What are the advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons)?

calendargrumpyΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

190 εμφανίσεις

If you could choose what biologists
accomplish in your lifetime,

what would it be?

Ways in which biology is changing
our future…in the present

Traditional genetic engineering


Selective breeding




What is it
?



What are the
advantages (pros)
and disadvantages
(cons
)?



What is your
opinion?

Modification of organisms via

selective breeding vs.
transgenesis


Note the vector of
choice is a plasmid

Cell transformation and

Transgenic organisms



Review all pros and cons

Example: Genetically
Modified Foods

(“
Frankenfoods
”?)

“Currently, up to 45 percent of U.S. corn is
genetically engineered as is 85 percent of
soybeans. It has been estimated that 70
-
75
percent of processed foods on supermarket
shelves
--
from soda to soup, crackers to
condiments
--
contain genetically engineered
ingredients” (?)

What are the concerns to health? To environment?

This diagram shows how one type of
GM food, a strawberry that resists
frost damage is made.

The flounder is a fish that live in icy
seas. It has a gene that stops it from
freezing to
death.Strawberries

are
soft fruits that can easily be
damaged by frost.

1. The flounder’s
antifreeze gene is
copied and
inserted into a
small ring of DNA
taken from a
bacteria cell.

2. The DNA ring
containing the
flounder gene is put
into a second
bacterium.

3. This second bacterium is used
to infect the strawberry cell. The
flounder’s antifreeze gene enters
the strawberry’s DNA.

Strawberry cell
with Antifreeze
gene

4. The new GM
strawberry cell is
grown into a GM
strawberry plant
which can be bred
many times.

Thanks to the new gene, GM strawberries make a
protein which helps them resist frost. They don’t
contain any other fish genes and, and do not taste or
smell of fish.

How a flounder gene ends up in strawberries

RoundUp Ready corn



before and after RoundUp herbicide spraying

Ex.: Vaccines in Fruit



Hepatitis B vaccine has been
inserted into tomatoes and
bananas.

Why is this so important?

Ex: Mice with GFP, just because we can


How GFP got into
the mouse

1.
The jellyfish has a gene that makes a
glowing protein. This makes the jellyfish
glow in some types of light.

2.
The glowing gene is taken from a
jellyfish cell and spliced (inserted) into
an empty virus cell (with no bad virus in
it)

3.
The genetically engineered virus
attaches itself to the fertilized mouse
egg cell.

4.
The virus delivers the glowing gene into
the egg cell nucleus, where it joins the
mouse DNA.

5.
The genetically engineered mouse egg
grows into an adult mouse which will
make the glowing protein. The glow is
too faint to see under normal lights but
can be detected using a special camera.

Virus

Jellyfish cell

Mouse cell

Virus inserting
their DNA into
a cell

More GM organisms


Using the jellyfish
protein to make a
naturally glowing
Christmas tree!

Genetically engineered
moths that pass on
deadly disease genes to
their relatives so they die
and won’t be able to
destroy crops!

Adding a gene from
insect killing bacteria to
cotton so that insects
who eat cotton will be
poisoned!

A gene from a spider has
been inserted into some
goats. Their milk now
contains tiny strands of
spider silk which can be
made into a strong,
stretchy rope.

RNAi

therapy


A.k.a. RNA interference


(see NOVA Science Now video)

Cloning


Click here to clone a mouse yourself:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/



The small cat is a clone of the large one


What does this tell us?








You can clone your cat for $40,000

Stem cell therapy


embryonic stem cells

that
are isolated from the
inner
cell mass

of
blastocysts


adult stem cells

are found
in various tissues and
naturally heal the body



Specialized cells
(
Unipotent
) vs.


Multipotent



Pluripotent


Totipotent



http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/conte
nt/tech/stemcells/scintro/


Custom
-
built organs


Gene therapy


Mechanism:
Gene therapy using an
Adenovirus

vector. A new gene is
inserted into an adenovirus vector, which is used to introduce the modified
DNA

into a human cell. If the treatment is successful, the new gene will make a
functional
protein
.


Gene therapy and gene doping


What are the ethical objections to improper
gene “therapy”

Will We Be Able To Cure Cancer
With Gene Therapy?

Lung cancer cells (530x).

These cells are from
a tumor located in the alveolus (air sac) of a
lung.






Cancer happens when body cells grow out of control.
Scientists have found a gene called p
-
53 which normally
keeps cells under control. They think that in some people
with cancer, the disease begins because the p
-
53 gene
doesn’t work properly


perhaps because of a mistake in
the gene code. Experts are now looking for a way to cure
cancer by modifying faulty DNA to make the p
-
53 gene
work.

Custom
-
built babies


Gender choice


Germ line therapy










Designer offspring?

(watch 2 clips including GATTACA)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program_t.html


Click
here to learn more:
http://www.bionetonline.org/English/Content/db_cont5.htm


Epigenetics
, and why DNA is NOT your
destiny

Learn more at these links:


Interactive instruction from the University of Utah

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/


Article in Time magazine

http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1951968,0
0.html






For more information on all of the
aforementioned

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/