CCNA1 Mod 5 - MTEE Server

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Module 5

Semester I



CABLING

LANs & WANs

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

2

Content



Cabling the LAN





Cabling the WAN

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

3

Objectives



Identify characteristics of Ethernet networks.



Identify straight
-
through, crossover, and rollover cables.



Describe the function, advantages, and disadvantages of
repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, and wireless network
components.



Describe the function of peer
-
to
-
peer networks.



Describe the function, advantages, and disadvantages of
client
-
server networks.



Describe and differentiate between serial, Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN), digital subscriber line (DSL),
and cable modem WAN connections.



Identify router serial ports, cables, and connectors.



Identify and describe the placement of equipment used in
various WAN configurations.


Cabling the LAN

The Physical Layer

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

5

Networking Media


Carry flow of information

Media Characteristics:



Cable length


Cost


Ease of installation


Susceptibility to interference



Media Types


Coaxial


Fiber Optic


Space

Category 5 unshielded twisted
-
pair
cable (Cat 5 UTP)


A subset of
physical layer
implementations
for Ethernet
LANs

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

6

Ethernet Media

Ethernet technologies can be used in a campus network
in several different ways:



10 Mbps at the user level to provide good performance.



100 Mbps for clients or servers that require more bandwidth.



Fast or Gigabit Ethernet between backbone devices.

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

7

Media Connectors

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

8

RJ
-
45 connectors

This is the
Connector

This is the
Jack

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

9

568B pin assignments


straight cable

Transmit Data

Tip +ve

Transmit Data

Ring
-
ve

Receive Data

Tip +ve

Receive Data

Ring
-
ve

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

10

Cross Over cable


pin assignments

568
B

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

11

Interconnecting Devices

Use
straight
-
through

cables for…



Switch to router


Switch to PC or server


Hub to PC or server


Use
crossover

cables for…


Switch to switch


Switch to hub


Hub to hub


Router to router


PC to PC


Router to PC

Use
roll
-
over

cables to…



Connect a terminal to a
console port


LAN Devices

Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

13

Repeaters
-

Hubs

Repeaters


A repeater
regenerates

and
retimes

network signals at the bit level to
allow them to travel a
longer

distance


5
-
4
-
3 Rule for 10
-
Mbps Ethernet should be used to limit latency


Too much latency on the LAN increases the number of
late
collisions

and makes the LAN less efficient

Hubs


Hubs are actually multiport repeaters


Change the network topology from a linear bus to
a star


Three basic types:

1.
Passive


no boost, no clean and no power

2.
Active
-

needs power to amplify the incoming signal


3.
Intelligent
-

microprocessor chip and diagnostic capabilities





Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

14

Bridges & Switches

Switches



Bridges and switches operate at the Data Link layer.



Destination MAC address is looked up in the bridge table to
determine whether to filter, flood, or copy the frame onto another
segment.



A switch has many ports with many network segments connected to them.


A switch chooses the port to which the destination device is connected.


Alleviates congestion in LANs by reducing the size of collision domains,
reducing traffic and increasing bandwidth.

Two basic operations:

1.
Switching data frames.

2.
Build and maintain switching tables and search for loops.


Switches operate at much higher speeds than bridges and can support new
functionality, such as virtual LANs.


Bridges

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

15

Wireless

Much less cabling


RF
,
IR
, laser, satellite, microwaves


The only cabling can be to the
Access Points



The
transmitter

converts source
data

to
EM waves


The
receiver

converts waves back into data


All devices in WLAN must have
Wireless NICs

IR weaknesses:




Line of sight’
limitation (newer technologies combat this)



Signal weakening

or
obstruction

by people or humidity

RF technology works between rooms or even buildings

RF weaknesses:




Single frequency

is subject to outside
interference

and
obstructions



Single frequency is
easily monitored

by others making it
insecure

FHSS and DSSS are
Spread Spectrum

technologies which
add security

and
immunity to noise

by using
multiple frequencies

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

16

NIC

The function of a NIC is to connect a host device to the
network medium

The NIC is also referred to as a network adapter

NICs are considered Layer 2 devices because each NIC
carries a unique code called a MAC address

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

17

Network Environments

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

18

Peer
-
to
-
Peer

In a peer
-
to
-
peer network


networked computers act as equal partners, or
peers


individual users control their own resources



Peer
-
to
-
peer networks are relatively easy to install and
operate

A peer
-
to
-
peer network works well with 10 or fewer
computers


peer
-
to
-
peer networks do not scale well, their efficiency
decreases rapidly as the number of computers on the
network increases


Security is difficult to maintain


Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

19

Client/Server

In a client/server arrangement, network services are
located on a dedicated computer called a server


The server is a central computer that is continuously
available to respond to requests from clients for file,
print, and application services


Servers are designed to handle requests from many
clients simultaneously


The aggregation of resources on server systems brings
greater security, simpler access and coordinated
control, the server introduces a single point of failure

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

20

Peer
-
to
-
Peer vs. Client/Server

Advantages

Advantages of a Peer
-
to
-
Peer
Network

Advantages of a
Client/Server Network

Less expensive to implement

Provides for better security

Does not require additional
specialized network
administration software

Easier to administer when the
network is large due to
centralized administration

Does not require a dedicated
network administrator

All data can be backed up on
one central location

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

21

Peer
-
to
-
Peer vs. Client/Server

Disadvantages

Disadvantages of a Peer
-
to
-
Peer
Network

Disadvantages of a Client/Server
Network

Does not scale well to a large
networks and administration
becomes unmanageable

Requires expensive specialized
network administrative and
operational software

Each user must be trained to
perform administrative tasks

Requires expensive, more powerful
hardware for the server machine

Less secure

Requires a professional
administrator

All machines sharing resources
negatively impacts performance

Has a single point of failure. User
data is unavailable if the server is
down

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

22

WAN Connections

Serial connections are used to support WAN services such as
dedicated leased lines that run Point
-
to
-
Point Protocol (PPP) or
Frame Relay


Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

23

WAN

WANs use serial transmission


This is a process by which bits of data are sent over a
single channel



This process provides reliable long distance
communication and the use of a specific
electromagnetic or optical frequency range


Signals transmitted over voice grade telephone lines use
3 kilohertz (kHz).

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

24

WAN

Serial connections are used to support WAN services
such as dedicated leased lines that run Point
-
to
-
Point
Protocol (PPP) or Frame Relay


ISDN offers dial
-
on
-
demand connections or dial backup
services.


ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) is composed of:


Two 64 kbps bearer channels (B channels) for
data


One delta channel (D channel) at 16 kbps used
for signaling and other link
-
management tasks



PPP is typically used to carry data over the B
channels.

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

25

Router Connections

Cisco router physical connectivity is provided by serial connections:


The first type of serial connections is a 60
-
pin connector


The second is a more compact ‘smart serial’ connector



The provider connector will vary depending on the type of service
equipment


Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

26

DTE/DCE

When the connection is made directly to a service provider, or a
device that provides signal clocking such as a channel/data
service unit (CSU/DSU), the router will be a data terminal
equipment (DTE) and use a DTE serial cable.


When the local router is required to provide the clocking rate it will
use a data communications equipment (DCE) cable


Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

27

Router Connection Points

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

28

Managing Routers

To initially configure the Cisco device, a management
connection must be directly connected to the device

The console port allows monitoring and configuration of
a Cisco hub, switch, or router

The cable used between a terminal and a console port
is a rollover cable

also known as a console cable


Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

29

Console Connection

……. Continue next class, thank you

http://www.webopedia.com

LABS

Module 5


Cabling LANs & WANs

KykkosB


Regional Academy

32

LABS

5.1.5 RJ
-
45 jack punch down

5.1.7 Hub & NIC purchase

5.1.10 Purchasing LAN Switches

5.1.12 Building a Peer to Peer network

5.1.13a Building a HUB based network

5.1.13b Building a Switch based network