Genetic Engineering

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10 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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DNA Technology


I.
Genetic Engineering

II.
DNA Fingerprinting

III.
Cloning

I. Genetic Engineering


Is the process of changing an organism’s
DNA on purpose


Uses of Genetic Engineering


Medicine


Create organisms to make proteins for
people who can’t make the proteins
themselves


Insulin for diabetes, Human Growth
Hormone


Making Antibiotics

& Vaccines

Uses of Genetic Engineering


Gene Therapy:
insert correct gene into a person
who has a defective gene


blindness, deafness, skin cancer, Parkinson's, Cystic


Uses of Genetic Engineering


Agriculture


Create plants that are…


D
isease or pest resistant


More nutritious or tasty


Environment


Create organisms to break down

pollution


Ex. Oil
-
eating bacteria

Recombinant DNA




Is DNA from 2+ different
organisms & is made with
restriction enzymes


Often made during genetic
engineering



Restriction Enzymes




Will cut DNA
at
specific sequences


This creates DNA fragments


Sticky vs. Blunt Ends


Most
cuts made by restriction enzymes
create
sticky
ends


Have a few
bases on one strand that are unpaired


W
ill
easily bind to
complementary strands

Making Recombinant DNA



Step 1:
two
sets of DNA are cut by
the same
restriction enzyme
so each set has same sticky
ends

Making Recombinant DNA



Step 1


1
set
is
from an organism containing
a gene of
interest


1 set
is
part
of a vector, such as
a bacteria plasmid
or virus


Vectors can carry foreign DNA into new cells


Bacterial plasmids are circular pieces of DNA

Making Recombinant DNA


Step 2:


DNA
fragments from
each
set are “glued” together
with an enzyme called
DNA
ligase


You now have Recombinant
DNA!!

Making Recombinant
DNA



Step 3


The vector can transfer
the recombinant DNA to
other organisms, if
needed


In summary…


Recombinant DNA is made during genetic
engineering using restriction enzymes.


II. DNA Fingerprints


Each person has a “DNA
Fingerprint” due to unique
DNA fragment sizes made
using restriction enzymes



Used in solving crimes,
identifying parents and
identifying genetic
disorders




Crime Scene DNA Fingerprints



Steps to Making DNA Fingerprints with
Gel Electrophoresis


Step 1:
DNA is collected
from blood, saliva, tissue


Step 2:
DNA fragments
are made w/ restriction
enzymes


Step 3:
Fragments are
separated by size



More on Step 2…


DNA
has a negative
charge


DNA is placed at one end of a gel and is pulled
towards the positive side of the gel with an
electric current



More on Step 2…



Shorter
DNA fragments move faster than longer
fragments




Virtual Gel Electrophoresis


Problem Solving


Establishing Paternity



A baby gorilla is born at the zoo. There are 4
adult males in the population that may be its
father. DNA fingerprinting is done to establish
the correct father, so that for future
generations, the gene pool is kept as varied as
possible.

Mother

Baby

Male 1

Male 2

Male 3

Male 4

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III. CLONING


Making a
genetically identical
copy of an
organism


Steps:


Put the nucleus/DNA of one organism into an
empty egg cell


Put the egg cell into a surrogate mother to grow


Hound Clone


Making Mimi