Anomalous frequency shifts in astrophysics. - Jacques Moret-Bailly

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GOYA

“The Sleep of Reason
Produces Monsters.”


Returning to
reasonable, old,
efficient physics.

Inflation

“Anomalous” frequency shifts in
astrophysics.
By Jacques Moret
-
Bailly

May 2006
Jacques.Moret
-
Bailly@u
-
bourgogne.fr


I

Spectroscopy.

I
.

1

Conditions

for

Doppler
-
like

frequency

shifts
.

I
.

2

Coherent

Raman

Effect

on

Incoherent

Light

(CREIL)
.

II

Propagation of a far UV continuous spectrum beam in atomic
hydrogen: periodicities, generation of circles.

III

Applications in astrophysics.

III. 1 In the solar system.

III. 2 Origin of the “CMB”.

III. 3 High redshift objects.

2


I
.

1
.

1

Regular

physics
.

I. 1. 2 No blurring of the images.

I. 1. 3 No blurring of the spectra.

I. 1. 4
(Nearly)

constant relative frequency shifts.

I
.

1
.

5

Not

Doppler

shifts
.


3

I)

Spectroscopy

I
.

1

Conditions

for

Doppler
-
like

frequency

shifts

Usual optics, spectroscopy,
thermodynamics.

No “new physics” such as:

Dark matter

Dark energy

Inflation

...


4

I. 1. 1 Regular physics.

Coherent light
-
matter interactions:

Same interaction

between any involved
(molecular,...) dipole and the local involved
electromagnetic fields.

Consequence:

From Huygens construction and Fresnel rules,
if the number of involved molecules is large,
the wave surfaces and images are clean.

5

I. 1. 2 No blurring of the images.

A monochromatic wave must be transformed
into a single, frequency
-
shifted
monochromatic wave.


If the interactions are scatterings:

-
i) the scattered wave must interfere with the
exciting wave into a single frequency wave.
(from the coherence, these waves have the
same wave surfaces)

-

ii) ./.

6

I. 1. 3 No blurring of the spectra.

-

ii)

As

the

number

of

involved

molecules

is

large,

the


individual

exchanges

of

energy

are

infinitesimal,

not


quantified
.

The

molecules

are

perturbed

by

the

waves

to


non
-
stationary

states

and

return

to

the

initial

stationary


state

:

it

must

be

a

parametric

effect

(i
.

e
.

matter

is

a


catalyst

allowing

interactions

of

the

waves)
.

Several

waves

exchange

energy

while

the

molecules


are

not

(de)excited

permanently
.

The

exchanges

of

energy

must

obey

thermodynamics
:

from

hot

beams,

redshifted

(usually

light,

from


Planck's

law)

to

cold

beams

(usually

radiofrequencies)
.

7

A

strict

constant

relative

frequency

shift


,

as

in

a

Doppler

effect,

is

not

required
:



Observed

variations

of



are

interpreted

in

the

“big

bang”

theory

by

a

variation

of

the

fine

structure

constant
.

8

I. 1. 4
(Nearly)

constant relative

frequency shifts.

R

A
continuous wave

emitted by
S

is received at a lower


frequency by
R
. The number s
-
r of cycles (wavelengths)

between
S

and
R

increases : it is a Doppler effect.

Consequence:
The theory of a Doppler
-
like effect must fail

using a CW source.

Corollary :

A time
-
coherence parameter must appear in the

theory of a Doppler
-
like effect.

t = 0

t > 0

9

Relative speed: (s
-
r)

t

I. 1. 5 Not Doppler frequency shifts.

I. 2. 1



Recall of refraction, that is of coherent Rayleigh
scattering.

I. 2. 2

Replacing coherent Rayleigh scattering by coherent
Raman.


I. 2. 3


Preservation of space
-
coherence with ordinary light
:



Low frequency Raman resonance.



low pressure gas.

I. 2. 4


Application to astrophysics.

I. 2. 5


Quest for “anomalous” frequency shifts.


10

I. 2

Coherent Raman Effect

on Incoherent Light (CREIL).









E
0
cos

t

}

E=E
0
[cos(

t) +K


sin(

t)]=

= E
0
[cos(

t)

cos(K

)

+
sin
(K

) sin(

t)]=

= E
0

cos(

t
-
K

)









(1)

Definition of the index of refraction n, setting:

K = 2

n/


=

n/c (2)


E
0
cos(

t
-
K

)

Classical :

Coherent Rayleigh

scattering :

E
0
K


sin

t

Close wave
surfaces

11

I. 2. 1 Recall of refraction

Quantum point of view on refraction:

Set


the (stationary) wave function of a refracting medium.

A perturbation by an electromagnetic wave W
i

transforms



into a “dressed” (non stationary) state

i

i




i

emits the scattered wave delayed of


having the same

wave surfaces than the exciting wave.


12

The EM wave W
i

perturb


into

i

i

.


Two simultaneously refracted EM waves W
i

and W
j

transform




into

ij.


ij

is not equal to

i

j

if it exists an interaction operator O
such that

(

i

|O|

j




transfers energy, produces frequency shifts of the
refracted beams.


may result from a global behaviour (plasma) or from
molecular properties, through Raman type interactions
because the molecular states excited by W
i

and W
j

have
the same symmetries.


Look at
Coherent Raman Effects !






13

I


For coherent anti
-
Stokes scattering,

(1) is replaced by:

E = E
0
[sin(

t)(1
-
K'

) + K'


sin((

+

t )] with K' > 0

= E
0
[sin(

t)(1
-
K'

) + K'


sin(

t)cos(

t) + K'


sin(

t)cos(

t)]

K'


is infinitesimal, and

t is assumed small
:


E
0
[sin(

t)


+



sin(K'



t)cos(

t) ]


E
0
[cos(K'



t)sin(

t) + sin(K'



t)cos(

t)] = E
0
sin[(

K'



t] (3)

For Stokes scattering,

K' is replaced by a negative K”. K'+K” is
proportional to exp(
-
h

/2

kT)
-
1, approximately to

/T. Thus, the
frequency shift is proportional to


K'+K”)





T.


(4)

As in refraction, the Ks are proportional to


if the dispersions of the
polarisabilities are neglected. Thus


is nearly constant.


~1

~1

14

I. 2. 2
Replacing coherent Rayleigh scattering


(
which produces refraction)

by coherent Raman
scattering.




Low frequency Raman resonance.

The interactions starting at the beginning of a pulse, keeping

t

small along a light impulsion, requires a Raman period larger

than the length of the impulsion, that is than the coherence time.



Low pressure gas.

To avoid a destruction of the space coherence, the collisional time

must be longer than the coherence time.

We verify that “ultrashort” (i.e. “shorter than all relevant time

constants”) light pulses allow to keep the coherence.

(G. L. Lamb, Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99
-
124, 1971)


15

I. 2. 3

Preservation of space
-
coherence :

Problem

:

It cannot be any permanent exchange of energy between the
molecules and the light because
the molecules must return to
their stationary state after the interaction
... It is necessary
that the interaction involves several beams, so that the final
balance of energy is zero for the molecules.

This coherent effect is

“parametric”.

The molecules act as a
catalyst.


The “Coherent Raman Effect on Incoherent Light” (CREIL)
is a
SET

of elementary coherent Raman effects (followed by
interference with the exciting beams) in which transfers of
energy obey thermodynamics .


16


Active

medium

(catalyst)

Cold beams: blueshifted

Hot beam(s): redshifted

Cold beams

(generally radio,

thermal background)



Hot beam(s)

(generally light)




Temperatures from Planck's law



No blurring of images (space
-
coherence preserves the wave
surfaces)

Nearly constant relative frequency shift


17

CREIL effect

Lamb's conditions are fulfilled in any matter using femtosecond pulses;
the coherence time of ordinary light is much longer (some nanoseconds).

Long enough a collisional time requires a gas pressure generally lower
than 1000 pascals.

The frequency of the required Raman resonance must be lower than
some MHz, but not too low (formula 4 : shift proportional to

2
) to
produce strong CREIL effects. Such low frequencies are not
common, or they appear in states whose population is low.

Neutral atomic hydrogen

has a too high Raman frequency (1420
MHz) in its ground state. It has convenient frequencies
in the 2S
1/2

states (178 MHz), in the 2P
1/2
states (59 MHz) and in the 2P
3/2

states
(24 MHz)
.

Hydrogen in these states will be noted H*.

18

I. 2. 4


Application to astrophysics.

It is a quest for excited atomic hydrogen H*.


As the CREIL effect increases the entropy of a set of simultaneously
refracted beams, we must search the temperature of these beams by
Planck's law. Usually, the high frequency beams are hot, therefore
redshifted; the thermal, radio beams are cold, blueshifted.


H* may be obtained:



Thermally around 100 000 K if a sufficient pressure forbids an

ionization.



Around 15 000 K, with a Lyman


pumping.



By a cooling of a plasma.

19

I. 2. 5

Quest for “anomalous” frequency shifts.




II. 1 Invisible new lines, improved contrast of existing
lines.



II. 2 Multiplication of the lines: periodicities.

II. 3 Generation of circles.


20

II

Propagation of a far UV continuous
spectrum

beam in atomic hydrogen.




21

21


I

Frequency


Intensity I



Weak, broad


absorption

Absorbing line

Shift


Intensity


I

Initially
continuous

spectrum


Frequency


... improved contrast of existing lines.

(Constant



0



II. 1 Invisible new lines, ...



22

Frequency

Intensity

Frequency

Intensity


I


I


I

Ly

Ly

Ly


<

I

Previously written line


Redshift

Ly



Ly


Ly



(Strong)

Redshift


phase


(Strong)

Absorption


phase

II. 2 Multiplication of the lines:
periodicities.



23

All lines of the gas are absorbed when an absorbed line is redshifted to

the Lyman


line, in particular
Lyman


and





he absorbed Lyman


and


are shifted to the


by a frequency shift

of the light relative to the


frequency, equal to







Z =

__________










__________




= 3*0.0162 = 3*Z
b







Z =

__________




= 4*0.062 = 4*Z
b

__________

Fundamental parameter

observed in quasars

24

Problem

Smaller periodicities are found (equivalent to Doppler shifts by a speed of
37km/s)


Look for similar computations with other molecules.


The transitions to different rotational levels of between convenient

rovibronic states of H
2

may play the rôle of the Lyman transitions in
atomic hydrogen. But the spectrum of this ion is not well known.


H may be produced in the intergalactic H
2

by UV radiation and its life time

is large at very low pressures.


May all «variations of physical constants» (fine structure, ration of masses

p/e) be explained by the
same CREIL dispersion?



+

+

II. 3 Generation of circles in low pressure
H

Very hot

small kernel

Transparent

p
+

+ e
-

Ly


pumping

falls

Atomic H in states 2S or
2P generated mainly by Ly


pumping

The strong Ly


absorption induces a strong CREIL redshift, so that the

intensity at the Ly


frequency is renewed until a too low intensity is reached

The high population of states 2S


and 2P allows a Ly superradiance

Tangential emission

of a circle

p
+

+ e
-

-
> H

25





III. 1 In the Solar system

III. 1. 1

Transfer of energy from solar light to


radio frequencies.

III. 1. 2
Frequency shifts of far UV emission lines

from the Sun.

III. 2 The microwave background

III. 3 High redshift objects

III. 3. 1.

Full explanation of quasar spectra

III. 3. 2.


“Very Red Objects” , ...

III. 3. 3

No need of dark matter



26

III Applications to astrophysics










The cooling of the solar wind generates excited atomic hydrogen

beyond 5 UA; state 2S, it is stable (at low pressure) and efficient in

CREIL.

Energy is transferred from light to radiofrequencies which are

blueshifted (the blueshift being a heating of the thermal radiations)



-

The blueshift is directly
observed on the radio frequencies received

from the probes Pioneer10 and 11.




27

III. 1. 1


Transfer of energy from

solar light to radio frequencies.






28

From Anderson et al. (2002)




Peter & Judge (1999) use the standard interpretation of the
redshifts by

spicules or siphon flows, so that the shifts are supposed zero at
the limb, in contradiction with the lab or theoretical
determinations.

Accepting old frequencies, the shifts whose directions are
opposite are

non
-
zero at the centre and large at the limb of the Sun.


29

Radius

0

Limb

Frequency

F
0

: Laboratory or computed frequency

CREIL shift

Standard shift

F
0

III. 1. 2. Frequency shifts of the far UV emission lines of the
Sun.

Doppler produced by the

rotation of the Sun, the
movement of the probe etc...

are eliminated.



30

Peter & Judge (1999)






31

The main function A of
previous figure is considered
as a product of functions

B and C.


B corresponds to a CREIL

shifting the temperatures to

a mean temperature (of HeI).


C corresponds to a reduction
of the column density of
excited hydrogen whose
concentration, corresponding
to its derivative D, is

maximal around 100 000 K.

Problem:
The temperature decreases with an increasing altitude
while, in the chromosphere it increases.

Can the previous result apply under the photosphere ?

Under the photosphere, hydrogen is neutral atomic or dissociated.

Atomic hydrogen is far from metallic state, the far UV energy is too low for
a dissociation and too high for a Lyman absorption. Protons and electrons do
not absorb: the gas is transparent.


Can the lines be sharp and the CREIL work at the high pressure ?

Yes, the Galatry lineshape is sharper than the Doppler thermal lineshape in
the low pressure gas.


Can the light cross the chromosphere ?

Not easily, mainly through the spots where the ion H
-

is not abundant.


Can the photosphere emit the far UV lines ?

Yes, by a Rayleigh incoherent scattering.

32

33

-

Amplified (blueshifted) by all redshifts


-

Made almost thermal (in particular isotropic) by a powerful (resonant)

CREIL inside low frequencies


-

Amplified, in particular by the redshift of the sun light beyond 5 UA

(just as the radio from the Pioneer probes).


As the anisotropy of the corona, therefore of the wind is bound to the

ecliptic, a part of the observed anisotropy of the CMB is bound to

the ecliptic.


III. 2 The microwave background

34

Model of quasar, as an accreting micro
-
quasar

Region close to

a hot spot

No more

hydrogen

or UV

light :

CREIL

stops

during a

strong

absorption



5

1

2

3

4

6

III. 3 High redshift objects

III. 3 . 1. Spectrum of the quasars






35

1: Sharp line emitted in a hot region close to the kernel; No CREIL

2: Gap by a permanent redshift in 100 000 K hydrogen.

3: The
emitted

broad lines may be generated beyond the kernel (close to a hot
spot), so that their redshift may be larger than the redshift of the sharp lines.

3
-
4 : Lines broadened by saturation and a weak, simultaneous, thermal CREIL.

5: Lyman forest, periodicities; stabler excitation of H: larger mean intensity.

6: Often stop during a vanishing absorption.


4

1

3

2

5

6

Unique
,

sharp

line

Intensities

corresponding

to gas

temperature

Broad, saturated

lines
(mixed in

radio
-
loud quasars

by RF ionisation of H)

Intensity

Lyman forest (periodicities)

0 : Earth







:

laboratory

frequency

Arp's systems of quasars and galaxy
.

These systems are surrounded by atomic hydrogen. The UV radiated
by the quasars produces H*.

As hydrogen is more excited close to the quasars, there is more H* on
the path of the light from the quasars than from the galaxy.


Relation between quasars and galaxies.

The “micro
-
quasars” found in our galaxy are neutron stars which have
the radio spectrum of the quasars and move quickly.

If there is more hydrogen around our galaxy than inside, they become
“isolated quasars” when they leave it, their repartition is isotropic.

The other quasars are bound to their own galaxies.



36






37




The VROs are generally close to the quasars : the far UV
emitted by the quasars (or similar objects) creates excited
atomic hydrogen which produces a CREIL effect.


It seems that these objects are surrounded by hot dust (up
to 100K) whose stability is a problem. It is probably not
dust, but the CREIL counterpart of the redshifts.





.


III. 3. 2. The “Very Red Objects”






38


As the galaxies are closer than in the standard
theory, they are smaller, so that there is no need of
dark matter or other gravitational effect to explain
their stability.



.


III. 3. 3

No need of dark matter






39

Conclusion:

It is clear that “anomalous” redshifts are observed

where the physico
-
chemical conditions favour the

creation of neutral atomic hydrogen in states 2S

and 2P.


Too simple, general and beautiful (a magic stick !)

to be completely wrong.


A good rule should be:

Search for excited atomic hydrogen.

(or similar molecules)