Technology.pptx

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Exploring Technology

Solving Real
-
World Problems


Many issues in our world are related to
biology


Biologists are working to try to
solve

these problems


We will explore some of these issues specifically and
discuss what biologist are doing to combat these issues

Solving Real
-
World Problems

Preserving our environment


More than
6

billion people live on Earth


Our increasing population impacts other
organisms

on
the planet


Example: Depletion of rain forests


Problem: Lost
species

through extinction


Conservation

Biologists have been studying ways to
preserve the environment


Example: French Fries


Problem: Half of the potato is discarded as waste


Solution: Mix with grain to feed
cattle
. Also, leftover water
from processing is now used in power plants

Solving Real
-
World Problems

Improving the food supply


Genetic engineering of
crops


Created crops resistant to herbicides


Created crops with built in pesticides


Created crops with increased
nutritional

value


Example:
Rice

with vitamin A and iron


Problem: Many people throughout the world do not have
access to a balanced diet


Solution: Adding
genes

from other plants, rice can be grown
with vitamin A and iron to increase the nutritional value of
this crop


Concern: The long term safety of genetically engineered
crops is still being
studied

Solving Real
-
World Problems

Understanding the human genome


Genome: The complete
genetic

material contained in
an individual


The human genome contains
3

billion units


In April 2003, the human genome map was completed


It will take years to analyze the results


Already being used in
medical

research

Fighting Disease


Scientific advances in medicine cure
disease

and improve
healing every day

AIDS:


A fatal
immune

disease caused by the HIV virus that
attacks the human immune system


HIV is transmitted by contact with
bodily

fluids from an
infected person


Biologists have developed a combination of drugs to slow
the progression of AIDS


Biologists are working to
stop

the spread of the virus


A
vaccine

to stop the spread of AIDS is currently being
tested

Fighting Disease

Cancer:


A
growth

defect in cells that causes a breakdown of the
mechanism that controls cell growth


Biologists have been doing research on cancer for over 30
years


We now know how to prevent some cancers, like
lung

cancer


Other cancers can be treated if detected in the early stages


Some anti
-
cancer
drugs

have been created that stick to the
proteins in cells that are responsible for excess cell division

Fighting Disease

Emerging Diseases


The past few years we have seen the emergence of
new

diseases from the other part of the world


Examples:


West Nile Virus
-

first found in US in 1999


Mad cow disease
-

prevalent in
Europe


H1N1
-

“Swine Flu” emerged in Mexico last spring

Fighting Disease

Gene Therapy


The idea of introducing “healthy”
genes

into people
suffering from hereditary disorders


Example:


Cystic Fibrosis
-

fatal disorder of the
mucus

membranes


Use of a
virus

to introduce a normal copy of the defective gene
into cells of the CF patients


Early attempts failed
-

studies are ongoing


Gene
therapy
, or replacement of a defective gene with a
normal gene are also being researched for muscular dystrophy
or hemophilia patients