Microprocessor or Microcontroller

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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Microprocessor or
Microcontroller

Not just a case of “you say to
mar
to and I say to
may
to”

M. Smith, ECE

University of Calgary, Canada

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

2
/ 29


Information taken from Analog Devices On
-
line
Manuals with permission
http://www.analog.com/processors/resources/technicalLibrary/manuals/



Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed
to be accurate and reliable. However, Analog
Devices assumes no responsibility for its use or for
any infringement of any patent other rights of any
third party which may result from its use. No license
is granted by implication or otherwise under any
patent or patent right of Analog Devices. Copyright


Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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To be tackled today


Basic microprocessor


Concept of a microcontroller


Difference between the Blackfin
microcontroller and Blackfin Ez
-
Kit Lite
evaluation board


Capabilities of the ADSP
-
BF533 Blackfin Ez
-
Kit Lite evaluation board


Various acronyms that will be used in the
course


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Microprocessor


Basic concept

CPU


contains

CCU

ALU

data registers

and

pointer registers

ADDRESS BUS

32
-
bit / 64
-
bit wide





CONTROL BUS

Timing signals, ready signals,

interrupts etc





DATA BUS


bidirectional

8
-
bit / 16
-
bit / 32
-
bit / 128
-
bit

Microprocessor, by
-
itself, completely useless



must have external peripherals to

Interact with outside world

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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MicroPROCESSOR


Basic concept

CPU


contains

CCU

ALU

data registers

and

pointer registers

CONTROL

ADDRESS











DATA


Microprocessor, by
-
itself, completely useless


must have external peripherals to

Interact with outside world

BOOT

ROM


Used at

startup

Instruction

(program)

ROM

Transducers

Keyboard

Screen

UART

Parallel

interface

etc

Data

RAM

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Every external device needs this amount
of support “glue logic” to work

External

Device

Device itself with all necessary internal logic

DATA BUS


OE


output enable


Interrupt signals, etc

ADDRESS BUS

DECODE LOGIC


Address strobe


Data strobe


Read/Write
control



CS


chip select

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Issues with external devices


Many pins


Mechanical failure rates increased


Design time increased


routing issues


Cost increased, board size increased


Continually redesigning same thing


Compatibility between parts


Upgrade part


Many similar options between different projects


In Real
-
life
--

Don’t need “100% flexibility”


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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MicroCONTROLLER


Basic concept

CPU


contains

CCU

ALU

data registers

and

pointer registers

CONTROL

ADDRESS











DATA


Microcontroller


put a limited amount of most commonly used resources

“inside” the chip


a “limited” amount is often “enough” for many applications

BOOT

ROM


Used at

startup





Instruction

(program)

ROM





Transducers

UART

Parallel

interface

Etc




Data

RAM

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Advantages of microCONTROLLER
over microPROCESSOR


Pin count down


Design time down, Board layout size down


Upgrade path easier


matching between
peripherals for speed


Cost down


bulk purchases


Reliability up


Common software / hardware design
environment available from manufacturer

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Issues when using microcontroller


Two types of memory


speed issues when using


On
-
chip


fast, easy to access, “almost like a register”, limited
amount of on
-
chip memory available


Off
-
chip


slower


Use on
-
chip memory in a “cache” mode (copy off
-
chip data to on
-
chip when processing data, then copy back)


External components still there


E.g. Video CODECs


need to use DMA


Direct Memory Access


so that the controller can get on with the “processing” and let
something else worry about moving data in and out of the chip


Real time environment


Event driven


can’t WAIT for a device to become ready, can’t
POLL to see if device is ready, interrupt handling is key


All these resources are “power hungry” and compete for
resources (data busses etc)


special features


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Components of the Blackfin Board

From smallest to largest


Processor Core


One core on Blackfin ADSP
-
BF533


Two cores on Blackfin ADSP
-
BF561


Processor itself


Blackfin Evaluation board


Don’t forget the software development package
VisualDSP++

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Blackfin ADSP
-
BF533


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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/ 29

Enter some key discussed elements from
previous slide


You need to do a “load” and “store” at the same time


what registers will need to be used?


Why can you do 2 loads at the same time, a load
and store at the same time, but not two stores?


Why would you want 8
-
bit ALUs operations available
on a processor with 32
-
bit registers?


Give an example of an instruction where four 8
-
bit
ALU operations occur at the same time


Give an example of an instruction where two 16
-
bit
ALU operations occur at the same time


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Enter the key elements from previous slide


Will you learn to “flash” memory in this class,
and how would you do it and why?


What does a watch
-
dog timer do


and “how
do you find out how to feed it?”


What does the acronym MMU stand for?


What does the acronym SPI stand for, and in
what labs will we be using the SPI?


When is the PPI used?


What’s a real time clock?



13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Lab. 1


demonstration of microcontroller
capability


Use the microcontroller


Configure the FLASH memory


Contains memory and also I/O components (input /
output)


Use the FLASH memory I/O capability to control
the LED


Configure the PF I/O lines (Programmable flags)


Used to control many of the external devices (chip select
and timing lines)


Used as input (Lab. 2) and / or interrupt lines (Lab. 3)


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Need to learn how to “configure” the flash memory so that

We can control the LEDs

Parallel
interface
s

present on
the
FLASH
memory
chips

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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/ 29

Push
-
button switches (PF lines)

LED (controlled by FLASH memory logic)


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Need to configure the PF lines
(Programmable Flags)

Replace one button input
with the input of a
temperature transducer


TMP03 will be used in
Laboratory 2

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Control of the PF lines


how / why?

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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PF lines being used already to control
other devices


“We are not alone!!”


When we change the
PF registers, we must
ONLY change those
over which we have
control


PF8, PF9, PF10, PF11



Must learn the
instructions to safely
change some register
bits and not others
(AND and OR
instructions)

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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/ 29

Enter the key elements from previous slide


Which A/D is used on the Blackfin board?


Why are the signals that control the LED’s
coming from the FLASH?


What does SPORT1 means, and what
external device is being controlled by it?


How does the SPORT device allow “time
sharing” of the bus by several different
external devices?


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Audio
-
Video Interaction of ADSP
-
BF533
Ez
-
Kit Lite with the outside world


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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/ 29


13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Review quiz


CPU stands for



CCU stands for



ALU stands for



DMA stands for

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Review Quiz


How come the FLASH memory can be used to
control the LEDs?



Why can’t we use PF0 line in Lab. 2 to read
temperature transducer signals?



Why will AND and OR operations be necessary
when we control the PF lines?



What does PF stand for?

13 September 2006

Differences between a microprocessor and a microcontroller
M. Smith, University of Calgary, Canada

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Tackled today


Basic microprocessor


Concept of a microcontroller


Difference between the Blackfin
microcontroller and Blackfin Ez
-
Kit Lite
evaluation board


Capabilities of the ADSP
-
BF533 Blackfin Ez
-
Kit Lite evaluation board


Various acronyms that will be used in the
course