degree courses require a HC in Maths.

Some Honours Degrees in areas su
ch as Computing, Mathematics, Physics, Finance, Actuary
and Science also require Maths at HC level.

Higher Level D or Ordinary Level B in Maths is required for many other courses in Science,
Engineering, Business, Computing, Mathematics and Physics.

dinary Level

Maths at grade C (or Higher Level D) can also be required in courses such as
Business, Science, Computing, Multimedia, Physics, Engineering, Marketing, Management and
some paramedical courses in TCD.

A pass in Maths is required for entry to
all Institutes of Technology, UL, DCU, & TCD
(some may
accept E at Higher Level).

It is required for Primary Teaching, Law in NUIG, Cadetships in the
Defence Forces, Nursing and the Gardaí. (The Gardaí will also accept Foundation B or Leaving
Certificate Applied).


Maths may be accepted on IT courses where no Maths is invol
ved (such as Art &
Design or Social Care). A small number of Colleges now award points for Foundation Maths
and the Gardaí accept a B in Foundation level for entry. Some employers will accept it for
apprenticeships. Most PLC courses will accept it.

Maths is


for Arts, Law or Social Science degrees in the NUI Colleges. You can
also do many courses in Music, Art, Social Care, Drama, Sport or Catering without Maths. Most
PLC courses do not require Maths.

Careers where Maths is useful

untancy, Actuary, Air Traffic Controller, Architecture,
Astronomy, Banking, Biologist, Clerical Work, Chemist, Civil Servant, Computer Operator, Data
Input Operator, Economist, Engineer, Engineering Technician, Geologist, Insurance,
Laboratory Technician,
Mathematics Teacher, Marketing, Medical Laboratory Technician,
Meteorologist, Physicist, Psychologist, Programmer, Quantity Surveyor, Scientist, Sociologist,
Statistician, Systems Analyst, Tax Officer, Apprenticeships.


In these days of fast international transport and modern communication, knowledge of a foreign
language will always be useful. For some areas it is a necessity.

You do

need a foreign language for all Third Level studies. It is required across the bo
ard for
entry to

courses in the National University of Ireland (NUI) only. However even here there
are important exceptions: Nursing, Engineering and Science courses (all colleges), Agriculture
(UCD). NCAD will accept Art instead of the third language

The ITs do not require a foreign language and TCD, DCU and UL accept Irish as a
‘language other
than English’.

However, many colleges have a foreign language as a requirement for specific courses such as
European Studies, Languages and Marketing but
not for general entry.

Industry and employers rate language skills highly, especially if you can combine them with
computers, business or electronics.

Not everyone is gifted with languages and if you are struggling with it in Junior Certificate, you
will find it very difficult in Leaving Certificate.

Higher Level

at grade B or C in a European language is generally required for courses which
involve the in
depth study of that language, eg

Applied Languages (UL), Commerce with French
(NUIG), Law and Languages (UCC), Languages & Marketing (WIT).

TCD requires

languages at HC
(or one HB if only one language)
for European Studies

Mary other courses involving the study of languages will r
equire Higher Level D in the
appropriate language.

These include courses such as Tourism (Sligo IT), Business & Languages
(IT Tralee), Applied Cultural Studies & a Language (Dundalk IT).

Ordinary Level

C in the appropriate language is required by some courses such as Hospitality
Management (DIT)

or Languages & Business Admin
istration (Athlone IT)

Almost all courses in NUI

colleges and NUI
linked colleges require OD in a European
Language. The exceptio
ns are: Nursing, Engineering

and Science courses in all NUI colleges,
and Agriculture in UCD. NCAD will accept Art instead of a language.

An OD in a third language is required for many more courses such as

Leisure Management
(DIT), Event Management (DIT), Medicine (RCSI), English, Media & Cultural Studies
(or Irish)

(DLIADT). Cadetships in the Defence Forces also require OD in a third language.

A third language is

required for

Courses in TCD, UL, DC
U or the ITs

unless it is part of the area of study


Engineering and Science Level 8 Degrees across all NUI Colleges

Agriculture (UCD)

Actuarial Studies (UCD)

NCAD (if Art is presented instead)

The Gardaí


PLC courses

Careers where a European Language is useful:

Air Steward/Stewardess, Air Traffic
Controller, Archivist, Au Pair, Bilingual Secretary, Chef, Courier, Hotel Reception, International
Marketing, Export Careers, Interpreter, Translator, International Driver, Ground Hostess, Pilot,
Travel Agency Clerk, Jo
urnalist, Waiter/Waitress, Importer, Librarian, Department of Foreign
Affairs, Hotel Management, Tourism.


If you are thinking of applying for an Honours Degree (Level 8) course in the Engineering,
Science, Medical or Paramedical (eg. R
adiography, Physiotherapy, Dietetics, Pharmacy, Medical
Laboratory Science) areas at Universities, you will need at least one science subject. You will also
need to have a science subject for Nursing.

On the other hand, if you do not find Science interes
ting or have no interest in work or study in
any of these areas, then you should be careful not to fall into the ‘keep all your options open’
trap especially if science is not one of your best subjects.


that the reason it is
required in the above

areas is because it forms a large part of the area of study; so if you don't
like it at secondary school or if you are struggling with it you may find it unbearable at third level.

With the exception of a small number of courses in TCD and UCD, courses requiring a science
subject require

science only.

Where a science subject is required, it can usually be

and is often required at ordinary level only.

While you do
not normally need to have a science subject for a Higher Certificate (Level 6) or
Ordinary Degrees (Level 7) courses in Engineering, Science or Electronics at the ITs, needless to
say, it would be very useful.

Generally speaking, all science subjects are

seen as equal and all are suitable and all are
acceptable. However, students interested in Medicine, Nursing or Food Science might be
inclined to take Biology and/or Chemistry. Those interested in Science and Engineering might
take Physics and/or Chemistr

Physics and Chemistry are more mathematical sciences. In other words, there are a lot more
calculations, formulas and equations to be worked on. Therefore,

in mathematics and a
facility with numbers would be advisable for these two subjects.
Biology is more descriptive and
involves a lot of learning of names and terms. So it is important to pick whichever one(s) you
feel will suit you best.

A small number of courses specify a particular science subject and these are listed below.


Science subjects

Two science subjects are required for many of the science and paramedical courses in TCD and


(HC in Chemistry + HC in another Science),


& Chemistry of Materials, Medicine, Dental Science,
Human Genetics

Medicinal Chemistry
. (
In some cases they require Higher Bs
or Cs. Some will accept Maths, Applied Maths or Geography as a Science. Check TCD
Prospectus for details);

Medicine, Pharmacy

: (
HC in Chemistry

+ HC in Physics



of where Science Subjects are required:

Higher Level B in one Science


Theoretical Physics and Computational Chemistry in TCD and for Medicine, Pharmacy and
Physiotherapy in RCSI

Higher Level C in one
Science subject:

: Radiation Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Clinical Speech, Chemistry & Molecular

: All Science Courses, Speech & Language Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Health

: Material Science, Industrial Biochemistry, App
lied Physics, Environmental Science, Food
Technology, Pharmaceutical Technology.

: Clinical Measurement
(or HC Maths)

Human Nutrition (
), Optometry, Physics
Technology, Biomedical Science
Forensic & Environmental Science.

: Veterinary Sci
ence (
), Medicine
(5 year option only)
, Veterinary Nursing

Higher Level D in any Science subject:

: Electronic Engineering, Mechatronics, Sports Science
(or OB)
, Physiotherapy
(or OB)

AIT: Toxicology, Dental Nursing, Veterinary Nursing

: Engineering.

Ordinary Level C or Higher Level D in any Science subject:


Analytical Science, Applied Physics, Biotechnology, Science (Common entry),
Environmental Science & Health, Science Education, Sports Science, Physical Education.


Industrial Design

: Electronic Systems,

Information Technology Engineering Education, Construction
Education Science Education.

DIT: Food / Pharmaceutical Technology, Environmental Health.

Ordinary Level D in any Science subject:

Nursing & Midwifery
(All Colleges)

: All Science and Engineering courses, Architecture, Medicine, Radiography, Physiotherapy

: Engineering, Medicine All Science courses, Biotechnology, Computing, Occupational
Therapy, Speech Therapy, Information Technology.

: Food B
usiness, Process Engineering, Civil Engineering.

: Biotechnology, All Science courses, Computer Science, Genetics & Bioinformatics,
Psychology (through Science).

: Engineering courses, Applied Physics, Environmental Science, Food Science.

: Engine
ering courses, Food Processing

/ Pharmaceutical Manufacture, Pharmacy

: Biomedical Science.

St Angela’s: Home Economics Teaching
(Biology option)

: Dental Nursing, Dental Hygiene, Dental Technology.

No Science subject is required

to study any of the Science or Engineering Higher Certificate
(Level 6) or Ordinary Degree (Level 7) courses at the Institutes of Technology. Nor is it required
for Arts, Commerce, Business Studies, Social Studies or Law at Universities. It is not require
d for
most PLC courses or for most Apprenticeships.


Chemistry deals with the composition of matter, the laws of chemical change and the relation
between the properties and composition of substances. In other words it involves everything we
use, wear and consume, including medicines, plastics, preservatives,


Courses where

is required:

Human Nutrition



Biomedical Science



HC (+ HC in another science)

Veterinary Science






(+ HC in Physics or Biology)




(+ HC in Physics or Biology)



(+ HC in Physics or Biology)

Careers where Chemistry is useful:
Agriculture, Animal Nursing Auxiliary, Archaeologist,
Architect, Brewing Technologist, Chemist, Chemistry Teacher, Dairy Sci
entist, Dental
Craftsperson, Dental Hygienist, Dental Surgery Assistant, Dentist, Dietician, Doctor,
Engineering (especially Chemical Engineering), Food Science Technologist: Forestry Inspector:
Fuel Technologist, Health Inspector, Industrial Chemist, Labo
ratory Assistant, Medical
Laboratory Technician, Metallurgist, Nurse, Optician, Patent Work, Pharmacist, Pharmacy
Technician, Physiotherapist, Pilot, Polymer Scientist, Radiographer, Science Laboratory
Technician, Seed Analyst, Serological Assistant, Speec
h Therapist, Textile, Forensic Science,
Photographic Processing, Cosmetic Science, Glass technology, Quality control, Biotechnology.


Physics deals with the laws and forces governing natural phenomena, and includes heat, light,
electricity and


It is of key importance in technology arid particularly relevant for
those interested in specialising in most branches of


In most engineering courses,
one will find a high physics content, while some paramedical careers will invo
lve the study of it,
eg. Radiography, Physiotherapy etc.

Courses where

is required:

Theoretical Physics


Electrical Engineering


Careers where Physics is useful:

Architecture, Astronomy, Biophysicist, Computer Careers,
Dentist, Doctor, Engineering (especially Electrical and Electronics at all levels), Geophysicist,
Health Inspector, Marine Radio Operator, Medical Laboratory Technician, Metallurgist,

Naval Services, Nurse, Oceanographer, Optician, Patent Worker, Pharmacist,

Physics Teacher, Photographic Technician, Pilot, Radiographer,
Science Laboratory Technician, various trade apprenticeships, Scientific Research, He
ating and
Ventilation technicians.


Biology is the science of life and living things. It forms a knowledge base for hundreds of careers
ranging from oceanography and ecology to medicine and biotechnology.

Courses where

is required:



Dental Hygiene


Home Economics & Biology
(St Angela’s)


Though not a specific requirement, it is advisable to take Biology if you are interested in Nursing

Careers where Biology is

Agriculture, Agricultural Research, Animal Breeder, Animal
Nursing Auxiliary, Animal Trainer, Ambulance Driver, Audiologist, Biochemist, Biologist,
Biology Teacher, Catering Superintendent, Chiropodist, Conservation Work, Dental
Craftsperson, Dairy

Scientist, Dental Hygienist, Dental Surgery Assistant, Dentist, Dietician,
Doctor, Farmer, Farrier, Fish Farmer, Fisherman, Food Science Technician, Forestry Inspector,
Geneticist, Health Inspector, Horticulturist, Kennel Assistant, Laboratory Assistant M
Biologist, Medical/Laboratory Technician, Microbiologist, Nurse, Occupational Therapist,

Pet Shop Assistant, Pharmacist, Pharmacy Technician, Physiotherapist, Psychologist,
Radiographer, Seed Analyst, Serological Assistant, Speech Therapis
t, Veterinary Surgeon Wild
Life Ranger,

Zookeeper, Zoologist, Oceanographer.



Agricultural science is the study of the science and technology underlying the principles and
practices of agriculture. It aims to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes concerning the factors
that affect the long
term well
being of agricultural resources, and places emphasis on the
managed use of these resources

The course comprises of 75% theory exam and a project worth 25% based on prac
experience of agriculture.

It is helpful if you come from a farm or if you study biology (as some of the coursework

Agriculturally based c
ourses in all college
s esp. UCD

and Ballyhaise have increased in points and
popularity in the past few years incl
uding courses such as dairy busi

Courses where Agricultural Science is useful:

Agriculture, Agricultural Research, Animal Breeder, Animal Nursing Auxiliary, A
nimal Trainer,
nary Surgeon Wild Life Ranger,

Horticulturist, Agriculture Inspector, Food scientist.,
Farmer, Forestry, Horse Trainer etc.


History embraces the world of politics, economics, religion and philosophy. History can be a
most enjoyable challenge, developing skills such as identifying main issues and the ability to
select relevant information.

Careers where History is useful:

Politics, Journalism, Local Government, Social Work,
Sociology, Archaeology, Barrister, Civil Ser
vice, Tour Guide, History Teacher, Law Clerk,
Museum Work, Researcher, Solicitor, Trade Union Official, Prison Service, Probation Officer,
Garda, Tourism, Writer, Broadcaster, Librarianship, Genealogy.


Geography is concerned with the relat
ionship between human activities and the physical

environment. It includes the study of population, farming, industry, pollution, statistics,
resources, landscapes and communications.

For both Science and Pharmacy in TCD, Geography will be accepted as one

of the HCs in science subjects.

Careers where Geography is useful:

Civil Engineering, Construction, Town Planning,
Architecture, Meteorology, Surveying, Mineralogy, Agriculture, Horticulture, Auctioneering,
Estate Agency, Forestry, Conservation work, Ma
rket research, Statistics, Archaeology, Air Traffic
Control, Anthropologist, Cartographer, Marine Officer, Courier, Development work abroad,
Geologist, Geography Teacher, Tour Guide, International Driver, Naval deck Cadet, Pilot,
Quantity Surveyor, Air Ste
ward/Stewardess, Third Secretary in the Department of Foreign
Affairs, Tourist Office Receptionist, Trans
port Clerk, Travel Agency Clerk


Business is concerned with how organisations are formed, financed and run, and looks at the
services involved such as banking, transport, taxation and semi state organisations. It provides an
excellent foundation for anyone contemplating a business career.

It is not an essential subject for any business course although it would be a very useful

Careers where Business is useful:

Industry, Business, Accounting, Banking, Bookkeeping,
Clerical Work, Commerce Teacher, Company Secretary, Hospital A
dministrator, Hotel
Management, Insurance, Office Machine Operator, Purchasing Officer,
Receptionist/Telephonist, Store Management, Typist, Stockbroking, Sales, Marketing,
Merchandising, Customs and Exercise, Taxation, Law.


This combines theory and practice in order to develop understanding and solve problems. It is
concerned with the way individuals and families manage their resources to meet physical,
emotional, intellectual, social and economic needs. It covers topics such

as food constituents,
physiology, microbiology, food preservation, consumerism, social issues, the family and the

While it is recommended for teacher training in Home Economics in St Angela’s it is not a
requirement for entry unless you are not pre
senting a science subject.

Careers where Home Economics is useful:

Baking and Confectionery, Beautician, Catering,
Chef, Child Care, Consumer Adviser, Demonstrator

food, wines, etc., Dietician,
Environmental Designer, Fashion Designer, Food Science, Ha
irdressing, Health Inspector,
Home Management, Home Economics Teacher, Hotel House
keeper and Manager, Institutional
Management, Nursing, Occupational Therapist, Parenthood, Social Worker, Sewing Machinist,
some artistic careers, Textile Designer, Waitress
, Sales work, Nursery and Pre
Management, Sociologist, Solicitor, Trade Union Official


Though some Art Departments of ITs require it, it is not always an essential subject for entry to
Art Colleges. Yet it is highly recommended that intendi
ng students take it at Leaving Certificate
level since the preparation of a Portfolio without the guidance of an art teacher would be most
difficult. A portfolio (a collection of about ten of your best works with sketches and preparatory
work) is normally
an essential requirement for all art courses and should not be left to your final
year to prepare.

Some schools of Architecture recommend its study even in preference to
Technical Drawing.

Courses where Art is required

Art courses (NCAD)

(or a

Industrial Design (Sligo IT)


Industrial Design (Carlow IT)


Graphic Design (Letterkenny IT)


Industrial Design (Letterkenny IT)


Design Communications (WIT)

HC or OB

It is recommended for the Higher Certificate in Print Co
mmunications in Cork IT.

Careers where Art is useful:

Advertising, Antiques, Art Teacher, Architecture, Bookbinding,
Crafts (leather work, wood carving, etc), Environmental Designer, Fashion, Florist, Furniture,
Gallery and Museum Work, Graphic Design, I
ndustrial Design, Painting and Decorating,
Photography, Marketing Merchandiser, Occupational Therapist, National Teacher, Picture
Restorer, Printing and Publishing Sculptor,
Sign writer
, Video production,

Textile design, Poet, Cosmetics, Upholstery, Telev
ision and Theatre, Town and Country


Particular standards at the Leaving Certificate are normally expected of those applying to study
Music at Third Level.

is required for taking Music in the Arts degree.

Those taking
denominated courses in Music are usually expected to have a HC in Music along
with a special entrance examination

and /or audition

and interview.

A standard equivalent to
Grade 6 (ABRSM)

in an instrument

is expected in the NUI Colleges.

(See individual col
leges for

Careers where Music is useful:


groups, orchestra, bands, etc., Aerobics,
Librarianship, Music Shop Sales, Speech Therapy, Disc Jockey, Folklore Studies, Composer,
Arranger, Dancer, Film and Television Director, Instr
ument Maker, Musician, National Teacher,
Occupational Therapist, Physical Education Teacher, Television and Radio Production, Actor.


This subject follows on from Junior Certificate Metalwork.

It involves the study of a wide range
mechanical engineering processes, materials and technological applications along with the
development of manipulative skills, resourcefulness and creativity. The course is divided into a
Practical Section

Workshop Processes and a Theoretical Section

terials Technology, and
involves the presentation of a Project as part of the Leaving Certificate Examination.

Careers where Engineering is useful:

Mechanics, Aircraft Technician, Army/Air Corps
Apprenticeship, Do
yourself, Engineering Teacher, Fitter
, Industrial Operative, Mechanical
Production, Structural and Civil Engineer and Technician, Metallurgy, Motor Mechanic, Service
and Maintenance Personnel, Technical Sales, Toolmaker, Turner, Welder, Engraving, Industrial


Construction Studies introduces students to the knowledge and skills associated with
construction technology and construction materials and practices. This is achieved through
theoretical study and

integrated practical projects which provide a basis for the thorough
exploration of materials and processes.

The course is divided into a Practical Section and a
Theoretical section, and involves the preparation of a project as part of the Leaving Certifi
The course is essentially about the study of buildings and the built environment.
The theoretical part of the course examines all parts of building from the planning stages to the
completed building

Careers where Construction Studies is useful:
All furniture design courses,


oodwork Teacher, Construction Trades,

Health and Safety Manager,

Insurance Surveyor,

Engineer,Civil Engineer,

Structural Engineer,


Building Manager.


DCG develops intellectual qualities of comprehension, analysis and problem solving as well as
the skills of manipulation and dexterity and the development of overall design sensitivity.

Although it is not an essential req
uirement for those wishing to enter architecture or engineering
course, it is generally an essential component of most technical courses.

Careers where Design & Communication Graphics is useful:

All Engineering and
Engineering Technician careers, Aircraf
t Technician, Architecture and Architectural Technician,
Army and Air Corps Apprenticeship, Cartographer, Construction Trades, Bricklayer, Carpenter,
, Engineering Trades, Fitter, Toolmaker,
, Industrial Designer, Maintenance and Service

Motor Mechanic, Technical Sales, Structural Design, Printing, Town Planner.


Religious Education
explores common issues faced by all people living in society. It develops
the skills and
knowledge used to manage personal resources and guide human behaviour.

Religious education in the Leaving Certificate programme calls for the exploration of issues such
as meaning and value, the nature of morality, the development of diversity and belief, the
principles of a just society,
world religions
and the implications
of scientific progress. It has a
particular role to play in the curriculum in the promotion of tolerance and mutual
understanding. It seeks to develop in students the skills needed to engage in meaningful dialogue
with those of other or of no religious tra

As part of Leaving Certificate Religious Education students partake in coursework which is
worth 20% of their overall mark in this subject.

Assessment of religious education in the Leaving Certificate examination will be based on the
aims, objec
tives, and outcomes of each section of the course. Students’ personal faith
commitment and / or affiliation to a particular religious grouping will not be subject to
assessment for examination for national certification’

Leaving Certificate Religious Educ
ation Syllabus p9

Careers where Religious Education is useful:

Counsellor, Journalist, Social Worker

Human Resource, Management,

Advice Worker,
Religion Teacher,

Religious Life and Ministry,