Making Space for Nature – Lawton Report 2010 - Green Growth ...

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9 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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David Hill

Economic Growth and the
Natural Environment







COST



PRICE



VALUE




PROTECTION
-
CONSERVATION

Value is in the eye of the
beholder !

What £74 million buys

Crayon drawing

66,000 acres of Scottish Highlands

UK must go green to stimulate growth, says Chris
Huhne.
The Guardian

3 May 2012

“There is a facile view that our green commitments to
tackling climate change, avoiding air and water pollution,
protecting natural habitats are an obstacle to growth. The
message of the commodity markets is surely
different…… If we want sustainable growth, we do not
have a choice. We must go green."

Growth and/or the natural environment

Expenditure

Impact

Capital

Gross Value Added uplift

Programme

Jobs created or protected

Active labour market targets

Health targets

Regeneration targets

Costs

Benefits

Capital investment

Goods produced

Employment costs

Water filtered

Opportunity cost

Flood risk reduced

Landscape protected

Biodiversity protected


...or cost benefit analysis
t...or cost benefit
analysi


Back in 1997


Costanza published an estimate of the value of the
global flow of ecosystem services at $33 trillion per
year
(1)




Toman criticised this as ‘a significant underestimate
of infinity’
(2)

1) Costanza, R. (1997). "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital."

2) Toman, M. (1998). "Why not to calculate the value of the world’s ecosystem services and
natural capital."
Ecological Economics
25(1): 57
-
60.

TEEB


"In a global study we will initiate the process of analyzing the global
economic benefit of biological diversity, the costs of the loss of
biodiversity and the failure to take protective measures versus the
costs of effective conservation.“


Answer : $14 trillion; 7% global GDP by 2050

OECD Report 2012
-

Outlook to 2050

Per capita
GDP NOT
accounting for
loss of natural
capital

Per capita
GDP
accounting for
loss of natural
capital

Brazil

34%

3%

India

120%

9%


2011

Making
Space
for
Nature


Lawton
Report
2010

Introducing Ecosystem Approach :

Making nature’s benefits visible to decision makers

Provisioning services

Fresh water

Food (eg crops, fruit, fish, etc)

Fibre and fuel (eg timber, wool, etc)

Genetic resources (
used for crop/stock breeding and biotechnology
)

Biochemicals, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals

Ornamental resources (eg shells, flowers, etc)

Regulatory services

Air quality regulation

Climate regulation (
local temp. /precipitation, GHG sequestration, etc
)

Water regulation (timing/scale of run
-
off, flooding, etc)

Natural hazard regulation (ie storm protection)

Pest regulation

Disease regulation

Erosion regulation

Water purification and waste treatment

Pollination

Cultural services

Cultural heritage

Recreation and tourism

Aesthetic value

Spiritual and religious value

Inspiration of art, folklore, architecture, etc

Social relations (
eg fishing, grazing, cropping communities
)

Supporting services

Soil formation

Primary production

Nutrient cycling (water recirculation in landscape)

Water recycling

Photosynthesis (production of atmospheric oxygen)

Provision of habitat

Thanks to Mark Everad from EA for this slide

What you don’t
consider you may lose!

Think Global


Act Local


NEWP 2011



Reconnecting nature


New
Nature Improvement Areas

(NIAs), transforming rural and urban areas
and providing bigger, connected sites for wildlife to live in and adapt to climate
change. With a £7.5

million fund for 12 initial NIAs to demonstrate just what
can be done. Professor Sir John Lawton has agreed to chair the panel to
allocate funding.

Biodiversity offsetting



new way for developers to ensure we don’t lose
wildlife sites and make them better by making and improving other sites.

Phasing out peat


working with the horticulture industry to phase out peat
use, which will help to protect and restore our
peatlands
, which are valuable
carbon sinks, habitats and part of our ecological network.

New Local Nature Partnerships

to strengthen joined
-
up action across local
agencies and organisations, with a £1 million

available this year.

Green Infrastructure

Urban run
-
off pollution


The cost of environmental damage from polluted urban wash
-
off has
been estimated at £150
-

£250 million
(1)
.


SUDS systems, such as sand and soil based filters
(2)
and detention
pools
(3,4)
filter water effectively.


Green roofs
(5)

and urban trees
(6)
retain rainwater reducing peak run
off.


Increasing groundwater infiltration reduces the number combined
sewer overflow
(1)
.

1)
ENVIRONMENT AGENCY 2007. Response to Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution consultation ‘Urban Environment’.
http://www.rcep.org.uk/reports/26
-
urban/documents/urb
-
env
-
summary.pdf

2)
HATT, BE, FLETCHER, TD & DELETIC, A 2008. Hydraulic and Pollutant Removal Performance of Fine Media Stormwater Filtration Sys
tem
s.
Environ. Sci.
Technol, 42
, 2535
-
2541.

3)
HEAL, KV, HEPBURN, DA, LUNN, RJ & TYSON, J 2006. Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds.
Water Science and Technology, 53
,
219
-
228.

4)
NAPIER, F, JEFFERIES, C, HEAL, KV, FOGG, P, ARCY, BJ & CLARKE, R 2009. Evidence of traffic
-
related pollutant control in soil
-
bas
ed Sustainable Urban
Drainage Systems (SUDS).
Water science and technology: a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 60
, 221.

5)
MENTENS, J, RAES, D & HERMY, M 2006. Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff problem in the urbanized 21st cen
tur
y?
Landscape and Urban
Planning, 77
, 217
-
226.

6)
XIAO, Q, MCPHERSON, EG, SIMPSON, JR & USTIN, SL 1998. Rainfall interception by Sacramento's urban forest.
Journal of Arboriculture, 24
, 235
-
244.







A New York example


Aim: to reduce combined
sewer outflows into the
harbour


Method: using street trees,
swales, bio
-
infiltration, blue
and green roofs to capture first
inch of rainfall on 10% of the
city
(1)
.


This will save $1.5 billion
dollars over a grey only
approach
(1)

.

1)
NYC ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 2010. NYC Green Infrastructure Plan: A
sustainable strategy for clean waterways.

Health and greenspace

New
Greenspace

Increased
activity

Reduced ill
-
health

NHS
savings


£2


3 billion per annum in spent by the NHS on diseases caused by
inactivity
1


There is some evidence that access to greenspace increases
sustainable exercise levels


But valuation requires
evidenced
and
quantified

logic chain


We are a long way from being able to value greenspace in these
terms

1) Brown, C and Grant, M (2005) Biodiversity and human health: What role for nature in Healthy Urban Planning? Built
Environment 31 (4) 326
-

388

Environmental markets


Internationally there is mounting interest in
environmental markets from credit buyers, regulators,
investors, environmental community


Emerging recognition of natural resource stewardship
and restoration as a dynamic area for investment


Transforming biodiversity from a risk and liability problem
into viable profit
-
generating business opportunity

Carol, Fox & Bayon (2008) Conservation & Biodiversity Banking.

MARKET SIZE

Estimates for emerging biodiversity
and ecosystem service markets
(derived from Ecosystem
Marketplace) are presented in the
table in the slide drawn from the
TEEB report looking at potential
global growth to 2020 and 2050
compared to present day.



The TEEB report for business
concludes that new markets for
biodiversity and ecosystem services
are emerging and if scaled up, these
markets could represent major
business opportunities and a
significant part of the solution to the
ecosystem and biodiversity finance
challenge.

Value = $5
-

10bn p.a

Policy signals drive markets : Natural Environment
White Paper (1)


A healthy, properly functioning natural environment is
foundation of sustained economic growth


We must value the economic and social benefits of a
healthy natural environment whilst continuing to
recognise nature’s intrinsic value


Markets, business and government must better reflect
the value of nature

Natural Environment White Paper (2)


There are £m
-
multi opportunities available from markets
that protect nature’s services


Expanding markets and schemes for payments by
beneficiaries to providers of ecosystem services


An Ecosystem Markets taskforce to expand trade in
green goods and market for sustainable natural services


Announcing introduction of a biodiversity offsetting
scheme within the planning system

Ecosystem Markets Taskforce

As our understanding
of the value of natural
capital grows (e.g. UK
NEA/TEEB), there is a
natural progression
to reviewing the
scope for new
approaches to
‘capture’ value

The challenge is to
harness these values
so they can also
become real
commercial values

Available estimates
point to a significant
potential for long
-
term growth in
emerging markets in
biodiversity and
ecosystem services

Strong link to broader
work on green
economy and role
that environmental
markets could play

Environmental Markets Exchange

Environmental Markets Exchange

Localism Act and National Planning Policy
Framework


Localism Act:


Duty to Co
-
operate and changes to local plans


Neighbourhood Plans



National Planning Policy Framework:


Policies to protect and enhance natural environment


Local Green Space Designation


Ecological Networks


Strategic approach to Green Infrastructure



Major infrastructure planning

Neighbourhood Plans

Neighbourhood Plans


130 Frontrunner projects are piloting new approach. We’re engaging
in around 16 of these to learn early lessons.


NE will be statutory consultee
-

the Government estimate 380 such
plans will be prepared each year from 2012.


‘Single Voice’
-

joint advice from Environment Agency, Forestry
Commission and Natural England