# Final Assignment Document

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Final Assignment Document

CS 1030
-
006 Connected Computing

David Donayre

Dan Pope

SLCC

Spring
2011

I need to beat t
he record
of

Technology in General

: Communication is quicker, creates a global community,
makes

things easier,

i
mproved health,

safety.

: Alienate society from each other
physically;

waste of time, dependency, less
privacy, loss of employment, increased cost, increased cost of labor
, increased laziness
.

:

They are: i
nnovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards.

Innovators

: 25%

Early Majority : 34%

Late Majority : 34%

Laggards : 16%

Ex
:
I am a Laggard because I
still
have a flip
cell phone
.

a
pters: Street use where
people modify and recreate technology, out
door
b
arbers in India, electric cooking stove made
with wine and brick.

How technology has failed?

It has failed in many

situations

such as:

V
ideo games
violence and software
disasters
, and

w
hen
a w
oman died aboard a red wing fire department ambulance
on April 22 because the system
shut itself off. Computer failure left the AEGIS cruiser USS Yorktown dead in water for several
hours.

These are just a few examples of the failure of technology.

Numbering Systems

I

learned
the
B
inary
S
ystem (
base 2
)
, Decimal System (Base 10)

system
(
base 16
)
.

T
he
B
inary
S
ystem

represents numeric values using two symbols (0
, 1
)

1=Yes, 0=No

8 bits (Word) = 1 byte

16 bit (1 Word
) =

2 bytes

32 bits

Dword

=

4 bytes

64 bits= 8 bytes

This
is a bit column or bits.

Ex
: Convert
150

to
B
inary

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

The H
S
ystem

represents sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0
-
9 to

represent values zero to nine, and A
, B
, C, D, E, F

to represent values ten to fifteen.

Each

hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits). Hex is also commonly used to represent

Ex: Convert
15 to
Hex

=Fh

The Decimal
S
ystem

or base 10
represents
d
ecimal notation is the

writing

of
numbers

in a
base
-
10
numeral system
. Examples are
Roman
numerals
,
Brahmin

numerals
, and
Chinese

numerals
, as well as the
Hindu
-
Arabic numerals

used by speakers of many European languages.

I

learned

ASCII and Unicode

codes
. ASCII stands for (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange). Basically ASCII code represents text
in
computers, communications
equipment, and other devices that use text.

It is readable on any computer platform (Mac,
Windows, UNIX, etc.). For
e
xample
, in ASCII, the letter "a" is always represented by byte
number 97, no matter what the operating system or hardware

is
. In the DOS, Windows, and
UNIX environments, basic ASCII text files usually have names with the extension .TXT. This
extension tell
s the program that the document is an ASCII file. ASCII format data files are plain
text files which can be manipulated by many programs, including text editors, and stand
-
alone
plotting routines.

T
hese files can be easily moved between different programs
, different
operating systems, and different machines.

Unicode
code which
provides a unique number for every character, no
matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. The
Unicode Standard has bee
n adopted by such industry leaders as Apple, HP, IBM, Just Systems,
Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, Sun, Sybase, Unisys and many others.

I learned about the computing standards such as: the meaning of open

includes systems, technology and information. There is a website called data liberation that
promotes open information

and its URL is
www.dataliberation.org

.
The Data Liberation Front is
an en
gineering team at Google whose singular goal is to make it easier for users to move their
data in and out of Google products.

They
do th
at

because
they

believe that
I

should be able to
export any data that
I

create in (or import into) a product.

They
hel
p and consult other
engineering teams within Google on how to "liberate" their products.

This is
their

mission
statement:

Users should be able to control the data they store in any of Google's products.

Our
team's goal is to make it easier to move data i
n and out.

There are different file formats
:

For example,

V
ideo (
Theora)

which

is a
free

lossy

video
compression

format
,
office
formats
(
Open Office)

which is
an
open
-
source

application suite

whose main components are for
word processing
,
,
presentations
,
graphics
, and
databases
.

It is available for a

number of different computer
operating systems
, is distributed as
free software
.

T
ext (
HTML
, XML
)
,
PDF
,
graphics

(
PNG and JPEG)
,
audio (
ogg vorbis)
.

I

learned

how to create
my e
-
portfolio

using Word

Press but there are more

platforms

such as:
Yola and Weebly
.

History of the Internet

At the beginning, m
ilitaries bases used it between them. The protocol was created by colleges.
The internet
was

very young

at that time
. War games (1983). That was the network set up. The
internet is growing
really
faster

now
, and Dan said: “I want you to picture something in your
was
talk
ing

systems
.

I also

learned
the components of

the
connector RJ
-
45 T68A.

Pair 1= Blue, Part 2=
Orange

Pair

3=Green, Pair 4=Brown

P
a
ir

1&2
is

the
transmit
ter

P
air

3&
6

.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
which is
responsible for
coordinating some of the key elements that keep the Internet running smoothly. Specifically,
IANA allocates and
maintains unique codes and numbering systems that are used in the
technical standards (“protocols”) that drive the Internet.

Dan t
alked

Wayback Machine which is a huge internet archive

historical collections.

How
does
the
w
eb wor
k
?

It works through web structure
s
, IP addressing, DNS, web languages

(client and server
) such

as:
HTML,
XTML,
JavaScript,
JSP, A
SP
,

Python
, Ruby,
Perl, and

emails protocols: POP3 (Post Office

Protocol)
,
IMAP

(Internet Message Access Protocol)
,
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
)
.

I am glad that Dan posted this great website to learn how to
create websites using
HTML and
others
.
This is the website:
http://www.w3schools.com/

I learned the web structure is
composed of web browsers, web servers and URL’s
. The web
browsers follow the next steps in order to make a call: The user enters URL, system uses local
host files/DNS to map to IP address, system contact IP address at port 80 and requests the URI,
text fil
e downloaded to browser which is HTML and finally browser renders the HTML.

The
World Wide Web Consortium

(
W3C
) is an international community where Member
organizations, a full
-
time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards.

This was
valuable

information that I could get during Dan’s
lectures
.

This is the
URL
:
www.w3.org

Dotted decimal

Octet

B
it

B
yte

P
rivate

Public

Dotted decimal i
s a presentation format for numerical data. It consists of a string of decimal
numbers, each pair separated by a
full stop

(
dot
).

A common use of dot
-
decimal notation is in information
technology where it is a method of
writing numbers in
octet
-
grouped base
-
10 (
decimal
) numbers separated by dots (
full stops
). In
computer networking
,
Internet Pro

are commonly written using the
-
dotted notation

of four decimal integers, ranging from 0 to 255 each.

1. Octet

(Computing) consists of eight bits. Most people today use octet and byte as synonyms.

2. Bit

is a s
hort
term
for
binary digit
, the smallest unit of information on a machine.

3. Byte

is
short term

f
or

binary term
,

a unit of
storage
capable of holding a singl
e character.

4.
Private address space is used by a private
network.

private because they are not globally delegated, meaning they are not allocated to any specific

organization, and IP packets addressed by them cannot be transmitted onto the public Internet.

T
specified in RFC 1918 is defined by the following three address
blocks:

10.0.0.0/8

the

10.0.0.0/8 private network is a class A network ID that allows the following range of
valid IP addresses: 10.0.0.1 to 10.255.255.254. The 10.0.0.0/8 private network has 24
host bits that can be used for any subnetting scheme within the private organizatio
n.

172.16.0.0/12

the

172.16.0.0/12 private network can be interpreted either as a block of 16 class B
network IDs or as a 20
-
bit assignable address space (20 host bits) that can be used for
any subnetting scheme within the private organization. The 172.1
6.0.0/12 private
network allows the following range of valid IP addresses: 172.16.0.1 to 172.31.255.254.

192.168.0.0/16

the

192.168.0.0/16 private network can be interpreted either as a block of 256 class C
network IDs or as a 16
-
pace (16 host bits) that can be used for
any subnetting scheme within the private organization. The 192.168.0.0/16 private
network allows the following range of valid IP addresses: 192.168.0.1 to
192.168.255.254.

5.
Public addresses are assigned by InterN
IC and consist of class
-
based network IDs or blocks of
CIDR
-
based addresses (called CIDR blocks) that are guaranteed to be globally unique to the
Internet.

When the public addresses are assigned, routes are programmed into the routers of
the Internet so th
at traffic to the assigned public addresses can reach their locations. Traffic to
destination public addresses is reachable on the Internet. For example, when an organization is
assigned a CIDR block in the form of a network ID and subnet mask, that networ
k ID, subnet
mask pair also exists as a route in the routers of the Internet. IP packets destined to an address
within the CIDR block are routed to the proper destination.

IPv4 has three classes: A, B, C.

Class A: The first octet of an IP address is used

decimal range from 0
-
127
, binary range is
from
0
0000000 to
0
1111111

Class B: The first octet of an IP address is used decimal range from 128
-
191, binary range
is from 1
0
000000 to 1
0
111111

Class C: The first octet of an IP address is used decimal range f
rom 192
-
223, binary range
is from 11
0
00000 to 11
0
11111

www.networkworld.com

(Ch1: Ethernet basics)

Networks DTX
-
1800, DTX
is a good
cable analyzer
,

cable tester up to 900
MHZ (
frequencies
)
.

2 time radio is the diameter.
Dan told us that we n
ever put cable
s

on the air ducts. 3db is 50%
loss(Less signal)
. For example,
Home depot
is good to
build coaxial cable
,

stuff
. He

t
old us
the majority of

th
ose

products are just low qual
ity
.

People that usually live in
the last apartment of a complex have
a reduced signal

because of the location
.

Mac Address filter out (Only wireless networks)

Firesheep

is an
extension

developed by Eric Butler for the
Firefox

web browser. The extension
uses a
packet sniffer

to intercept unencrypted

from certain websites (such as

and
) as the cookies are transmitted over networks, exploiting
session hijacking

vulnerabilities. It shows
the discovered identities on a
sidebar

displayed in the browser, and
allows the user to instantly take on the log
-
in credentials of the user by double
-
clicking on the
victim's name
.
People use f
ire sheet

to get information from social network.

Black sheep

is currently the only available solut
ion that attempts to
stop

Firesheep against
itself.

It was
develope
d by

Julien Sobrier
.

R
FID (CVM is encrypted on the device)
Ex: Credit cards.
How vulnerable you really are????

It is really interesting what is happening now with Facebook
, Word Press,

accounts
, etc
.
Those accounts are getting hijacked every day. Ex: Please wire this money to this person
.

E

W

Ex: c:
\
Users
\
instructor>tracert
www.cs.slcc.edu

Ex: c:
\
Users
\
instructor>tracert bluffdalelions.com

(
17 devices in total
)

There are a lot of things behind the scene. (Internet)

www.yougetsig
nal.com/tools/websites

www.
bluffdalelions.com is sharing 1985 domains with that IP address.

Domain name: ._____TLD (Top Level Domain) Computers reads from right to left.

DHCP
(Dynamic Host Config Protocol) it has to acknowledge.

Wire shark (
Network protocol analyzer)

Ex: 192.168.14.225

32 bits in a binary number.

Class A: 00000000=0

01111111=127

Dan’s Honeypot

HoneyPot

10.10.10. X

Router

A
P/R

Router

192.168.200.1

Comcast

AP/R

Router

192.168.1.1.

Network

Router

AP/

Laptop, Phone

Class B: 10000000=128

10111111=191

Class C: 1100000
0=192

11011111=223

Class D: 1110
0000=224

11101111

Ex: 192.168.14.225 is a class C. IP address, subnet mask, default gateway for every device that is

IP compatible. (IP Assignment)

:

It is a bitmask that encodes

-
dotted notation(32 bits)

starting with a number of 1 equal to the prefix length, ending with 0 bits, and encoded in four
-
part dotted decimal format.

o

Class A: 255.0.0.0

o

Class B: 255.255.0.0

o

Class C: 255.255.255.0

Class B
Network: From 128 to 191

When do we determine an IP network:

131.1.1.1

255.255.0.0

131.1.0.0 (This is the IP Class B of the device)

A computer is not a living entity.

IPV4. What class is it? What’s the default subnet

Calculate:

1)
123.15.35.10 Class A

2)
144.35.16.25 Class

B

3) 207.234.224.
10/24 Class C

When somebody makes a change to the

access point, it reinstates the connection.

CIDR (Classless
Internet Domain Routing Notation)

1)
207.234.224.10 124(Give 24 bits to the subnet mask)

2)

144.35.16.25/23

3)

144.35.16.25/7

255.255.254.0

254.0.0.0

144.35.0.0

144.35.0.0

Internet Protocol version 6

(
IPv6
)

is a version of the
Internet Protocol

(IP) that is designed to
succeed
Internet Protocol version 4

(IPv4). The Internet operates by t
ransferring data in small
packets

that are independently
routed

across n
etworks as specified by an international
communications protocol

known as the Internet Protocol. Each data packet contains two
numeric addresses that are the packet's origin and destinati
on devices. Since 1981, IPv4 has
been the publicly used version of the Internet Protocol, and it is currently the foundation for
most
Internet

communications. The Internet's growth has created a need fo
than IPv4 is capable of. IPv6 allows for vastly more numerical addresses, but
switching from
IPv4 to IPv6

may be a difficult process.

interfaces such as:

Punch cards

Text i
nterfaces

such as:

monochrome and
color and green

Color graphics
:
EGA
,VGA
(Video Graphics Array
,

SVGA
(Super Video Graphics Array
)

Windows
O.S.
interfaces(3.1
1
,95,
98, 2000, Millenium,
XP,7
, NT,
Server
)

Mac
OS (9, OS X 10.5)

API (
Application programming interface)
.
Ex:

Swing
(Java)
,

Microsoft(
.NET
)
, GTK
+(Gnome
Foundation)
, Cocoa
(Mac OS X
)

Embedded Systems

such as
: Digital

and
MP3 players
, to large stationary installations
like
traffic lights
,
factory controllers
, or the systems controlling
nuclear power plants
.

Human

computer interactions

(HCI). The

basic goal of HCI is to improve the
interactions

between users and computers by making computers more
usable

and receptive to the
user's

needs.

There is a good article that computer world published:

rd_revolution?taxonomyId=12&pageNumber=1

I learned about the web generations such as: web 1.0 and 2.0

We have i
n the web 2.0
different components such as:

T
texting (
),
blogs (
BlogSpot
)
,
photos (
Flicker)

and office
apps.

The future of the 3.0 Web is coming
soon
.

Some
internet
experts believe the next generation of
the
Web
(
Web 3.0
)
will make tasks like your search for movies and food faster and easier.
Instead of multiple searches, you might type a complex sentence or two in your Web 3.0
browser, and the Web will do the rest. In our example, you could type "I want to see
a funny
movie and then eat at a good Mexican restaurant. What are my options?" The Web 3.0 browser
will analyze your response, search the Internet for all possible answers, and then organize the
results for you.

This is a cool website about HTML 5 :

http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1561901&ns=16992

This an interesting article about the lawsuit against Intel from FTC:

http://blogs.computerworld.com/15270/ftc_sues_intel_for_illegal_monopoly_nvidia_and_amd
_rejoice?source=CTWNLE_nlt_dailyam_2009
-
12
-
17

OSI LAYERS

OSI Model
is

how data is represented and flow through the
network. They

did it in a laying
format

so
Humans can understand it better.

It is composed of seven layers.

Layer 1:

Physical layer:
Physical connections

s
uch as:

wire
,

wireless, infrared,
frequencies (RF
), everything inside of the connector RJ
-
45
.

Networks

c
ards are multiple layer devices because

t
hey have layers 1
, 2, 3
.

Layer 2:

Data Link: Take all my packets and move it to the frame.

Ex: IEEE 802.3
Frame Relay,
etc.

Layer 3:

Router (It

is an intelligent device) can be a hub, switch to route traffic
based on IP addresses, it has access control
list (A

good router will do that)
Router talk to other
routers (How’s

your traffic doing). They are huge gossip
machines, and

talk every 90 seconds.

There are huge routers that have 128 or
more connections.

Layer 4:

Transport layer is like the ups guy, he does not care what is inside of it,
and they

care
the box has been d
elivered.

Ex: TCP/
UDP

Layer 5:

Session layer:
controls the dialogues between computers. It establishes,
manages

and terminates the connections between the local and remote
application. Ex: NetBIOS, SAP
.

Layer 6:

Presentation Layer: It establishes
content between Application layer
entities. Ex: MIME, XDR
, TLS, SSL, encryption/unencrypt,
decrypt
.

Layer 7:

Layer Application (Protocols assigned to the user level). It is a stand
ration of a language. Ex: FTAM, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, SNMP,
browsers,
etc.

Dan

talked about protocols and their different kinds of use such as: TCP/IP, Apple Talk, IPX/SPX,
NetBEUI, and NetBIOS.

I learned a lot of information from this website:
http://www.protocols.com/pbook/tcpip1.htm

I learned about the different kind of media types such as:

Coaxial

T
wisted pair

(CAT 3,5,5e,6 & 6a)

W
ireless

( 802.11 a,b,g & n)

F
iber

( Multimode & Single mode)

Coaxial cable:

CAT 5:

CAT 5e:

CAT 6 Picture and diagram:

This picture show
s

the di
fferent

types

of
p
rotocols:

Phishing
:

W
hat information do you want to share and with
whom?

Identity

and presence
: Physical ID, electronic ID, open ID, Banks sue
victims of \$
800K cyber
theft
.

MySpace

are social environments. I just go for 15 minutes. I can get a credit history
for you at \$9.99.
You

can

can find out more about you.

Disaste
r recovery:

Where you typically have your data. Ex:
Thumb drives
, cell phones, contact
list,
Wii, PlayStation
,
flicker (
Do you back it up)

Online backups:
SAS (Storage
….
) buffalo

emc \$1,100

www.crucial.com

Intellectual Property

If you create something, you have the copyright.

How software is considered intellectual property?

What software has been patented?

How software can be patented?

especially for the final project.

What is Patent?

Patent protect you to somebody else to copy your stuff.

Ex: KFC, Grape nuts.

Ex: It is hard to TM letters.

TM Logo: I can do anything with a logo that is TM wi
thout permission.

Industrial
Design

Ex
: Intellectual property. Ex: Modifying a jacket that has something different.

Licensing

Ex: Quaker, Kroger. You are licensing stuff out for someone else use.

Software Licensing
; All software is copyright protected, irr
espective of whether it is in the

public domain.

: Ex: You can use one license in one machine.

Free Software
: Is it different Open Source? It is not the same thing.

Open Source: The Software is open for you to look at.

Ex: Suse is owned b
y Novell. Its kernel is 11.05. OpenSuse kernel version is 12.01.

1.

Freeware: Everything I give away (It is free). I maintain the copyright.

2.

3.

Proprietary
Licenses: Reverse engineering DOS and create their own version of DOS.

Ex: Back in the late 60’s was everything free, we shared everything. Now Operating systems
as Vista came with virtualization, in other words you need 1 copy per physical machine.

4. W

5. OEM License: Ex: Brand Machines. If I buy a HP machine, I need to contact HP first than

Microsoft.

6. Certificate of Authenticity:

7. Licensing: It is a great legal issue.

8. Non
-
Discl
osure agreement: Only for financial backing purposes.

Rationalization

It is taking an event, and turns it to the
ir

Ex: Dan likes to drive his motorcycle at 90mph in the freeway. He likes to wear a complete

yellow outfit because he wants to be

seen, in other words he wants to live.

Morals and Ethics

Morals are:

They are the kind of principles people have
.

Ethics are:

How people
act

based on the morals they have.

Ex: Lawyers’ ethics. Who can tell the best story and rationalize your actions.

Most of lawyers do

not have morals and ethics because they want to defend people that are guilty. They just want

to make money with them.

Examples of morals
:

1.

is

morally wrong to kill somebody?

Of course it is.

2.

In hospitals there are buttons called DNI
(Do

not interfere) so it is up to practitioners to
press

th
e

button or not.

3.

If Dan becomes less than a 40% person
.
He wants

his dearest
wife or

children
to pull the

plug,

if they do not want to.
He

wants
s
omeone (a friend)

to pull the plug because he
does not
want to suffer in this world.

4.

Many years ago, a nurse pulled the plug at a hospital. She did not report

what she did after

a long time.
She could not hold that in her chest anymore so she decided to talk to the

authorities. Her

morals override her ethics.

5.

When you do not have access to that file. It just executes an action.

Have you been harmed? Not physically, but emotionally yes.

6.

Music in the internet. It does not hurt anybody. It does not mean you have the right to get

it, but it is completely up to you.
If you

forgot your laptop in class and someone found it and

threw it away, that clown

has decided the worth of that for you. M
any times these things can

have a sentimental value for us. Buzzers have a policy that says everything that is on the table

goes on the trash.

God has taught us through his
Word (
The Bible)

about what is right or what is wrong. The final

decision is up
to us. It’s better to be judge by 12 not by 6.