Associated with Exposure to

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Examination of Health Risks
Associated with Exposure to
Electromagnetic Radiation

Cynthia Kelly, M.D.

Orthopaedic Oncologist

Denver, Colorado

Radiation



You can’t


touch it,


feel it,


smell it,


or taste it.

Radiation



Very high doses cause
immediate cellular death.


Low doses cause disturbances
within the cell, causing systems
malfunction but not death.


Ion transport(calcium), gene
transcription

Health Effects of
Electromagnetic Fields



Brain cancer


Childhood leukemia


Birth defects


Pregnancy loss


Physiotherapists 0.04
-
0.56

W/cm
2


Sleep disturbances


Altered calcium ion movement in
brain cells


Altered children’s performance


Mental & physical 0
-
4

W/cm
2


Literature Review


Cells (plant & animal) exposed to
EMF show “distinct growth changes
… alteration in cellular enzymes.”


Human & animal cells demonstrated
“modulation of gene
-
expression,
changes in transcription pattern &
protein synthesis.”


DNA effects

»
Hawaii Med J 1991

Literature Review


Available data suggest that RF
radiation should be considered “a
carcinogenic risk,” a position taken
in an internal 1990 US EPA
document…


when there was much less evidence of
the potential harmfulness of EMF
radiation.


»
Env Health Perspectives 105(s) Dec 1997

Literature Review


Statistically significant dose
-
response relationships exist for
the physiotherapist study,
Korean war study and the Polish
military study.



»
Dept Natural Resources Engineering NZ 1997

Lit Review:

Health Effects
Due to EMF Exposure


Study

Exposure

(

W/cm
2
)

Risk Ratio
(range)

Polish Military
(1996)

20

3.0
-
13.9

North Sydney
Australia (1996)

<0.2
-

8

1.61
-
2.74

Moscow Embassy
(1995)

2.4
-

4.0

1.7
-
5.0

US Air Force
(1996)

Variable

1.28
-
3.3

Community levels after LCG proposed tower = 1
-
20

W/cm2


Health Effects of EMF


There are more than 60 major
studies declaring the dangers of
EMF.


EMF has been declared a
“hazard” by the Swedish
government, and they have
instituted mandates concerning
public exposure.

Public Exposure Limit


If cancer risk is to be reduced,


the limit should be
<
0.1

W/cm
2


If miscarriage risk, sleep disruption,
children’s performance impairment,
and chronic fatigue is to be reduced,


the limit should be
<
0.01

W/cm
2



»
Dept Natural Resources Engineering NZ 1997

Health Effects of EMF


Under extended exposure
conditions RF signals at average
of 5

W
/kg are capable of
inducing chromosome damage
in human lymphocytes.


Increase in # micronucleated
cells


Bioelectromagnetics 23:113
-
126, 2002


Susceptibility:

Our children

Childhood Leukemia & EMF


Positive association & dose
-
response
relationship with relative risk estimates
from 1.5
-
2.7 for past exposure (5 studies).


Significant dose
-
response relationship (3
studies).


Observations can’t be explained by misclass
-
ification of exposure or a selection bias.


A confounder effect would hardly explain such
results.


Possible causal nature cannot be
dismissed.

»
Levallois: Am J Prev Med 1995

Childhood Leukemia & EMF


Italian study


2.2 fold increase
in leukemia in children living
w/in 6 km of Vatican radio and
TV transmission towers
(2001)


Australia study


increased
incidence of childhood leukemia
and death d/t TV tower RF


Med. J. Australia, Vol.165, No. 2 p.601
-
5

Health Effects of EMF


18 studies of childhood cancer &
residential exposure to EMF have
been conducted.


There is a preponderance of positive
results, more than one would expect by
chance.


When all studies are pooled, the
average risk for leukemia, lymphoma
and nervous system tumors are
statistically significant.

»
Cancer Causes Control 5:299
-
309, 1994

Health Effects of EMF


There were excess leukemia & central
nervous system cancers in those employed
in occupations where there is substantial
use of electricity


Electricians, electric utility & power company
employees


Meta
-
analysis regarding occupational
exposure to EMF, leukemia & brain cancer
report modest but
statistically significant

increases in cancer risk.

»
J Occup Environ Med, Dec. 1995

Standards


Current regulatory standards are
based solely on the THERMAL effects
of RF radiation (200

W/cm
2
) at the
cellular level.


Evidence from Moscow & other
community studies suggest that
exposure as low as 2

W/cm
2
may
have long term health effects.


»
Env Health Perspectives 105(s) Dec 1997

Health Studies


The focus of more recent animal
studies exploring the possible
carcinogenicity of EMF exposure
has been the role of EMF as a
promoter of malfunction within a
cell.


Development of cancer is
probably multifactorial.

Carcinogenesis

“… a multistep process that requires at
least 2 genotoxic events in its critical
path but is facilitated by nongenotoxic
proliferative effects on target cells.
EMF could influence carcinogenesis if
it exerted either direct or indirect
effects on target cell turnover.”

»
Bioelectromagnetics 17:339, 1996

Carcinogenesis


In work spanning a decade & 9
projects, Goodman & Henderson
reported increased transcription
of oncogenes (cancer genes) &
other specific mRNA sequences
in several types of cells exposed
to low
-
frequency magnetic
fields.

Latency


Latency is the
delayed effect of
exposure to a
harmful substance,
i.e. sun and UV
exposure.

Latency


Tobacco industry




Initially there was felt to be no
link between tobacco use and
cancer



Now the link is clear cut

Clinical Experience


Children with cancer


Parents’ concerns

Risk vs. Benefit


Risk: Health hazard
to community, both
real & perceived.


‘Benefit’: Better
resolution on a
television screen

Implications for
Public Policy


The risk of EMF exposure with
erection of the new tower is
sufficiently significant and the
exposure sufficiently widespread
that actions to limit new
exposures are warranted.

Implications for
Public Policy


Two main approaches for
lowering exposure to EMF:


Personal
: change in one’s habits


Societal
: increase the distance of
the source of EMF from people

Economics


The costs of mitigation and
litigation relating to the power
line


cancer connection have
risen into the billions of $$ &
threaten to go much higher.


Avoid additional costs & locate
the proposed tower to an
alternate, less
-
inhabited site.

Conclusion


When it is possible to reduce
EMF exposure at a reasonable
cost and low inconvenience,
future disease may be
substantially reduced.


»
Public Health Reports, May/June 1996


The evidence justifies
Prudent
Avoidance

of unnecessary
community exposures.


»
Env Health Perspectives 105(s) Dec 1997

Conclusion


There is discrepancy surrounding
allowable, “safe” levels of exposure
to all sources of electromagnetic
energy.


With the possible association with
cancer, fetal loss and other effects,
prudence in the design and
placement of new power systems is
imperative.

Conclusion


There is conclusive, alarming,
scientific evidence linking EMR
and the development of cancer
and other health problems in
children & adults at the same
levels this “Super Tower” will
emit.

Conclusion


After exposure to EMR:


there are significant patterns of increase
incidence of childhood leukemia, brain
cancer, spontaneous abortion
(miscarriage), and other harmful effects
with exposure to EMR.


biochemical & physiologic reactions and
alterations at the cellular and tissue
level.

Conclusion


It is unconscionable that Jeffco
commissioners would expose an
UNWILLING community of
constituents to the effects of
EMR
until it is unequivocally
proven to be safe.

The Future


What do you say to the
children of the community
living in proximity to the new
tower who develop cancer?

Conclusion


Why put your constituents at
risk all for better TV viewing?


Other acceptable site available

YES!

Will we leave Jefferson County if the
proposed tower is erected?

Thank You!