Introduction to JAVA

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Introduction to JAVA

Vijayan Sugumaran

School of Business Administration

Oakland University

Rochester, MI 48309

Introduction to JAVA

Ancestor to JAVA


small, robust, architecture independent, Object
Oriented, language to control interactive TV.

didn’t go anywhere

refocused for Internet, Java was born.

JAVA is both compiled and interpreted










Java Introduction (contd.)

JAVA byte
code (or J
code) is executed by JAVA run
time interpreter (JAVA compliant Virtual Machine)

The interpreter can be run as a separate application or
embedded in another software such as a browser.

The fundamental unit of JAVA code is the “class.”

Since JAVA interpreter runs compiled byte
code, JAVA
is relatively a fast interpreted language.

The run
time system can compile byte
code to native
machine code on the fly to optimize performance. This
is called “Just in time.” (one sticky problem is the array
bounds checking)

Java and Javascript

Don’t confuse JAVA with Javascript

Javascript is an object
based scripting language
developed by Netscape

Lets you create active user interface and
capture and validate user inputs

side replacement for cgi
script, client
side computing instead of server side

Java is full
featured programming language

Javascript can interact with Java applets

Java Characteristics

Unlike C++, Java doesn’t allow programmer
defined operator overloading

Java doesn’t have a preprocessor, so it doesn’t
have macros, #define statements, or conditional
source compilation

Java provides a well
defined package structure for
organizing class files

Supports only single inheritance class hierarchy,
but allows multiple inheritance of Interfaces

Interface of a class
like an abstract class in C++
which specifies the behavior of an object without
defining its implementation

Java Characteristics (contd.)

Statistically typed

data types etched in stone for the compiler (C, C++)

Dynamically typed

type checking performed during execution (lisp or smalltalk)

Early binding

binding method calls to definitions at compile time (C, C++)

Late binding

locating definitions of methods dynamically at run time

Java is statistically typed and late
binding language

Java carries all data
type and method
information with it from its source code to its
compiled byte
code form

Java Characteristics (contd.)

Base class in Java can evolve with out affecting
derived classes as long as it maintains a valid form
of its original structure. (in C++, if the base class
changes, the derived classes should be recompiled)

Java handles garbage collection

Java uses “references” instead of pointers. Can’t
do pointer arithmetic with references. A
references is a strongly typed handle for an object.
All objects are accessed through references

Security manager controls access to system
resources like the file system, network parts,
windowing environment, etc.

JAVA Security



Security Manager

Class Loader




JAVA Binary

Safety Implementation

Verifier guarantees the integrity of incoming classes


reads byte
code & makes sure it behaves properly

it is a type of theorem prover

steps through the
code and determines the behavior

Class Loader handles loading classes from the
network and protects basic system classes

Class Loaders and security managers are
implemented by applications that load applets such as
browser and applet viewer

More about Class Loader

Class Loader:

Java adds second layer of security with class loader

It brings in Java binary classes that contain byte
code into the interpreter

Classes loaded remain associated with class loader

If a class references another class, the request is
served by its original class loader

Classes loaded from one location can be restricted
to interact with only those classed loaded from that
same location

Security Manager

Security Manager

Application level security decisions

Security manager is consulted every time the
application tries to access system resources

The security manager can be simple or complex
as the application warrants

The integrity of the security manager is based
on the protection afforded by the lower levels
of the Java security model

Java Applets


Small embeddable application

A Java applet is a compiled Java program,
consisting of classes just like any other Java

Applets are autonomous programs confined
within the walls of the browser or applet
viewer. Can interact with user and
communicate with the host over the network

Error Handling

The protection of references is one of the most
fundamental aspects of Java Security

Java code has to play by the rules
it can’t peek
into places it shouldn’t

Error Handling:

Exceptions allow separation of error
code from normal code

Exception carries with it an object that contains
information about the situation that caused its

Multi Threading


flow of control within a program

threads run in the same address space

share instance variables, but not local variables

Multi Threading:

Threads provide efficient multi processing and
distribution of tasks

Threads need to be synchronized
only one
synchronized method within the object may run
at a given time

Java Packages


structure that groups classes into
functional units

Within a package, a class is publicly visible or
protected from outside access

Package promote reuse & scalability

Package names constructed in a hierarchical
way using dot
separated naming convention

e.g. Java.awt.event

Sample Java Program

//Create a file called

public class Welcome


public static void main(String[] args)


System.out.println(“Hello World, Welcome to Java!!”);



Compiling and Executing (using JDK)

compiling source code:

> javac (creates Welcome.class

java bytecode)

executing the program:

> java Welcome (JVM executes the byte code)

Sample Applet

//create a file called

public class HelloWeb extends java.applet.Applet


public void paint( java.awt.Graphics gc)


gc.drawString (“Hello World, Welcome to Java”, 125, 95);



Compile the java source file (using JDK): javac

Create an html file that embeds the applet using the <applet> tag

Load the html page into a java supported browser

Sample HTML Document





<applet code=HelloWeb width=300 height=200 </applet>



Save it as HelloWeb.html

Open HelloWeb.html using the browser